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account given by Ferishteh of Feroze Togluk of Dehli (vide Brigg's translation of Ferishteh, page 334, vol. IV.). “On the death of Shamsooddeen, the nobles of the state elevated his eldest son to the throne three days afterwards. He had not long entered on his rule before his country was again invaded in the year A. H. 760, or A. D. 1358, by Feroze Togluk of Dehli.” The next passage is a curious coincidence. “When the Dehli army arrived at Pandwah, Sikunder Poorby, following his father's example, took refuge in the fortress of Yekdullah, &c.” This Feroze Shah must have been one of the Afghan Sultans of Hindoostan of 3d Turk Dynasty, who ascended the throne of Dehli about 1351 A. D. Zafir Khan may have been brother-in-law to Feroze Shah. IIe was uncle by the mother's side of Shah Soofee, and Shah Soofee was nephew of Feroze Shah. Could he also have been the father of Ababek Shah, who mounted the throne of Dehli in 1389 : His father's name was Zafir Khan. The next question is who was Raja Man Nriputi converted to the Musalman faith by Zafir Khan? Was he one of the Rajas of Orissa, the limits of which territory extended till two centuries after as far north as Trivens. Mr. Marshman in his history of Bengal states as follows:– “The powerful kings of Orissa had previously extended their conquest in Bengal; and hence the Oriyahs boast that their kingdom once extended to Trivens on the Bhageerutee. In the year 1550 Telenga Mookund Deb ascended the throme of Orissa. He was the last independent king of that country; he founded a ghat and temple at the sacred spot of Trivení which formed the northern boundary of his dominions.” Compare Asiatic Researches, page 164, Vol. XV. “During the sway of the princes of the Gungabun's line, for a period of nearly four centuries, the boundaries of the Raja of Orissa may be stated as follows; with sufficient accuracy for a good description. North, a line drawn from Triveni Ghat above Hugli, through Bisherpore to the frontier of Putkun, east, the river Hugli and the sea south, the Godaveri or Gunga Godaveri, and west, a line carried from Singbhoom to Sonepur.” If Raja Man Nriputi was not one of the Rajas of Orissa, it is probable that both he and Raja Bhoo Dev may have been zemindars connected with the royal family of Orissa, as they appear to have been chiefs of some consequence, or else tributary to that power. Their names are not among the Hindoo kings of either the Sen or Pal
dynasty. Within the first part of the temple on some of the stones are the
following inscriptions in the Nagree character.
There are also near the northern and eastern entrances images of some of the Hindoo gods, such as Narasingha, Varāha, Rāma, Krishna, Lucshmi, &c. &c., most of them much defaced. The stones with the inscriptions were probably placed below some of these deities or others that have been destroyed, and as these deities are peculiar to the worship of Vishnu, it is most likely that the temple was consecrated to that deity. The stones containing the inscriptions are evidently out of their places. There is no regularity in their location, and one or two of them have the wrong side uppermost. From these appearances as well as others already mentioned, it is clear that the building is not now in its original state, and that formerly it must have been one Hindoo temple. The literal signification of Trivedi is “three streams,” in allusion to the river Gungá, Jumna, and Saruswati held sacred by the Hindoos. The spots where these rivers meet and where they separate are considered holy, and on this account the Shastras enjoin that expiatory ablutions should be particularly performed at these places.
According to Hindoo tradition there are two Trivenis, one at Prayag
or Allahabad, called Joocta Peni, on account of the junction of these streams, and the other Mooeta Peni near Hugli, on account of their separation.
At the latter place the Jumna separates and takes its course eastward near Gustia's Khal or Bagur Khal, about a mile from Trivens, round the villages Jaguli, Beeroie, &c. and uniting afterwards with the rivers Chota Durga and Bura Durga in the Sunderbuns, ultimately joins the bay of Bengal. The Saruswati takes its course on the western bank to the Ganges round the villages Trivení, Supta-grama or Satgaun, Hossenbazar, &c. &c. and branching out from the creek at Sankhral near Budge Budge, joins the river Hugli and flows into the bay of Bengal.
Alluvian accretions have nearly choked up the bed and diverted the course of the Jumna, and it is now almost dry and not navigable by boats. But it is a fact, which has been I believe clearly ascertained, that in former times the main branch of this river flowed under the walls of Satgaum by Amtah and Tumlook into the Ocean, and that ships of large size came up to Satgaun, which was then famous for its commerce. The Saruswati is only navigable in the rains. The various wild mythological Hindoo traditions of the sources of these sacred streams must have given additional sanctity to Trivení.
The following shloke from the Muha Bharata, points out the locality of this sacred spot:—
~ •. •- •goa Trorasa greaterators: azfarm gataro total wrotitat *HTATTHTosef uni gzıTIra STETT || “On the south of Pradyumna Nagara, north of the river Saruswati, is the Dukshin Prayåga, or south Prayåga, where the river Jumna separates from the Gunga. This place is equal (in point of holiness) to north Prayága (Allahabad), and imperishable virtue may be attained by means of bathing here.” The celebrated Raghununduma, the compiler of Smriti Shastras or Hindoo Laws, whose doctrines or religious rites are strictly observed by almost all the natives of Bengal, refers to the spot in the Prāyaschittya Tutwa, or book treating on the expiation of sins.
“The south Prayág called the Moocta-Veni, is situated in the southern Part (of Bengal) near Supta-gráma.”
Satgaum or Supta-grama, must also have contributed to the sanctity of Triveni. It was not only famous for its commerce in the palmy days of Rome, but it was here the seven wise men of the east, the Supta Rishis or Munis, renowned for their piety as well as their wisdom, resided, and in the plantain groves, or on the banks of the sacred stream, worshipped the river goddess. The Hindoos believe that they came with Gunga from Hardwar to establish her worship at this place. Their names were Marichi, Angira, Atre, Pulastya, Pulata, Crutu, and Washishtā. Supta-grama was so called from the seven sages having resided there. Their worship of Gunga is referred to in the following extract from the Maha Bhāgbut Pooram.
seen even by the Dertis worshipped her, and she was pleased on hearing the sound of the shell, &c.”
Mention is made of Supta-grama or Satgaum in Rennell's memoirs, as well as IIamilton's Hindoostan, and Mr. Marshman in his history of Bengal, page 2, gives the following account :
“The chief city of the west of Bengal was Satgaum, not very far north of IIugli. It was known to the Romans. It is also mentioned in the Poorans as Supta-grama, or the seven villages. It was the great mart of Bengal to which nearly all the sea-borne trade was brought.” A tradition is still current amongst the inhabitants of Trivens that many temples stood once on the banks of the three sacred streams, and they attribute to the seven Rishis the honor of their erection. It is most probable that the banks of these sacred streams in those early times were studded with temples. Every neighbouring spot has its legend still and retains its sanctity, and if such buildings are the signs of a successful faith, whatever that faith may be, can we wonder, where no clearer light had yet shone, that such signs were numerous, and that Idolatry, springing with the mythological river at its mountain source, should swell with the stream, and pour its full tide along unchecked, deluging the country on either side as it passed to its Ocean boundaries.
Such temples, if they remained unscattered in the time of Zafir Khan Ghazee, could scarcely escape the fury of the terrific Kalapahar.
He lived about the reign of the Orissa Raja Telenga Mookuud Deb, A. D. 1550. He was by birth a bráhman, but by conversion a Muhammadan, and such was the terror he inspired, that it is commonly reported and believed, that the arms and legs of the idols for many a kros round dropped off at the sound of his kettle drum. The present ghaut is of modern date, but the former possibly may have been coeval with the temple. Stones of large size are imbedded in the river, between the ghaut and the temple, which probably are the ruins of the ancient ghaut. Trivení is still held in high estimation by the inhabitants of Orissa. The fame of its sanctity is far spread. Once a year there is a grand mela, and thousands flock to the ghaut for the purpose of bathing in the river. The sight is well worth the seeing. It is a fine picture for a clever artist. There is something highly picturesque in the attitudes, the grouping and the dresses. There is too a lesson to be learned from the deep fervor, however mistaken, and the burning zeal, however blinded, of the anxious worshippers. A lesson which Christians may learn and not be ashamed, and yet a painful impression is forced upon a thinking mind, that while light and knowledge are spreading rapidly, and so many nations enjoying the blessings they confer, here in ancient India, near the very seat of a Christian Government, superstition so dark and strong should hold its sway, and delude, alas how fatally its thousands and thousands of votaries. This is but a skeleton account of Trivens, which others may be able to fill up. These are but broken links of a chain it is difficult to connect. Others in possession of better data, and with a better knowledge of Indian history, may be able perhaps to form a connection.
Notes on the Caves of Burabur, by Capt. KITToe, 6th N. I.
I now proceed to redeem my pledge of publishing the result of my enquiries concerning the caves of Burabur in Bahar. Differing from all other works of the kind known to us, these caves or chambers are, with one exception, entirely devoid of sculpture or ornament of any kind. They are in all seven in number; four in one