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Eroochoomboo, and the Brahmaputra, and that the error in their deli neation in the maps of Ptolemy's Geography by Agathodemon, con sists in their being laid down, as running to, instead of from, the nortl or north-east. The Oechardes is described by Ptolemy, as having it . origin in Scythia extra Imaum, as flowing through that country, as having a great bend or curve in its course, and as afterwards entering Serica This exactly corresponds with the Sampoo which runs through Thibet, and which has an extensive bend or turn in its course before it enters Assam The Bautes is the Brahmaputra. It is delineated in the map of Serica as being composed of two large affluents rising from the mountains called Ottorocorras or Sericus, and Casius. They are the Dibong, which is composed of two branches; and the Brahmaputra which proceeds

from the mountains on the east and morth-east of Assam. The Bautes

is described by Cellarius, as entering Serica “recto casu,” which perhaps
refers to the straight course of the Brahmaputra from the Brahmakund.
This celebrated place of pilgrimage is designated the sacred pool—the
Deo-panee—or divine well of Brahma. The summit of the rock, which
is described by Capt. Bedford as inaccessible, is called by the Hindoos
—the Deo Bari or dwelling of the deity, and it is perhaps with reference
to this natural temple of the god of the Hindoos, that the ancients .
designated this rock and mountain—Mount Casius—a name that was
probably suggested by the resemblance (real or supposed) between this “..
rocky mountain and Mount Casius of Syria, the site of a temple to
Jupiter. Dr. Stevenson remarks: “when the ancient Romans came to
any new country they were sure to find there a Jupiter.” “The com-s
mon figure,” says the Abbe Bannier, “by which Jupiter Cassius used to . .
be represented, was that of a rock or steep mountain, as is to be seen
on several medals quoted by Vaillant.”+
Ptolemy describes the two rivers Oechardes and Bautes, as flowing
through the greatest part of Serica. (Sericae autem regionis maximam o
partem duo percurrunt fluvii.) This may be considered as referring to a
the two great parallel branches of the Brahmaputra, which enclose
Majuli and the islands in the upper part of its course. These branches,
perhaps, ran a much longer course than they do at present, and were dis- o
tinguished by the names of the two great parent streams, the Oechardes ,

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* Journal Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. V. p. 191.
+ Vide Mythology of the Antients, Vol. II. p. 220.

and the Bautes, or the Sampoo and the Brahmaputra, of which they are formed. This division of the river into parallel branches is mentioned in connexion with one of the oldest traditions regarding Assam, namely, that the original territory occupied by Khuntai, the first king of that country, included two very long islands formed by branches of the Brahmaputra.” Several nations or people are mentioned by Ptolemy as inhabiting Serica—a certain proof that this valley was one of great extent; and with reference, therefore, to its situation on the north of India extra Gangem (Burmah) it can be no other than Assam. Ptolemy mentions, Anthropophagi on the northern parts of Serica. Below them were the Annihi, who derived their name from their own mountains (gens ejusdem nominis cum montibus quibus superjacet). They are the Abor tribes, who occupy a range of hills on the northern side of Assam. In the same situation, namely, the northern side of Serica, Ptolemy mentions the Auracii, who appear to be the Aukas. Between them and the Annibi were a people called Sizyges. Many of the names mentioned by Ptolemy closely resemble the names of places or tribes of people in Assam in the present day: thus the Damnae appear to be the Doms: the Garinaei—the Garos: the Nabannae (rendered Rabannae by Berthius and other commentators)—the Rabhas : the Asmeraaei, the Mirees: the Oecharda –the people of Chardwar: the Bata-the Booteahs: the Ottorocorrae, the people of Outtergorah. The situations or relative positions which Ptolemy assigns to these different nations, do not in every instance correspond with the localities inhabited by the tribes or people of Assam bearing the same names in the present day; but though this is not the case, there can be little doubt from the close affinity that exists between them, that they are the people that are alluded to. Ammianus Marcellinus gives a general account of the physical aspect, extent, fertility, and nations of Serica. He describes it as a valley extending to the Ganges, and as abounding in silk, from which it may be inferred that Assam is the country that he alludes to. “Ultra haec utriusque Scythiae loca, contra Orientalem plagam in orbis speciem conserte celsorum aggerum summitates ambiunt Seras wbertate regionum et amplitudine circumspectos: ab occidentali latere *thisadnexos: a Septentrioneet orientale nivose solitudini coherentes:

* Wide Buchanan in Martin's Eastern India, Vol. III. p. 602.

qua meridiem spectant adusque Indiam porrectos et Gangem. Adpellanturo autem iidem montes Anniva et Nazavicium et Asmira et Emodon et Opurocarra. Hanc itaque planitiem undique prona declivitate praeruptam, terrasque lato situ distentas duo famosi nominis flumina O' Echardes et Bautes lentiore meatu percurrunt. Et dispar est tractuum di. versorum ingenium : hic patulum alibi molli diveXitate subducturm : ideoque satietate frugum et pecoribus et arbustis exuberat. Incolunt autem fecundissimam glabam, variae gentes e quibus Alitrophagi et Annibi et Sizyges et Chardi aquilonibus objecti sunt et pruinis. Exortum vero Solis suspiciunt Rabamnae et Asmirae et Essedones omnium splendidissimi: quibus Athagorae ab occidentali parte cohaerent et Aspacarae. Betae vero australi celsitudini montium inclinati urbibus licet non multis magnis | tamen celebrantur et opulentis: inter quas maximac Asmira et Essedon et Asparata et Sera mitidae et notissimae. Agunt autem ipsi quietus Seres armorum semper et praeliorum expertes; utgue hominibus sedatis et placidis otium est voluptabile, nulli finitimorum molesti. Coeli apud eos jucunda salubrisque temperies, aeris facies munda, leniumque vento- * . | rum commodissimus flatus: et abunde, silvae sublucidae: a quibus arbo- orum fetus aquarum asperginibus crebris veiut quaedam vellera mollientes ex lanugine et liquore mistam subtilitatem tenerrimam pectunt mentes s. que subtemina conficiunt sericum ad usus adhuc Nobilium, nunc etiam 's infimorum sine ulla discretione proficiens. Ipsi praeter alios frugalissimi o pacatioris vitae cultores, vitantes reliquorum mortalium coetus. Cumque *s. ad coèmenda fila, vel quaedam alia fluvium transierent advente nulla ser- *. monum vice propositarum rerum pretia solis occulis a stimantur ; et ita o sunt abstinentes ut apud se tradentes gigmentia nihil ipsi comparent o adventicium (advectitium).”.t *... The words, “in orbis speciem consertae celsorum aggerum summ- A tates ambiunt Seras,” are generally supposed to refer to the mountains o o of Serica mentioned in the subsequent sentence of the text, but it may s be fairly questioned, whether they should not be taken in their literal sense, and be considered as applying to those extensive causeways, the


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remains of which are still to be seen in Assam. Dr. Wade mentions o aseveral of these embankments. IIe describes a military causeway . . . . extending from Coos Bahar (Cooch Behar) in a northern direction to the - * * Appellantur. * * * ppellantur **

+ Ammianus Marcellinus, Lib. XXII. Chap. VI, pp. 293,294. Edit. Gronovius

utmost limits of Assam—forming a part of the southern boundaries of the Bootan dominions. “A modern causeway formed by Pertaubsing, which runs from Coosbeyhar through the whole extent of Assam to Sadiya, forms the boundaries of Dehrung on the north.” The Okkooruralee causeway is mentioned as separating the country of Ranigawn from Beltola. “The famous causeway of Rangulighur, which divides the district of Coliabur on the east from Upper Assam, is described as a rampart which runs from Colone near its junction with the Brahmaputra during a course of ten miles to the southern mountails.” “A great causeway or high road raised to preserve the intenor from the inundation of the river Dehing” is mentioned as situated in Khonani. It is described “as a work of immense labour.” Rungpore, the capital of Assam, is said to have had the Duburriunnialirampart, or high road, as its security or defence on the east. It is further stated that the banks of the river Dikho, near which the fortress of Rungpore stands, “are connected by a lofty rampart with the southern mountains through an extent of ten or fifteen miles. It was constructtd in remote antiquity for the protection of Gourgown, which was the principal residence of the monarch, and all the great officers of state.”* These causeways, besides constituting roads and dams to protect the low country from inundation, served also as defences, for which purpose they were surmounted with palisades of bamboos. Mahomed Cazim describes a high broad causeway leading from Salagereh to Ghergong, a distance of about fifty coss (one hundred miles), each side of which, he remarks, “is planted with shady bamboos, the tops of which meet and are intertwined.” He further describes the latter city as encompassed with a fence of bamboos, and states that within it are high and broad causeways for the convenience of passengers during the rainy season. “The Raja's palace is surrounded by a causeway planted on each side with a close hedge of bamboos, which serves instead of a wall, and on the outside there is a ditch which is always full of water.”+ Butkhyr Khulisy, who invaded Assam in 1205, mentions stockades which were formed of stakes interwoven with bamboos in that country.f Fitch, also, in describing Coonch (Cooch Behar) remarks: “all the country is set with bamboos or canes made sharp at both ends and driven into the earth.”* The words, “ubertate regionum et amplitudine circumspectos' applied to the Seres, seem to imply, that the “aggeres celsi,” with which they were surrounded, were not mountains, but works of art, construct. ed to protect their extensive and fertile territory from the incursions of . hostile tribes. It is probable, therefore, that these defences, the summits of which are described by Ammianus Marcellinus, as interlaced or intertwined in a circular form, were stockades at the duwars, or close hedges of bamboos erected or planted on the causeways of Assam, with their tops intertwined in the manner mentiomed by Mahomed Cazim. The position which Ammianus Marcellinus assigns to the Scythians, corresponds with that of Scythica extra Imaum, which is placed by

* See Wade's Geography of Assam in Martin's Eastern India, Vol. 3. pp. 630, 633, 633, 637. t As. Res. Vol. II. p. 179. , t Stewart's History of Bengal. I

Ptolemy on the western side of Serica. On the ground that this Scy

thia is Thibet, Murray infers that China, which lies to the east of that country, is Serica. The account, however, which both Ptolemy and Ammianus Marcellinus give of the other boundaries of Serica, is opposed to the opinion which identifies Serica with China. The former

author makes no mention of the sea, as the boundary on the east,

which, in all probability, he would have done if he had been describing China; but speaks of Serica, as bounded in this direction by unknown lands. Ammianus Marcellinus describes Serica, as situated beyond the two Scythias, (viz. to the south of them,) and as lying opposite to

the eastern country, which can be no other than China. He more

particularly describes the country of Seres, as being adjacent on the north and east, to a dreary region of frost and snow, which refers, no " doubt, to the lofty snowy peaks of the Himalaya, which surround the eastern part of the valley of Assam. That Serica is not China, but Assam, is still more probable, from the circumstance of India being mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus, as lying to the south of the latter country. This is India extra Gangem, which is referred by Pomponius Mela, Pliny, and Ptolemy, to the situation assigned to it in the text. Pomponius Mela, and Pliny give a general description of the situation

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of Serica. “They agree,” says Vincent, “ that their boundary [viz.

that of the Seres] on the north is Tabis, and Taurus on the south : that all beyond them north is Scythia, and all beyond them south is India east of the Ganges.” Tabis and Taurus seem to be mountains in Upper Assam, the former being, perhaps, the mountain

* Huklyut's Voyages.

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