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completing the indication of genera among the Deer, Antelopes, Goats and Sheep, grounding upon H. Smith and W. Ogilby, whose researches into the essential structure of these groups of animals may be seen in the Règne Animal, English edition of Griffith, Wols. IV. and V. and in the Zoological Journal for December 1836, and Penny Magazine, article Antelope : to which add Mr. Gray on the Musk family, Zoological Journal for June 1836. Refering, then, the critical reader to the characters of groups as furnished by these writings, I proceed to exhibit the following amended and additional indications, as the results of several years' observation of nature, and as what I believe will, even if occasionally found inaccurate, tend to quicken and guide the observation of my brethren of the services who are scattered over those wildernesses of this vast land wherein only (or in the vicinity of which) its wild animals can be looked for, or adequately examined, (for they will not keep or carry), and who may be disposed to use their wnique opportunities for the advancement of a knowledge of God's works, the meanest of which is a miracle of contrivance. We pause over a Watt's steam-engine, how much more should we pause over self-acting machines which support life and wed matter and spirit!
Hoofs cloven. Posteal plane of scull forming an obtuse angle with frontal plane. Horms solid, falling annually, proper to males only, (save Rein Deer) inserted, superiorly and proximately, below the frontal crest. Front teeth in the lower jaw 8. None above; Canines normal and constant, found in both sexes, or in the males only. Molars #, Mufle normal and constant (save only in Rein Deer and Elk). Teats 4, normally and constantly. Eye-pits constant. Groin pits vaguely defined or wanting. Feet-pits usually present, in all 4 feet, or only in the hind.
1. Genus CERvus. Stags.
Horns in males only, much branched, 2 basal, one central, and
several terminal, snags.
* The Sanscrit postfix adi, meaning et castera, is the probable etymon, and certain equivalent of the Latin idoe and ince.
Musle.* large, covering the front of upper lip.
Eye-pits moderate and moderately mobile. S-shaped.
Feet-pits large in all 4 feet.
Calcic gland and tuft posterior and external.
Canines in males only.
Types, Cervus elaphus of Europe. 2, Cervus affinis of Saul forest or
Múl Bárah Sinha, and 3, Giána or Cervus wallichii of Tibet. These animals are further characterised by a very short tail, a large disc or pale space round the tail, and no proper mane. The Indian ones are confined to vast primitive forests on the plain. I have no notes of
their intestines, or breeding.
2. Genus RUCER v Us. Baraiya or Bárah Sinha. Horns in males only, with one basal snag and no central one, but their summits many-branched as in the true Stags or Elaphus. Musle large, covering front of upper lip. Eye-pits moderate, mobile moderately. Feet-pits 2 Groin-pits mone. Calcic gland and tuft Teats four. -Canines in males only. Type, Cervus elaphoides vel du vaucelli. This is the Baraiya or Bárah Sinha. It inhabits reedy marshes and islands of great rivers along the whole Eastern and Northern skirt of Bengal and IIindostham. Never enters the mountains or forests. Herds enormous in the Islands of the Brahmaputra. These animals are further distinguished, like the true stags, by the absence of the heavy mane of the Rusas, and by a short tail which however has no true caudal disc and is longer than in the Stags proper ?
Horns in males only, small, smooth, greatly divergent, and much bent in the beam, like Bos, and furnished with only one snag which is basal and forward. Another subterminal?
* See N. B. at end for explanation of all these organs.
Eye-pits medial, vertical.
No calcic tuft nor gland 7
Tushes in males only 7
Further subordinate marks of this genus are— Tail short. No caudal disc. A mane. The Gowers are not gregarious. They are confined to the Saul forest so far as appears. With their rutting season and gestation I am unacquainted. Intestines 56 feet. Small 29, great 27. Coecum lo inches by 4. Diameter of small gut $ inch. Liver 3-lobed and a lobulus. Lungs 4-lobed. Gall-bladder.
4. Genus RUSA.
Horns in males only, trifurcate : 1 basal and 1 subterminal snag. No central one.
Mufle large, covering the front of upper lip.
Camines in both sexes.
Type, Hippelaphus or the Sámber, and Aristolelis or the Jarai : both continental species of India. Also, in the Islands, Equinus, Peronii, Etam, and Mariannus : but they want testing, all of them. Habitat, all the great forests of India and of its islands, and to a certain extent, the mountains above them, where the other large Deer are never Seen. These animals are not gregarious : they have a long bluff tail like that of a docked horse; no disc round it; but a heavy mane over the whole neck. One anomalous species thence called Heterocerus has no upper snag to its horns.” The Rusas rut in spring and them drop their horns.
* Another large Deer of the Indo-chinese ranges of Hills is Panolia Eedii, the Cervus Frontalis of Mr. McClelland. Not found West of the Brahmaputra.
Their females gestate 8 months and produce young in winter, occasionally so early as the end of October, and one at a birth. In confinement the horns are usually dropt in April and take six months for their perfect replacement. The horns are not complete in form till the 4th year nor in size till the 8th year. Small gut 52 feet. Large 31. Coecum 15 inches by 44.
5. Genus Axis.
Horns in males only, with one basal and one subterminal Snag, as in Rusa, but the beam more bent and the horns paler and smoother, and closer grained in structure.
Musle large, covering front of upper lip. Eye-pits large, very mobile. Feet-pits large, in hind feet only. Groin gland large; sinus vague. Calcic gland and tuft, posteal and external. Teats four. Canines in males only. Types, l, Axis major vel maculata vel nudipalpebra, or common spotted Deer or Chittal. 2, Axis; medius or lesser spotted Deer or Jhow Laghuna. 3, Axis porcinus vel niger, or Hog Deer, or Párá, or Khar Laghuna, or Sūgoria. Habitat, general over the plains of India, whence the progress of cultivation has long since driven the larger Deer or Bárah Sinhas and Rusas and Gowers (recte Gonr). These animals have a smooth, generally spotted, coat, no mane, and a long tail reaching to the hock and ending in a point. It is singular that H. Smith should question their having eye-pits and canine teeth. The Spotted Deer are gregarious, the herds being often very large : the Hog Deer are less so, dwelling more in families. Their breeding season is May, June: their rutting season, December, January. They gestate 6 months. Intestines of lesser spotted species 6.5% feet, whereof the small are 40 and the great 25}. Caecum 9% inches by 3}, and 5 inches of gut below it, of same calibre; rest equal and narrow. Intestines of Hog Deer 41} feet, whereof the lesser are 24} and the larger 163. Coecum 8% inches by 2%. They rut and breed like the spotted species.
6. Genus Stylocerus or Stilthorn or Muntjac. Dária-Mriga. Ratwa, Kåker. Horns in males only, small, raised on high hairy pedicles, and having only one snag which is basal.
Females with bristley tufts ending in knobs instead of horns. Eye-pits very large and extremely mobile. Facial creases, large, mobile, glandular, placed along iuner side of horn pedicles towards their very forward salient bases.
Feet-pits large, in hind feet only.
Camines in males only 7 large, trenchant, and exserted, as in the Musks.
•No calcic gland nor tuft.
Types 1 sp. Vaginalis or the Kijang of Indian Islands.
2 sp. Ratwa qr the Káker of Indian Continent.
Habitat, general in Indian mountains and in forests at their bases. Never elsewhere. Seldom seen above 7000 feet in the Sub-Himalayas.
The Muntjacs are not gregarious though 6 or 8 are occasionally found together. They prefer the dells to the tops, and the close to the open cover. Copse or brushwood of the Chinese bambú is a favourite retreat. They bark all the year but particularly in winter when the males are wanton. January, February is the common rutting, and June, July the common breeding season: the gestation being of 6 months; but they breed occasionally at any season though only once a year, and have one or two young at a birth.
The male's horns fall in May and are perfect again in August. Intestimes: male 61 feet; whereof the small are 44 and large 17 feet. Coecum 15 inches by 2%, and 9 inches of gut below it of same size. Rest, % to # inch wide. Intestines; female, 49 feet ; whereof small 34 feet and great 15. Coecum 12 inches by 2, 12 inches of gut below it of like diameter.
MOSCHIDOE. THE MUSKS. Kasturádi. Müshkádi.* Feet cloven : no horns: front teeth 8 below, none above. Molar
* See note in p. 688,