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16

Among the various branches of science, which constitute the education of
American citizens, that of government is highly important and necessary. At
present, too little attention is paid to this kind of education. While the govern-
ments of Rome, Sparta and Athens, are industriously taught; while the institutions
of Lycurgus and Solon form important features of public education, the constitu
tions of our own country are scarcely read....Our youth in schools and colleges
will be encouraged to devote some of their time to this necessary science, by find-
ing it simplified and methodized."---Smith's Comparative view of the Constitutiont.

FOURTH EDITION.

HARTFORD :

PRINTED BY HUDSON AND GOODWIN.

NARVARD COLLEGE LIBRANÝ

GIFT OF THE

GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION

MAY 19 1926

DISTRICT OF CONNECTICUT, 85.

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the third day of March, in the twenty-ninth year of the Independence of the United States of America, NoAH WEBSTER, Jun. of said district, Esq. hath deposited in this office, the title of a book the right whereof he claims as author, in the words following, viz:

:

"Elements of Useful Knowledge, volume II., containing a "historical and geographical account of the United "States for the use of schools, by Noah Webster, Jun." In conformity to the act of Congress of the United States, entitled, "An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned." CH's. DENISON, Clerk of the District of Connecticut.

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PREFACE.

THIS volume of the Elements of Useful Knowledge, begins with a continuation of the history of the United States, from the commencement of the Revolution, and brings it down to the adoption of the present constitution, and the organization of the government in 1789. It then proceeds to exhibit the present condition of the United States, and of the several states, as separate governments. To avoid the repetitions which occur so frequently in geographical descriptions, I have first given a general view of those things which are common to all the states; and arranged, under the head of each state, descriptions of things which are peculiar to each. This plan, though from the nature of things it cannot be rendered perfect, has nevertheless enabled me to compress many parts of the work into a smaller compass than usual, and to avoid in part that tedious sameness which characterises treatises of this kind,

The brief view given of the constitution of the several states, will, it is presumed, be well received; as nothing can be more proper for the instruction of youth, than a correct epitome of the princi

ples on which the local governments are founded, The object of the citizens of the several states, is, to secure life, property and rational freedom; and an exhibition of the various modes by which the citizens of different sections of the union, have attempted to secure these invaluable blessings, must be no less entertaining than useful. The constitutions, being the work of the ablest statesmen in the United States, ought to be viewed with respect, and studied with attention.

This volume completes the view of the United States-which, as being of most importance to the youth of this country, occupies a larger portion of the work, than will be appropriated to a description of the other parts of the earth. The two first volumes are closely connected, and ought to be used together; but the succeeding volumes will be more distinct, and may be separated without inconvenience to the reader.

ELEMENTS

OF

USEFUL KNOWLEDGE.

HISTORICAL EVENTS.

SECTION XIV.

Of the remote Causes of the Revolution.

THE first planters of New-England were all dis senters from the Church of England, who declined to conform to its ritual ceremonies, and by their opposition. called down upon their heads the vengeance of archbishop Laud. To get rid of such turbulent subjects, was rather to be desired than dreaded, by the king and court. But within a few years, the numerous emigrations from England alarmed the government, and orders were issued to stop the sailing of ships bound to America.These orders however were temporary, and most or all those men departed from England, who wished to settle in a country, where they might be exempt from arbitrary government. As the plantations increased, and became respectable, the Court of England began to be alarmed with the apprehension, that the colonies would become wholly independent of the parent state.

Of the Measures taken to prevent the Independence of the Colonies. With a view to secure the dominion of England over the colonies, in ecclesiastical as well as eivil affairs, king Charles the first granted a commission, dated April 10, 1634, by which he empowered the

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