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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE_Continued

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1931
Undated Statement by the French Minister for Foreign Affairs

(Rec'd Invocation of the Kellogg Pact.
Oct. 20)
Oct. 20 To the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(107) Information that attempts to divide the counsel of the

powers must be expected, but that Department approves the

progress and manner of negotiations. Oct. 20 From the Minister in China (tel.)

Identic telegram (text printed) being sent by French, British, German, and American Ministers reporting interview with Chiang Kai-shek, who stated that withdrawal of troops should be expedited, that neutral observers should be present, and that Japan is playing for adjournment of the Council.

Review of situation, and observation that it is nearing a crisis. Oct. 20 Memorandum of Trans-Atlantic Telephone Conversation

Between Gilbert and the Secretary: Gilbert's report on the apprehension felt by Briand and the others because of manner of Gilbert's withdrawal; information that Japanese have two apparently reasonable demands which they do not want pub

licized. Oct. 20 To the Minister in China (tel.) (388) Identic note (text printed) to the Chinese and Japanese

Governments invoking the Kellogg Pact.

(Sent, mutatis mutandis, to the Chargé in Japan.) Oct. 20 To the Consul at Geneva (tel.) (109) Authorization to continue sitting in Council's open meetings

in the seat assigned, but strictly as an observer. Oct. 20 To the Consul at Geneva (tel.) (111) Instructions to confine telephone calls to most urgent mat

ters only, as Secretary desires to settle questions of policy

only after due consideration.
Oct. 20 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(232) Delay of public meeting in view of apparent amelioration

of Manchurian situation; reading at private session of aide-
mémoire (substance printed presenting Chinese points re-
garding withdrawal of troops and general settlement after
withdrawal; Japanese position, with new demand for agreement
upon certain points with respect to existing treaties previous

to withdrawal.
Oct. 21 From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
(192) Delivery of identic note invoking the Kellogg Pact to

Foreign Minister, who expressed appreciation for U. S. con-
siderate attitude; information that Japanese public opinion

will brook no outside interference.
Oct. 21 To the Consul General at Nanking (tel.)
(96) Review of Department's position concerning a U. S. repre-

sentative on the Council with instructions to clarify to the
Foreign Office.

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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE—Continued

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1931 Oct. 21

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Oct. 21

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Oct. 21

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From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)

Report of further disturbances in International Settlement
due to Japanese display of force and anti-Japanese feeling, but
agreement by Japanese to undertake no drastic action without
notifying International Settlement police.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

Information that Japanese are evacuating Jehol and Chahar
Provinces.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Report that Committee of Five is meeting instead of Coun-
cil; Gilbert's inquiry as to whether he should attend.
From the Military Attaché in Japan to the Adjutant General of

the Army (tel.)
Report of visit from General Tanaka, who stated that Japa-
nese fighting men would not permit U.S. or League interfer-
ence with Japan's position in Manchuria.
To the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Instructions that authorization to attend meetings does not
include Committee of Five, and that no views should be ex-
pressed except under instructions.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Proposal that Briand state at public meeting the action
taken in invoking the Pact, naming states participating; in-
quiry if Department desires similar U. S. statement.
To the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Instructions that United States should be included in the list
only.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Report that news from Manchuria is more favorable and that
Briand is still trying to get Japanese to modify their demands
sufficiently to make them acceptable to the Chinese.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

From Mukden: Reopening of Bureau of Finance, Liaoning
Province, with Japanese supervision, and similar reorganiza-
tions.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

From Hanson and Salisbury: Report of general situation in
Manchuria since September 18, with observations.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Meeting of the Committee of Five: Briand's report of his
negotiations with Japanese, who will not accept withdrawal
time limit or neutral observers; adoption of draft resolution
providing that September 30 resolution be carried out and that
Council adjourn until November 12,
To the Consul General at Nanking (tel.)

Opinion of the Department that recourse to an agency other
than the League Council at this time would confuse the situa-
tion, and that discussion of the Nine-Power Treaty with others
should be avoided.

Oct. 21

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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS
OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO
PRESERVE PEACE-Continued

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From the Chinese Chargé

Acknowledgment by Chinese Government (text printed) of
U. S. identic note, and expression of appreciation for U. S.
attitude.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Report that Japanese insist upon their demand for settle-
ment of certain permanent problems in Manchuria before
evacuation,
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Public meeting of the Council with prearranged speeches
by the Japanese representative, Gilbert, and Briand; presen-
tation of draft resolution (text printed) and desire of Japanese
and Chinese representatives to make their observations on
the resolution later.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Message from Japanese delegation to the Council (text
printed) reporting withdrawal of troops.
To the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Receipt of a report (excerpt printed) that Japanese are circu-
lating information of U. S. refusal to join in economic sanc-
tions; instructions to inform Drummond or Briand that
United States has taken no stand on action which the League
may propose.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Conversation between Drummond and Yoshizawa (sub-
stance printed) concerning Japanese "fifth point” demanding
Chinese fulfillment of treaty obligations regarding railways
in Manchuria; Drummond's suggestion that Yoshizawa ap-
proach Sze publicly on China's attitude.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

From Mukden: Report of clashes between Chinese and
Japanese forces near Tiehling and on Taonan-Angangki Rail-
way.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Statement before the Council by Chinese representative
(extracts printed) accepting Council's draft resolution;
Japanese counterproposal to resolution, calling for preliminary
agreement on fundamental principles prior to withdrawal of
troops; Chinese inability to accept counterproposal. Obser-
vation by Briand that crucial point to be cleared up was what
the Japanese meant in referring to "fundamental principles.”
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Discussion by the Council of Japanese explanation of "fundamental principles," and refusal of Japanese representative to divulge the details covered by the term, reserving particulars for discussion between the two countries only; observation by Briand that Council cannot include in a draft resolution a reference to "fundamental principles" the meaning of which it does not know.

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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS

OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE_Continued

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Subject

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1931 Oct. 24

(248)

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Oct. 24

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Oct. 24

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Oct. 26

(253)

Oct. 26

329

From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Briand's suggestion to Japanese representative that he ap-
pend a reservation to the draft resolution allowing Japanese to
postpone evacuation until evacuation conditions are fulfilled;
Japanese refusal.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Council's rejection of Japanese counterproposal and adop-
tion of draft resolution; expressions of gratitude for U. S.
cooperation (texts printed) and U. S. response (text printed);
adjournment of Council until November 16.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Conversation with Yoshizawa, who revealed the "fifth
point” substantially the same as presented to Drummond,
and explained that it had not been revealed to the Council as
China would probably have suggested going before the Hague
Court.
From the Chargé in Japan

Return of Salisbury to Tokyo, and his report of the investi-
gation (text printed).
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Communication from Chinese Government to the Council
on further bombings in Manchuria.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

Report of Chinese gratification at League action. Minister's
intention to proceed to Shanghai and to return to Nanking
about November 16.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Request for instructions on relations to be maintained and
handling of military information during adjournment of the
Council.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

Identic report (text printed) being sent by French, British,
and U. S. representatives of interview with Chiang Kai-shek,
who expressed appreciation at League action and invited the
three Legations to nominate observers for the transfer of
evacuated areas; request for instructions.
To the Consul General at Nanking (tel.)

Instructions to inform the Minister that Department de-
sires not to take independent initiative in nominating observers
and prefers to refrain from commitment until informed of
League action.
To the Minister in China (tel.)

Instructions for Mukden to inform R. C. A. representative
that the question of the wireless station is under consideration,
and to report present situation in regard to the station.
To the Consul General at Nanking (tel.)

Authorization for the Minister to proceed to Shanghai.

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Oct. 26

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Oct. 26

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Oct. 27

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Oct. 27

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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE_Continued

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1931 Oct. 27 To the Consul at Geneva (tel.) (119) Instructions to continue contacts with Drummond and to

exchange information in confidence as previously. Oct. 27 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.) (262) Note from Sze to Briand (text printed) declaring China's in

tentions of fulfilling her obligations under the Covenant and

willingness to conclude an arbitration treaty with Japan. Undated Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State of a Conversation

With the Japanese Ambassador, October 28, 1931
Papers left by the Ambassador with the Secretary, including
the following (texts printed): (1) Memorandum of essential
points of Drummond's suggestion of October 20 and of Council
resolution of October 24; (2) statement by Japanese Govern-
ment, October 27; (3) article 6 of Chientao Agreement (1909);
(4) excerpt of statement by Charles E. Hughes (1922); (5) ex-

cerpts from Peking Protocol (1905).
Oct. 28 From the Minister in China (tel.)
(825) Excerpt from address by Chiang Kai-shek, October 26, voic-

ing appreciation of U. S. and League efforts and the hope for
the execution of the League resolution and the restoration of

friendly relations between Japan and China.
Oct. 28 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(264) List of the states known to have invoked the Kellogg Pact;

advice that no information is available respecting their action

in making the notes public.
Oct. 28 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(265) Information from Drummond that Tokyo press reports set

forth new Japanese demands, leaving uncertainty as to true
version of the demands; his opinion that Tokyo next will set

up a puppet government in Manchuria.
Oct. 29 From the Ambassador in Peru (tel.)
(347) Request to be informed of U. S. action on China's invitation

to nominate an observer, and information that Foreign Minister
continues to work for a peaceful settlement of Manchurian

question.
Oct. 29 Memorandum by the Secretary of State

Call from French Ambassador, who conveyed a request from Briand that U. S. approval of the League final

resolution
be demonstrated at Tokyo with some publicity; Secretary's
reply that he was preparing such a note but that the difficulty
was in indicating clearly his general support and yet leaving

Japan a way out of its position.
Oct. 29 From the French Minister for Foreign Affairs to the French

Ambassador
Text of French request that U. S. Government's approval
of League resolution be made known publicly to Japanese

Government.
Oct. 30 To the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(122) Advice that U. S. position regarding Council resolution is

being discussed with French Ambassador.

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