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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS
OccupaTION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO
PRESERVE PEACE--Continued

Date and number

Subject

Page

1931 Sept. 19

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11

Sept. 19

(150)

11

Sept. 19

(600)

12

Sept. 19

(602)

Memorandum by the Minister in China

Telephone conversation with Adviser to Marshal Chang
Hsueh-liang of Manchuria, reporting firing by Japanese around
and on Mukden the night of September 18; Adviser's infor-
mation that Japanese military had got out of hand at Mukden
and that Japanese Consul General was powerless to do any-
thing.
From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)

Information that Japanese newspapers published extras indi-
cating a state of war between Japan and China, but that For-
eign Office considers Mukden incident a minor clash between
Japanese South Manchuria Railway guards and Chinese
soldiers growing out of damage to a section of railway track;
Japanese assurance that they are determined upon peaceful
settlement.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

Information that Japanese warship and two train loads of
Japanese soldiers arrived at Yingkou in the morning and sol-
diers proceeded to occupy Kowpangtze; that communication
from Mukden ceased at 3 a. m.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

Confirmation by Wellington Koo of reported Japanese
occupation of Mukden, and his suggestion of possible League
action under various treaties or possible initiation by United
States of discussions under the Nine-Power Treaty.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

Account of Mukden incident as given by Counselor of
Japanese Legation, who stated that Japanese occupation of the
city was a precautionary measure and had no connection
with other representations of the Japanese Government.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

Information from Military Attaché's office that Japanese
Military and Naval Attachés state occupation in Manchuria
was due to killing of Japanese pickets by Chinese soldiers and
to Nakamura case; that fighting has occurred and Chinese
troops in Mukden vicinity have been disarmed.
From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)

Information from Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs that
Mukden occupation resulted from clash between South Man-
churia Railway guards and Chinese soldiers; that a special
Cabinet meeting had been held and orders issued to the com-
mander in chief of the army in Manchuria to stop all further
aggressive military operations.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

From Dairen: Telephone message from Mukden that
Japanese occupied Mukden at 1 a. m. and have also occupied
Changchun, Antung, and Newchwang.

12

Sept. 19

(603)

13

Sept. 19

(605)

13

Sept. 19

(153)

14

Sept. 19

(606)

THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE—Continued

Date and number

Subject

Page

14

15

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1931
Sept. 19 From the Minister in China (tel.)
(607) From Mukden: Report by Japanese Consulate at Sano that

South Manchuria Railway was cut 20 miles from Mukden by
400 Chinese troops, that 150 Japanese are engaging Chinese;
information that Chinese have requested Japanese to cease
firing, and that Japanese have blocked railway settlement to all,

including foreigners.
Undated Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Current Information

of the Press Conference on September 19, 1981 Secretary's affirmation that news received by the Department confirmed press despatches concerning Mukden, that the incident was apparently a clash of subordinates of Governments, and that, as the two Governments are so far not involved, the provisions of the Kellogg Pact or other treaties

do not apply.
Sept. 20 From the Minister in China (tel.)
(608) From Mukden, September 19: Report that all Americans

are safe although Japanese fired on Chinese in International
Settlement, which they now occupy; assurances of Japanese
Consulate General that chance of immediate trouble had

practically passed.
Sept. 20 From the Minister in China (tel.)
(609) Information that Commandant of Japanese Legation Guard

in Peiping approached Commandant of American Guard con-
cerning a general plan of defense of foreigners in case of attack;
American Commandant's reply that present situation, involv-
ing only Japanese, would not warrant invoking of a general

plan.
Sept. 20 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(116) Report of brief statements by Japanese and Chinese dele-

gates before the League Council concerning the Mukden affair,
neither delegate requesting action; conversation with Chinese
delegate revealing Chinese preference for action under Four-
Power Pacific Treaty or Kellogg Pact rather than League

action, in view of Japan's stronger position in the League.
Sept. 20 From the Vice Consul at Mukden to the Minister in China
(446) Summary of events in the Mukden incident; disbelief that

explosion on the South Manchuria Railway caused the occu-
pation or that Japanese consular officials give credence to this

explanation by the military.
Sept. 21 From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
(148)

opinion on involvement of Kellogg Pact for guidance of the

Secretary General of the League of Nations. Sept. 21 From the Minister in China (tel.) (616) Reuter report from Nanking, September 20: Second formal

demand by Chinese for withdrawal of Japanese troops; declara

tion by Central Executive Committee of September 23 as national humiliation day.

17

19

22

31 Procequest in s temcis Sonitening crash in Manchuria and for

23

THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS
OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO
PRESERVE PEACE_Continued

Date and number

Subject

Page

1931 Sept. 21

(617)

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Sept. 21

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Sept. 21

(118)

Sept. 22

25

(620)

26

Sept. 22

(119)

From the Minister in China (tel.)

Information from Japanese Military Attaché that Japanese subjects in Harbin and Kirin are endangered and that General Honjo has ordered Japanese troops to proceed there; his denial that Kowpangtze and Hulutao have been occupied.

(Repeated to Tokyo.)
From the Chinese Chargé

Account of Japanese occupation of Chinese territory in
Manchuria and peal to the United States for the preserva-
tion of peace in the Far East under the principles of the Kellogg
Pact.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Note from the representative of China to the Secretary
General of the League of Nations (text printed), requesting
action on Manchuria affair by the League Council under article
11 of the Covenant.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

From Mukden, September 21: Report that main body of
Japanese troops is now at Changchun and occupation is being
extended to Kirin; that Chinese are fleeing to Shanhaikwan.
To the Minister in Switzerland, at Geneva (tel.)

Information for Drummond, Secretary General of League,
that facts are insufficient but that Japanese military move-
ment is apparently aggressive with careful preparation and
strategic goal; concern of Department over developments in
light of treaty obligations.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

From Nanking, September 21: Report of rumors that the
Secretary stated that the Kellogg Pact was not involved, that
Japan had consent of important powers before acting in
Manchuria, that Russia has troops near Manchouli; informa-
tion that Russia has no intention of safeguarding interests in
Manchuria by force.
From the Consul ar Geneva (tel.)

Account of League Council meeting at which Sino-Japanese
conflict was taken up; suggestion by. British representative
that the United States, in view of its interest in international
instruments of peace, be fully informed of the action of the
Council and be enabled to take any action it thinks right in
this connection.
From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)

Departure of Japanese Ambassador, September 26, to pre-
pare for Disarmament Conference; his information that
Chinese have superior forces in Manchuria, and that both Gov-
ernments are attempting to end the conflict.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Resolution of the League of Nations Council (text printed)
(1) to appeal to China and Japan to abstain from any act which
might aggravate Manchurian situation, (2) to seek in con-
sultation with the two Govjrnments means for withdrawal of
troops, and (3) to forward to the United States, minutes offthe
Council and other documents.

26

Sept. 22

(624)

Sept. 22

(120)

27

28

Sept. 22

(376)

Sept. 22

(123)

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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE-Continued

Date and number

Subject

Page

30

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34

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1931 Sept. 22

From the British Embassy.

Information of the Chinese Government's appeal to the
League and of French and British proposal for the withdrawal

of troops from Manchuria, preparatory to direct negotiations. Sept. 22

To the Consul General at Nanking (tel.) (75) Denial of rumors current in Nanking concerning U. S.

statements and action. Sept. 22 To the Consul at Geneva (tel.) (58) Quotation of Department's statement to the press regarding

Manchurian affair; information that Department's attitude

toward application of treaties is noncommittal.
Sept. 22 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(124) Substance of Chinese-Japanese discussions before the

League Council concerning the settlement of the controversy
over Manchuria by direct negotiations; Sze's contention that
the dispute was within the competence of the League as Japan

had already resorted to other than diplomatic measures.
Sept. 22 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(125) Further discussions before the Council: Chinese request

that the Council send a commission of inquiry to the spot;
statement by the Japanese delegate that he was still waiting
for further instructions; decision of the Council to carry out

resolution quoted in telegram No. 123, September 22.
Sept. 22 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(126) Discussion, at an informal meeting of a group of Council

members, of question of an investigation commission and of an
invitation to the United States to participate; Japanese repre-

sentative's request to query his Government.
Sept. 22 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(127) Text of identic telegrams dispatched by the President of

the Council to China and Japan in the light of the Council's

earlier resolution.
Sept. 22 Prom the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
(156) Request from Drummond to ascertain if United States will

cooperate in sending an investigating body to Manchuria, or
in identic or similar notes to Japan and China; impression in

the Council of urgency of the situation.
Sept, 22 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs at Nanking to the

Chinese Legation
Chinese denial of Japanese acceptance of proposal for joint
investigating committee, asserting that Chinese Government

has never made such a proposal.
Sept. 23 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(129) Aspects of difficult position of Japanese representative on

the Council; reluctance of China to admit a state of war;
expression by representatives of world powers that their gov-

ernments look to United States as chief hope.
Sept. 23 From the Minister in China (tel.)
(631)

From Harbin, September 22: Evacuation of Kirin city by
Chinese troops, and occupation by Japanese troops.

36

37

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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS
OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO
PRESERVE PEACE—Continued

Date and number

Subject

Page

1931 Sept. 23

39

From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)

Suggestions by Drummond for U. S. measures of coopera-
tion: (1) An American to sit on the League Council, and (2)
definite appointment of a regular “Council Committee" with
a U. S. representative.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

Organization of civil governments for Mukden and other
occupied cities with Japanese control and Chinese subordi-
nates; disinclination of Chinese to cooperate. Intention of
Japanese not to occupy Taonan or Hsingan areas for the

Sept. 23

40

(632)

present.

40

epiz123 | Prezeptores com elegrange received by the Chinese delegates re

Sept. 23

41

(633)

42

Sept. 23

(635)

42

Sept. 23

(159)

garding increasing tenseness of the situation; Council's receipt
of information from Chinese Government that it is not ne-
gotiating with Japan.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

Reuter report from Nanking, September 22: Plans for
evacuation of Japanese women and children from Nanking;
statement by Chiang Kai-shek that if the League fails to up-
hold justice, the National Government will fight.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

From Harbin, September 22: Reports of attacks on Japa-
nese property by unknown person, of increasing feeling
among the Chinese against supposed Russian attitude, and of
Chinese preparation for withdrawal of troops in case Japanese
troops come to Harbin.
From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)

Interview with Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs concerning
(1) Japanese troops in Manchuria and intentions of with-
drawal; (2) proposed commission to investigate points at issue.
Memorandum of Trans-Atlantic Telephone Conversation

Between the Secretary, Norman H. Davis, and Hugh R.
Wilson: Davis' opinion that a U. S. representative on the
League Council would help compose the situation; Secretary's
disapproval of the character of the investigating committee
and belief that the United States cannot authorize a repre-
sentative to sit on the committee.
To the Minister in Switzerland, at Geneva (tel.)

U. S. reply to League resolution (text printed). Sympathy
of the United States with attitude of the League but fear that
an outside investigation committee would inflame Japan's
nationalistic spirit behind the military; Secretary's suggestion
that the United States (1) urge direct negotiations between
China and Japan, or (2) favor submittal by both nations to
the machinery of the League Covenant, or (3) consider action
under the Nine-Power Treaty or the Kellogg Pact.

Sept. 23

43

48

Sept. 23

(123)

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