« 이전계속 »
FEDERAL RAILROAD SAFETY ACT OF 1970
(as amended through 1976)
TITLE II-RAILROAD SAFETY 1
SEC. 201. SHORT TITLE.
This title may be cited as the "Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970". SEC. 202. RAIL SAFETY REGULATIONS.
(a) The Secretary of Transportation (hereafter in this title referred to as the “Secretary'') shall (1) prescribe, as necessary, appropriate rules, regulations, orders, and standards for all areas of railroad safety supplementing provisions of law and regulations in effect on the date of enactment of this title, and (2) conduct, as necessary, research, development, testing, evaluation, and training for all areas of railroad safety. However, nothing in this title shall prohibit the bargaining representatives of common carriers and their employees from entering into collective bargaining agreements under the Railway Labor Act, including agreements relating to qualifications of employees, which are not inconsistent with rules, regulations, orders, or standards prescribed by the Secretary under this title. Nothing in this title shall be construed to give the Secretary authority to issue rules, regulations, orders, and standards relating to qualifications of employees, except such qualifications as are specifically related to safety.
(b) Hearings shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of section 553 of title 5 of the United States Code for all rules, regulations, orders, or standards issued by the Secretary including those establishing, amending, revoking, or waiving compliance with a railroad safety rule, regulation, order, or standard under this title, and an opportunity shall be provided for oral presentations.
(c) The Secretary may, after hearing in accordance with subsection (b) of this section, waive in whole or in part compliance with any rule, regulation, order, or standard established under this title, if he determines that such waiver of compliance is in the public interest and is consistent with railroad safety. The Secretary shall make public his reasons for granting any such waiver.
(d) In prescribing rules, regulations, orders, and standards under this section, the Secretary shall consider relevant existing safety data and standards and shall, within 180 days after the date of enactment of the Federal Railroad Safety Authorization Act of 1976, take such action as may be necessary to develop and publish rules of practice applicable to all proceedings under this Act. Such rules of practice shall take into consideration the varying nature of proceedings under this Act and shall include specific time limits upon the disposition of all proceedings initiated under this Act. In no event shall the time limit for any such proceeding extend for more than 12 months after the date such proceeding is initiated.
1 The Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970 was enacted as title II of the Act entitled “An Act to provide for Federal railroad safety, hazardous materials control, and for other purposes”, approved Oct. 16, 1970 (Public Law 91-458 ; 84 Stat. 971).
(e) The Secretary shall issue initial railroad safety rules, regulations, orders, and standards under this title based upon existing safety data and standards, not later than one year after the date of enactment of this title. The Secretary shall review and, after hearing in accordance with subsection (b) of this section, revise such rules, regulations, orders, and standards as necessary,
(f) Any final agency action taken under this section is subject to judicial review as provided in chapter 7 of title 5 of the United States Code.
(g) The Secretary shall, within 180 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, issue such rules, regulations, orders, and standards as may be necessary to require that
(1) in any case in which activities of railroad employees (other than train or yard crews) assigned to inspect, test, repair, or service rolling equipment require such employees to work on, under, or between such equipment, each manually operated switch, including any crossover switch, providing access to the track on which such equipment is located must be lined against movement to that track and secured by an effective locking device which may not be removed except by the class or craft of employees performing such inspection, testing, repair, or servicing;
(2) the rear car of all passenger and commuter trains shall have one or more highly visible markers which are lighted during periods of darkness or whenever weather conditions restrict clear visibility; and
(3) the rear car of all freight trains shall have highly visible markers during periods of darkness or whenever weather condi
tions restrict clear visibility. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 205 of the Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970 (45 U.S.C. 434), nothing in paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection shall prohibit a State from continuing in force any law, rule, regulation, order or standard in effect on the date of enactment of the Federal Railroad Safety Authorization Act of 1976 relating to lighted markers on the rear car of freight trains except to the extent that such law, rule, regulation, order, or standard would cause such cars to be in violation of this section. SEC. 203. EMERGENCY POWERS.
If through testing, inspection, investigation, or research carried out pursuant to this title, the Secretary determines that any facility or piece of equipment is in unsafe condition and thereby creates an emergency situation involving a hazard of death or injury to persons affected by it, the Secretary may immediately issue an order, without regard to the provisions of section 202(b) of this title, prohibiting the further use of such facility or equipment until the unsafe condition is corrected. Subsequent to the issuance of such order, opportunity for review shall be provided in accordance with section 554 of title 5 of the United States Code.
SEC. 204. GRADE CROSSINGS AND RAILROAD RIGHTS-OF-WAY.
(a) The Secretary shall submit to the President for transmittal to the Congress, within one year after the date of enactment of this title, a comprehensive study of the problem of eliminating and protecting railroad grade crossings, including a study of measures to protect pedestrians in densely populated areas along railroad rights-of-way, together with his recommendations for appropriate action including, if relevant, a recommendation for equitable allocation of the economic costs of any program proposed as a result of such study.
(b) In addition the Secretary shall, insofar as practicable, under the authority provided by this title and pursuant to his authority over highway, traffic, and motor vehicle safety, and highway construction, undertake a coordinated effort toward the objective of developing and implementing solutions to the grade crossing problem, as well as measures to protect pedestrians in densely populated areas along railroad rights-of-way. SEC. 205. STATE REGULATION.
The Congress declares that laws, rules, regulations, orders, and standards relating to railroad safety shall be nationally uniform to the extent practicable. A State may adopt or continue in force any law, rule, regulation, order, or standard relating to railroad safety until such time as the Secretary has adopted a rule, regulation, order, or standard covering the subject matter of such State requirement. A State may adopt or continue in force an additional or more stringent law, rule, regulation, order, or standard relating to railroad safety when necessary to eliminate or reduce an essentially local safety hazard, and when not incompatible with any Federal law, rule, regulation, order, or standard, and when not creating an undue burden on interstate commerce. SEC. 206. STATE PARTICIPATION.
(a) A State may participate in carrying out investigative and surveillance activities in connection with any rule, regulation, order, or standard prescribed by the Secretary under this title if the safety practices applicable to railroad facilities, equipment, rolling stock, and operations within such State are regulated by a State agency and such State agency submits to the Secretary an annual certification that such State agency
(1) has regulatory jurisdiction over the safety practices applicable to railroad facilities, equipment, rolling stock, and operations within the State concerned;
(2) has been furnished a copy of each Federal safety rule, regulation, order, and standard, applicable to any such railroad facility, equipment, rolling stock, or operation, established under this title as of the date of the certification;
(3) is conducting the investigative and surveillance activities prescribed by the Secretary as necessary for the enforcement by ħim of each rule, regulation, order, and standard referred to in
paragraph (2) of this subsection, as interpreted by the Secretary. The Secretary shall retain the exclusive authority to assess and compromise penalties and (except as otherwise provided by section 207 of this title) to request injunctive relief for the violation of rules, regula