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many forest roads, in the face of a determined and infu- this battle of Fair Oaks, for he kept his army, still vastly riated enemy, deterred M‘Lellan from attempting to pene- superior to that of the Confederates, for more than three trate to Richmond overland. But there was a Federal weeks in camp, without attempting any movement of stronghold considerably nearer to Richmond, Fortress importance. The Confederate generals had thus full Monroe, acting from which as his base, M'Lellan thought leisure to mature a great combined movement, the object that he might, without great risk, extend his army along the of which was to turn the Federal right and force the peninsula lying between the York and James rivers, and whole army down on the shore of the James river. so reach Richmond. Acting on this idea, of the sound- Johnston having received a severe wound in the battle ness of which he had convinced President Lincoln, he of Fair Oaks, the command had devolved on General caused a great quantity of transports to be provided, and Robert Leo, a gallant gentleman of the old Virginian embarking his troops in the Chesapeake, landed at stock, aided by that thunderbolt of war, “Stonewall » Fortress Monroe on the 2nd April. Gradually concen- | Jackson, by Stuart, the “beau sabreur,” by Ewell, Long. trating his forces, he advanced along the peninsula above street, and other brave and able officers. Jackson had mentioned, and while encamped before Yorktown, on the just returned from the Shenandoah valley, where, with 30th April, found that he had 130,000 men at his stan skill and daring seldom equalled, he had defeated or foiled dards. From Yorktown he advanced towards Richmond ; | all the Federal corps that he had come across, driving but now the difficulties of the enterprise began to appear. most of them right out of the valley. On the 26th June, A small sluggish river, the Chickahominy, running much General Porter, commanding the right wing of the through marshes and scattered woods, divides the pen- Federal army, was attacked at Mechanicsville, on the north insula nearly in two equal halves, or long narrow strips, side of the Chickahominy, by the divisions of Longstreet for forty miles and more to the east of Richmond, bend- and Hill. On that day Porter appears to have stood his ing round suddenly at last, and flowing into the James. ground; but on the 27th Jackson came up and mingled General J. E. Johnston, who was in command of the in the fight; and the Federal general, after having fallen main army of the Confederates, allowed his enemy to back from Mechanicsville to Gaines' Mill, was dislodged march on unchecked, until a considerable part of his from that position also, and completely defeated. M‘Lellan, troops was well entangled in the swamps of this treach with a force immensely outnumbering anything that erous valley, and then commenced a series of vigorous was in his own front, was within three or four miles and well-planned attacks. The first collision took place of his defeated subaltern; but, being a man of no trae at New Bridge, on the Chickahominy, on the 24th May. military insight, he was deceived by the feigned attacks On the 27th, General Porter, sent to clear the Federal which the Confederate troops in his front had been in. right in the direction of Hanover Court House, dis- / structed to keep up during the day, and sent across the persed with some loss the Confederate division which

Chickahominy, in compliance with Porter's 'urgent mesopposed his march. But the first serious action was the

sages, reinforcements too weak to turn the tide of battle, battle of Fair Oaks, or the Seven Pines, on the 31st

but large enough to give additional magnitude to the May. The divisions of Generals Casey and Couch hav

catastrophe. The right wing of the Federal army being ing been thrown forward by M‘Lellan to the point, or

thus turned, its communications with its base at West points, indicated by those names, without, it would seem,

Point on the York river were cut, and immense quanti. adequate provision for their support in case of need, the

ties of stores were captured by Stuart and his cavalry, Confederate army, marching out of Richmond simul

while as much more was destroyed by the Federal officers taneously along several roads which led towards the scene

| in charge. M'Lellan, in pursuance of the decision of a of action, fell upon the Federals while the breastworks

council of war, ordered a retreat. He wrote to Secretary with which they were preparing to secure their position Staunton, and was doubtless sincerely convinced, that the were still incomplete. Couch's division was the first

enemy with whom he had to contend numbered from attacked; it was enveloped, broken, and forced back on 150,000 to 200,000 men, the fact being that the entire the division of Casey; which, also, was unable to stand its

force under Lee's command, even after Jackson's army ground. The camps of these two divisions, with many

, with many had joined him, never exceeded 70,000 men. Pursued guns and stores, fell into the hands of the conquerors.

and harassed by the victorious Confederates, yet turning Heintzelman was promptly summoned to the aid of the

to bay readily and often, and fighting stubbornly, the beaten generals, but we are told that "some of his regi.

Federal army marched by Malvern Hill upon the James ments did not rush to the front quite so impetuously as river. There fevers broke out among them. exposed as a good portion of Couch's made tracks for the rear."*

they were to the fierce summer sun of Virginia and to The task of relief now passed into the able hands of

the malarious exhalations of a marshy region; and as soon General Sedgwick, who, coming up with fresh troops, and

as sufficient transport could be provided, the remains of handling them well, checked the further advance of the

that imposing array which had gone forth three months Confederates, and even recovered a portion of the lost

before with such proud hopes, were transferred by sea to ground. The total loss of the Federals in this battle was

Acquia Creek, on the Potomac. This took place in the about 5,700 men ; that of the Confederates 4,200.

first half of July. M'Lellan seems to have been, as it were, stunned by

M'Lellan had been thoroughly discomfited; but another

Federal army still kept the field in Virginia, covering * Greeley, "American Conflict," vol. ii.

| Washington, and occasionally making forward movements

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as far as the Rappahannock. This was the army, num- this object, or along with it, Loe had formed a plan bering about 40,000 men, under the command of General for the reduction of Harper's Ferry, an important post Pope. On taking the command, Pope had issued a boast at the junction of the Shenandoah and Potomac, and the ful and grandiloquent manifesto, some of the expressions capture of its garrison. By one of the accidents of war, of which were understood to glance at the luckless a copy of Lee's general order, giving clear instructions to M Lellan. “I hear constantly,” he said, “of taking his divisional commanders with a view to this important strong positions and holding them—of lines of retreat capture, fell into M'Lellan's hands; yet, although it was and of bases of supplies. Let us discard such ideas. an operation which involved the cutting of Leo's army ... Let us study the probable lines of retreat of in two, and the separation of the two halves by a cononr opponents, and leave our own to take care of them. siderable river, the Federal general was so poor a selves. Let us look before, and not behind. Success and tactician that he could neither prevent the fall of glory are in the advance. Disaster and shame lurk in Harper's Ferry, nor fall with overwhelming force upon the rear." But

the portion of the Confederate army that remained to the

north of the river. The active Jackson opened fire on Quid dignum tanto feret hio promissor hiatu ?

Harper's Ferry on the 13th September, and the place After the greater part of M'Lellan's beaten army had surrendered on the 15th, nearly twelve thousand men taken up its quarters again within the lines of Alexandria,

laying down their arms. Not delaying a moment, Lee, with Jackson, his indefatigable lientenant, resolved Jackson hurried his division across the Potomac again, to pay his undivided attention to Pope. In the first and, marching day and night, reached Lee's head-quarters battle, at Cedar Mountain, near the Rapidan, a portion of Pope's army attacked, without knowing it, nearly the him in repelling the great Federal attack of the next day. whole of Lee's, and, of course, received a terrible and The indecisive battle of Antietam was the most bloody bloody repulse. The next fifteen days were a maze of of the whole war; the loss on each side exceeded twelve marches and combats, in the course of which Jackson, thousand men. MLellan, according to his own statewith an audacity defensible rather on moral than on mili- ment, had 87,000 men in line on that day; the tary grounds, and evidently proceeding from an exact Confederates stood their ground with only 45,000 for appreciation of the calibre of the man and the troops the first half of the day, and for the remaining half onnosed to him, marched round Pope's right and seized with no more than an aggregate of 70,000; yet the his magazines at Manasses Junction, exactly in his rear; last incident of all was the driving of the Federal left Fet managed to extricato himself in time from a position down the hills, up which they had gradually advanced, which, with an abler adversary, would have been his cer- and across the creek again. The stubborn valour of tain destruction, and succeeded in rejoining Longstreet the Confederate soldiers, and the high qualities of before he was compelled to fight the battle of Gaines- their officers, were never more nobly exemplified than ville, in which Pope's generals of division sustained a on this bloody field of Antietam. On the following crushing defeat. Pope retreated to Centerville ; again day, the 18th, both armies rested; but M‘Lellan was his flank was turned, and he found himself compelled to joined by a reinforcement of fourteen thousand men ; fall back on the line of Alexandria, having been inces and Lee knew that he could do no more. He crossed santly engaged, ever since the Confederate army turned the Potomac with his whole force on that night, and against him, in that very operation of retreating which

retired upon Winchester, in the Shenandoah valley ; nor he had rain-gloriously announced would, under his aus

ced wonld, under his aus. did M'Lellan pursue. Emboldened by this inaction, Lee pices, be the exclusive portion of “our opponents."

detached Stuart with eighteen hundred horsemen on a But Lee was not satisfied with having defeated two raid into Pennsylvania. Stuart penetrated into that Federal armies, and nearly cleared Virginia of invaders ; state as far as Chambersburg, where he destroyed a large he determined to carry the war across the Potomac, and quantity of military stores; he then rode right round the enter Maryland at least, if not Pennsylvania. The bulk Federal army, doing what damage he could by the way, of his army crossed the Potomac near Leesburg on the 5th and recrossed without loss into Virginia below Harper's September, and advanced to Frederick, whence Lee issued Ferry. A2 address to the people of Maryland, to whom he held

| Gallant and unfortunate men! brave gentlemen of forth the prospect of deliverance from their oppressors. Virginia and the Carolinas! genuine strain of the old He appears to have hoped that the Confederate ranks English blood! worthy countrymen of the Mannys and -not over well filled at the first, and now sadly thinned Raleighs of former times ! defenders of your native fields by the drain of incessant warfare and hardship-would against a motley host representing twenty different be recruited by a large accession of enthusiastic Marynationalities, a "colluvies omnium gentium" pouring landers. But most of the more ardent spirits among upon you from the North — Scotch, Irish, Dutch, these had already crossed the border and enlisted in the Germans, and many more,-surely, if mortal heroism Confederate armies, while of the remainder many doubt-could avail to bar the irresistible decrees, your blood less shrank from the peril of confiscation and other would not have been shed in vain, and your names would trouble which their joining Lee might bring upon their have shone in the page of history as the founders of a friends and relations. Thus it happened that not more new nation. But you fought not against overwhelming thau between 200 and 300 Marylanders enlisted. Failing numbers only, but against the eternal law of justice, though you knew it not; and therefore you could not Cumberland Gap into Eastern Tennessee, which at this prevail. Your chiefs prated about liberty, but in their period was firmly held by the Confederates. Dissatisfied hearts designed to establish their state on the perpetual with the dilatory proceedings of Buell, the Federal enslavement and inequality of a race of men that Government superseded him at the end of October by deserved not such a fate; and you, imagining your cause General Rosecranz, who, on the 4th instant, had repelled, to be just and holy, sacrificed your lives for ends that in with heavy loss to the assailants, a combined attack of the last analysis were plainly irreligious and immoral.* Generals Van Dorn and Price upon the lines of Corinth.

Yet one more day of slaughter was to close this year of The expedition of Bragg was, upon the whole, a failure ; carnage. In November, M‘Lellan had been relieved of since it demonstrated that in spite of the incapacity of his command, which had been turned over to Burnside. generals and the rawness of soldiers, the resources of the The sole military conception of this general, with refer- Federal power were far too solid, far too elastic, to ence to the taking of Richmond, appears to have been | permit of the Confederacy making conquests on Federal that he must march straight at it along the direct road ground. Would the Confederacy be able to hold its until he arrived there. He pressed on as far as the own? That was now the question of questions. Rappahannock, and occupied Fredericksburg, on the 2. The naval portion of the war must now be briefly southern bank of that river; but the heights behind the described. In the course of January and February, town offered a strong position, which Lee at once seized Commodore Goldsborough and General Burnside, at and carefully fortified; so that when, on a beautiful sunny the head of a powerful expedition, attacked the coast day of the Indian summer, December 12th, Burnside defences of North Carolina, capturing the island of flung his masses against the heights, they were repulsed Roanoke, and compelling the surrender of Fort Macon, with fearful slaughter. During the remainder of the Newbern, and other places. In March occurred the winter the armies of the Union and the Confederacy famous conflict of the Merrimac and Monitor. When faced one another on opposite sides of the Rappa hannock, the navy-yard at Norfolk, in Virginia, opposite Fortress which, by a sort of tacit consent, was accepted as the Munroe, on the south side of the James river, was dividing line of the two powers. But cavalry raids, most abandoned by the Federals, they endeavoured, but withof which were successful, were the order of the day with out success, to destroy the forty-gun steam frigate Mer. the Confederate officers all through the winter. In rimac. The Confederates, having repaired this vessel, January, 1863, the command of the army of the Potomac cut her down nearly to the water's edge, built up over was transferred from Burnside to Hooker, who had her a sort of deck-house, sloping inwards, of solid timber greatly distinguished himself at Antietam.

strongly plated with railway iron, armed her with ten In the autumn, General Bragg led a Confederate army heavy guns and a formidable iron beak, rechristened her from Chattanooga, on the confines of Alabama, across the Virginia, and sent her out to burn, sink, and destroy. Tennessee, into the state of Kentucky, routing in suc- On the 8th March, the officers on board the Federal fleet cession all the troops that opposed his march. Occupying stationed in Hampton Roads beheld a strange black obFrankfort, the state capital of Kentucky, he then issued ject, showing nothing but a funnel and a sloping roof a skilfully worded address to the Kentuckians, whom he above water, moving rapidly down upon them, followed professed an ardent desire to liberate from the thraldom by two small war steamers. Before they could decide on in which they were held by the Federal Government. any course of action, the monster ran at the Cumberland Great was the alain in the wealthy cities on the Ohio, frigate, and opened a gaping breach in her side with her Louisville and Cincinnati. But on this, as on many other iron beak, so that she sank at her anchors in a brief space occasions during the war, it was seen that the sheer of time, carrying to the bottom about a hundred sick and weight of numbers was enough to neutralise all the wounded men. Two other frigates, the Congress and the advantage which the superior élan of the Confederate Minnesota, came to the assistance of the Cumberland, troops, and the finer strategy of their generals, had for and rained heavy shot on the sides of the iron-clad, which a time obtained. General Buell, who had slowly followed glanced ineffectively off her mail. To avoid the fate of Bragg from the vicinity of Chattanooga, reached Louis- the Cumberland, the Congress ran herself aground; but ville towards the end of September. Reinforcements being exposed in that position to a raking fire from the now joined him to such an extent that, at the beginning Merrimac, and having lost many men, she hauled down of October, he found himself at the head of 100 000 men, her colours. But the fire from the Federal soldiers on the greater part of them indeed raw troops, but out- shore prevented the Confederates from taking possession numbering the Confederates in the ratio of more than of her, and in the end she was set on fire and destroyed. two to one. So far from advancing on Louisville, Bragg The Minnesota also got aground, but in a position where felt that he was no longer safe at Frankfort, and he the Merrimac could not approach within a considerable resolved to retreat. But in order to protect the march of distance. On the next day, the battle was renewed, and his immense trains, loaded with the plunder of Kentucky, the Merrimac, having made out the channel by which he gave battle to Buell at Perryville, on the 9th October, the Minnesota had reached the bank on which she lay, and signally defeated him. After this he retired through was proceeding to attack her at close quarters, when a

| new combatani appeared on the scene. This was the *"Had I a million slaves," said Lee (we quote from memory from

Monitor, a small turreted iron-clad, just arrived froin his Life by Cooke), “I would sacrifice them all to the Union; but how can I join those who are invading my native land ?"

New York. Steaming in between the Minnesota and

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her assailant, the Monitor commenced a duel with the The actual course of events was somewhat different. latter, which lasted some time without much apparent Captain Porter with his mortar-boats commenced shelling damage being done on either side. At last, as if in the forts on the 17th April ; but the defence was well desperation, the Merrimac ran at the Monitor, and conducted, and little progress was made. On the other butted at her with all her force; the shock, however, hand, all the attempts of the Confederates to set fire to did little or no injury to the turret ship, while in it the the fleet of Federal transports and other vessels, by send. Merrimac carried away her enormous beak, and is sup- ing down fire-rafts among them, were neutralised by the posed to have seriously damaged her machinery. Certain carefully planned precautions of Farragut. On the third it is, that although she was got safely into Norfolk, she day of the bombardment, the gallant veteran called a never made a second appearance; and not long after-council of war on board the Hartford, and it was decided wards, when the progress of the Federal arms in North that the attempt should be made to run past the forts Carolina rendered Norfolk untenable except by leaving with the fighting portion of the fleet. But it was necesthere a larger garrison than the Confederates could sary that the boom should first be broken, and this service spare, the place was evacuated, and the Merrimac, was ably performed by Captain Bell that very night. whose fame had flown already round the civilised world, The grand attack was fixed for the night of the 23rd was blown up and destroyed.

April. The fleet was arranged in three divisions, that The fall of New Orleans, which took place in April of on the left led by Farragut in the Hartford, that on the this year (1862), was the first crushing and irremediable right by Captain Bailey in the Cayuga, while Captain blow which the Confederacy had sustained. An expedi- Bell, with a smaller division, was to keep the centre of the tion for the purpose had been long since projected by river. The ships under Captain Bell's command were General Butler, and approved by President Lincoln. unable to sustain the heavy fire of the forts, and retired Various delays prevented its being brought to full down stream; but both Farragut and Bailey, after runmaturity till near the end of March, when Butler landed ning the gauntlet past the forts with little loss, engaged at Ship Island in the Gulf of Mexico, between Mobile in a strange midnight conflict with the Confederate and the mouth of the Mississippi) and proceeded to flotilla, which they succeeded, being in greatly superior concert with Captain Farragut, of the U.S. steam sloop force, in destroying or putting to flight. “Captain FarraHartford, the details of the enterprise. The land forces gut, in the fore-rigging of the Hartford, anxiously here concentrated did not much exceed 13,000 men, and watching every visible movement through his night glass, would have been of themselves insufficient to make an had advanced within a mile and a quarter of Fort Jackimpression on so large a city as New Orleans, which at son, when he was opened upon from that fort and that time had a population of 170,000 inhabitants, and repeatedly struck. Still steaming directly for the fort, the defence of which was in the hands of an able and

and replying only from his two fore-castle guns, when energetic governor, General Lovell. But the naval force within half a mile he sheered and gave them broadsides at Ship Island numbered forty-seven vessels, of which of grape and canister, which soon drove every man from eight were large and powerful steam sloops-of-war, and their barbette guns; but those in the casemates rendered twenty-one mortar-boats, each throwing a 215-pound full and quick returns for every volley received. The shell, the whole under the command of David Farragut, Richmond, closely following, hurled grape and canister a man in whom the approach of age (he was sixty- in profusion. The Brooklyn, bringing up the rear, ran three years old, fifty of which he had passed in the over one of the hulks which had upheld the chain, during navy) had not chilled the fire or damped the enthusiasm a hot fire from Fort St. Philip. Hardly had she been of his youth. The principal defences of New Orleans freed from the hulk and her head turned up stream, were the forts Jackson and St. Philip, on opposite sides when the ram Manasses came butting into her starboard of the river, seventy-five miles below the city. An im

gangway, first opening her iron trap door at ten feet mense boom, composed of cypress-trees and chain cables, distance and firing at the smoke-stack of the Brooklyn had been prepared with great labour and stretched across a heavy bolt, which was caught and stopped by the sand the current, just under the guns of the forts; but the bags protecting her steam-drum. A guard of chain flood in the Mississippi, rising this year to an unusual armour which had been woven over her sides ” (Farragut height, had carried the chief part of it away. Attempts, had ordered the adoption of this simple precaution in all indeed, had been made to patch it up, but the obstruction the large steamers, viz., the protection of the machinery thus presented was more formidable in appearance than by chain cables, and the result proved with what accurate reality. The plan agreed upon between the Federal judgment) “shielded her from destruction by the ram, commanders was this: that Captain Porter, who had which soon slid off and disappeared in the darkness. A charge of the mortar-boat squadron, should commence few minutes later, while still under a raking fire from operations by bombarding the forts; that General Butler Fort Jackson, the Brooklyn was attacked by a large --after they had been sufficiently dismantled and dis- rebel steamer, to which she gave a broadside at fifty armed by the heavy shelling they would receive-should yards, setting it instantly on fire, and putting an end to attack them on the land side with his troops; lastly, that its career. Still groping onward in the thick darkness, upon the fall of the forts Captain Farragut should, with Captain Craven soon found himself abreast of Fort St. his men-of-war, break the boom, engage and overpower Philip, and so near that his leadsman reported thirteen the Confederate squadron, and steam up to the city. feet of water. Bringing all his guns to bear for a few

moments, he poured in grape and canister so that the Mr. Lincoln displayed sound statesmanship and a wise fort was completely silenced, and her garrison were seen deliberation in this whole matter. So faras military interests by our men in the tops of the Brooklyn, by the fitful seemed to require it, he gladly took and approved of meaflashes of their bursting shrapnel, running like sheep to sures which tended to emancipation ; but he would not let their coverts. Thus passing the upper fort, Captain himself be hurried by the Abolitionists into any such preCraven engaged several of the rebel gun-boats at sixty mature declaration against slavery, regarded as an instito a hundred yards. He was an hour and a half under tution, as would, while everything was still in doubt, have fire, lost eight killed and twenty-six wounded, while his estranged Kentucky and Missouri from the cause of the ship was badly cut up by shot and shell ; but she bore Union far more decidedly than was now the case. He her full part in the attack on the rebel batteries below | expressed himself very plainly, and with characteristic New Orleans next morning." *

brevity, in a letter to Horace Greeley, written in August The rest may be briefly told. On the next day, April of this year. “My paramount object,” he said, “is to 25th, Farragut steamed up to the wharves of New save the Union, and not either to save or destroy slavery. Orleans, the inhabitants of which, knowing that the city If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would could be easily laid in ashes by the Federal squadron, do itif I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do abandoned the thought of further resistance. Very firm it-and if I could save it by freeing some and letting language was required from Farragut before the irritated others alone, I would also do that.” In September, he people would leave the Union flag to fly undisturbed published a proclamation, distinctly stated to be resorted from the top of the City Hall. The civil government to as a war measure, notifying that from the first day of was committed to General Butler, and was by him ad. January, 1863, all slaves owned in any state, or in any deministered with great firmness, and perhaps with no signated part of a state, which was then in rebellion greater severity of repression than the circumstances against the Union, should be held to be from that time and substantially required. But being without the breeding for ever after free. In accordance with this notification, of a gentleman, Butler did not know or feel that there the President issued a second proclamation on the 1st are some means of repression which, whatever may be January, 1863, which, considering the result of the war, the previous provocation, must not be employed. He practically amounted to the abolition of slavery in North thus came to issue the celebrated proclamation, ordering America. This document, after reciting *he previous prothat “hereafter, when any female shall, by word, gesture, clamation, continued : “Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lin. or movement, insult or show contempt for any officer or coln, President of the United States, by virtue of the soldier of the United States, she shall be regarded and held power in me vested as Commander-in-chief of the army liable to be treated as a woman of the town plying her and navy of the United States in time of actual armed avocation.” The civilised world received this ebullition rebellion against the authority and government of the with astonishment and indignation, Lord Palmerston de. United States, and as a fit and necessary war measure claring, in the House of Commons, that “Englishmen must for suppressing said rebellion, do, on this first day of blush to think that it came from a man of the Anglo-Saxon January in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hun. race." Yet there is no ground to think that Butler's dred and sixty three ... order and designate as the order, hateful as it is, was ever put in force--that it was States and the parts of States wherein the people thereof more than a brutum fulmen; and, on the other hand, respectively are this day in rebellion against the United Englishmen who have known their countrymen order the States, the following, to wit: Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana living bodies of Hindoo prisoners to be blown into [except certain parishes], Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, ghastly and gory fragments of quivering flesh from the Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia mouths of cannon, cannot predict to what lengths even + [except certain counties] ... and by virtue of the their portion of the “ Anglo-Saxon race” may not pro. power and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and ceed under circumstances of pressure. The execution declare that all persons held as slaves within said deof Mumford by Butler's order, for having been the ring. signated States and parts of States are and henceforward leader of a mob which tore down the Federal flag from shall be free; and that the Executive Government of the the roof of the Mint, after the Confederate forces had United States, including the military and naval authori. evacuated the city, was, perhaps, an act of extreme ties thereof, will recognise and maintain the freedom of harshness, and not absolutely required for the security of such persons.” The military effect of this proclamation, a power which was then so firmly in possession; never considered as a war measure, was probably less than Mr. theless, the plea of military necessity has been not seldom Lincoln had counted upon : for either it was carefully held sufficient to cover worse deeds.

withheld from the knowledge of the slave population in Great progress was made in this year towards the com- | the Southern states, or, if even its contents became known plete emancipation of the slaves. Already Federal offi. to any of them, the fierce and desperate resolution which cers in command of corps or detachments serving in the animated the whites deterred them from attempting, or Southern states had been forbidden to interfere in any even planning, anything like a general insurrection. But way with the enjoyment of their freedom by slaves who the political effect was enormous; in every Chrie'ian had escaped from their masters within the Federal lines. country the cause of the Union was thenceforward identi ied

with the freedom of the negro, so that even those who • Greeley, " Americau Conflict,” vol. ii. ch. 5. I on many accounts sympathised with the South could not

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