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heartily and entirely wish their cause to triumph; moreover, quite so conveniently or profitably under two Governments the United States Government and people were irrevocably as under one, therefore disruption is forbidden and bound, in the event of their obtaining such military suc- branded by all laws, human and divine. Louisiana must cess as did in fact crown their arms, to maintain for the remain one political community with Minnesota, however future that freedom of the negro population which had diverse may be the ideas, the political tendencies, the been thus proclaimed.
social habits, and the intellectual and æsthetic culture, of On the 1st of December, 1862, Mr. Lincoln sent down the two, because, if there were a custom-house between a message to Congress, thoughtful, lucid, and at times them, a percentage of profit might be lost to the Minnerising to a rugged natural eloquence, in which he laboured sota settler, and the “ development” (by which is simply to show the physical unity of the territory of the United meant, in such reasonings, the filling up of a country with States, and thence to conclude to the political indivisi- ' a motley, half civilised, and wholly uninteresting white
bility of the Union. There is no line of boundary, he population) of the interior region might proceed at a said, which could possibly be drawn between the great rather slower rate. And if it did, would the world be any corn-producing region of the interior, lying between the the worse ? Is not the rapid absorption of the vast and Alleghanies, the Rocky Mountains, and British America, fertile prairies of America by a swarming semi-civilized and the sea margins south, east, and west of the said re- i population-insensible to the charm of ancient manners, gion, that would not cut off its population from one or dead to art, callous to philosophy, vulgarly self-confident more of the outlets which Nature had provided for its , in religion-one of the saddest among the many sad spectrade. (An argument which, pressed by some future tacles which the philosophic observer of mankind, during President, when the Union has a hundred millions of in the last forty years, has been compelled to contemplate ? habitants, may perhaps be turned against the British, as What if some Virginian thinker had replied to Mr. Linmarring and embarrassing the beneficent appointments coln: Doubtless you may be right in maintaining that of Nature, while we "cut off” the said population from trade flourishes better-ceteris paribus—where there is the outlet of the St. Lawrence.) Mr. Lincoln argues the but one political organisation; but man is not born for question ably and earnestly, yet, after all, he regards it trade alone; and there is much reason for holding that solely from the commercial point of view. What he says literature, art, science-in a word, all that constitutes amounts to this: that because men cannot trade together the highest culture of a people—flourish all the more for
Vol. IX.-No. 417.
there being a number of cultivated independent centres. with enterprises of this kind to rest on the undoubted Would Greece have taught us so much, had she been all success of that of 1851. But sufficient light is thrown Spartan, or all Theban, or even all Athenian? Is the op- on the subject for our purpose by the statement contained pressive moral monotony which prevails in a vastly ex- | in the address presented at the opening of the building tended state, in which the majority reigns supreme-is by the Royal Commissioners. From this it appears that this no drawback to the account of prosperity ? Again, the Society of Arts, "a body through whose exertions utter want of harmony in religious beliefs may make it the Exhibition of 1851 in great measure originated," more desirable for two contiguous populations to be in. | began to take preliminary measures in 1858 and 1859 for dependent of each other, than to be politically united. the purpose of ascertaining whether a sufficiently strong No physical barrier divides Holland from Belgium; if feeling existed in the country in favour of decennial commercial principles are to override all others, they ought repetitions of that great experiment to justify the proseto be one; yet we know that difference of religion, and cution of the scheme. The continental war of 1859 diversity of historical memories and associations, made caused a temporary suspension of proceedings; but on the two peoples fret against the tie which temporarily peace being restored, the Society resumed the consideraunited them, and that since their separation each has tion of the question, although at a period too late to allow prospered-in regard to all the higher forms of national of the Exhibition being ready by the year 1861, which prosperity-in an eminent degree. Bred up in the rough was their original desire. The Society obtained decisive West, Mr. Lincoln, intelligent and virtuous as he was, proof of the existence of a general desire for a second could not but be blind to this whole class of considera- Great Exhibition in the most satisfactory form-namely, tions, which would have appeared to him mere fanciful the signatures of upwards of 1,100 individuals for various refinements. Does it conduce to trade that was his sums of from £100 to £10,000, and amounting in the sole test by which to try every political organisation. whole to no less than £450,000, to a guarantee deed for
raising the funds needed for the conduct of the Exhibi
tion. The scheme having thus been started, the ComCHAPTER III.
missioners for the Exhibition of 1851, in the most liberal The International Exhibition of 1862: Its Origin: Erection of the spirit, placed at the disposal of the managers of the new
Building at Brompton: Description of its Principal Features : | undertaking, free of all charge, a space of nearly seven-
quently, when the original area was found insufficient, an lection of Pictures-Close of the Exhibition--Number of Persons additional plot of eight acres, being all the land which that had visited it.
could be made available for the purpose. In this way THE year 1862 was marked by a second grand display, was the scheme originated, the cost of the necessary on a scale of colossal magnitude, of the produets of the buildings provided for, and an eligible site obtained. material and artistic civilisation of our age, contributed The contractors for the greater part of the work were by the industry of all countries, but especially by that of Messrs. Kelk and Lucas, and it could not have been in England and her colonies.
abler hands. But for the eastern dome the contract was The origin of the Exhibition of 1862 is involved in taken by the Thames Iron Company. This dome was some obscurity. Though such is undoubtedly the case, begun long before that on the western side; but a several conjectures were diligently offered upon the “generous rivalry” sprang up between the builders, subject; most of these conjectures, however, were so very
| which resulted in something like a neck-and-neck race far-fetched, that serious consideration of thom is quite out between them at last. The work was commenced in the of the question. A cynical writer in the Saturday Review, latter part of 1861, and the contractors were bound to writing two days after the opening, could see in it nothing deliver the shell of the building, complete, to the Royal but a “gigantic advertisement,” a “gigantic joint-stock Commissioners on the 12th February, 1862. To do this show-room,” the “ Palace of Puffs.” On the other hand, they had to carry on the works by night as well as by a writer in the Illustrated London News, after severely day, and an interesting picture executed at the time condemning the levity or malice of his weekly contem- represents the night effect of the western dome, as seen porary, proceeds to refer the Exhibition to conceptions and from the Horticultural Society's Gardens—the moonmotives which, however sublime they may be, are a little beams from behind struggling to pierce through the netvague. “Looking," he says, “ at this magnificent Inter-work of ribs, rafters, and elaborate scaffolding of which national Exhibition in the light of the high motives which the dome then consisted, and workmen swarming in all originally suggested it, we see in it, first of all, a rich the galleries of the vast building, carrying on their work and multiform display of that Supreme beneficence which | by artificial light. The contract was kept, and the buildover-arches, if we may so express ourselves, the destinies | ing handed over on the 12th February, Applications for of our race.” The project of a second Exhibition has space from exhibitors were then invited, and the fitting been often attributed to the Prince Consort, but it was up of the courts and galleries proceeded with; but with said at the time, and on better authority, that so far from such numerous and varied interests and claims to adjust, having initiated the Exposition of this year, he gave a the commissioners could not ensure the same rapid somewhat reluctant assent to its being carried out, and progress as that made in the erection of the build. was rather desirous of allowing his fame in connection 'ing; and a large part of the edifice was still in
confusion, heaped up with packing-cases and litter, when to Mr. Crace, and was upon the whole successful. The the Exhibition was opened on the 1st May.
pillars in the nave appeared alternately a dark olive and The principal features of the building, when completed, a red chocolate, with gilded capitals and a line of gold are described in the following terms by a writer in the round the base. The columns in the courts were coloured “ Annual Register.” They consisted “of two vast domes & green bronze, with dark red capitals and bases, and a of glass, 250 feet high and 160 feet in diameter-larger similar dark line ran along the girders. The roof was (that is, broader across, but, of course, nothing like so decorated with gilt ornaments, and these, in connection high) than the dome of St. Peter's-connected by a nave with the scarlet and gold capitals of the pillars, though 800 feet long, 100 feet high, and 85 feet wide; with a delicate, and perhaps too minute, were still, on a bright closed roof, and lighted by a range of windows after the sunny day, on the whole agreeable to the eye. The walls manner of the clerestory of a Gothic cathedral. The of the picture galleries were painted a sage groen—a domes opened laterally into spacious transepts; and the colour well adapted for throwing the pictures into relief, nave into a wide central avenue and interminable side but giving a somewhat gloomy aspect to the rooms. sisles and galleries, which, being roofed with glass, much Connoisseurs were disposed to charge the style of decoresembled the crystal inclosure of the Exhibition of 1851. ration, generally, with a lack of boldness and inventive. These domes, naves, transepts, and corridors formed the ness; however, as we have said, the effect was at least main building, and covered sixteen acres of ground; but pleasing. in addition were two annexes, of unpretending ugliness, By a great effort, the executive staff of the Exhibition which covered or inclosed seven and a half acres; the were enabled to present the building to the royal and whole area occupied by the building was twenty-four and other visitors on the day fixed for the opening ceremonial, a half acres.” Of the two annexes, the eastern was May 1st, in a state of tolerable forwardness. Thirty devoted to agricultural implements of all kinds; the thousand persons witnessed the spectacle. Beneath the Festern to the display of machinery, both at rest and in western dome there was a raised dais, on which was motion. The courts and compartments in which the erected a lofty throne, hung with crimson velvet and majority of the articles displayed were contained were satin, and powdered with gilded roses and stars. On on the ground floor; among the galleries above, those each side of a rich overhanging canopy were placed large which constituted one of the greatest, perhaps the marble busts of Her Majesty and the Prince Consort. greatest, attraction of the Exhibition were the long From this platform, looking down the nave, the vista pieture galleries, admirably lighted, containing an im- was charming, and would have been much more effective mense collection of the chief productions of modern but for the interposition of two huge and hideous English art, in painting and sculpture; and also a similar trophies,” one of which was an exhibition of candles, the collection, though, of course, much less complete, of the other “a curtained erection, which looked like an exag. modern painting and sculpture of foreign nations. gerated four-post bedstead.” Thus was the sordid side
The same writer does but echo the general opinion of of commercialism allowed to obtrude itself at a time and all those who witnessed the Exhibition of 1851, and could place when no considerations except those of asthetic therefore compare the two buildings, when he makes the grandeur and beauty should have been entertained for a result of such a comparison unfavourable to the building moment. The procession of the Queen's Commissioners of 1862. “Although none could deny," he says, “ that for opening the Exhibition was formed at Buckingham the building of 1862 was greatly superior in extent, lofti. Palace, and proceeded, fortunately under a bright and ness, and elegance, both of constructive detail and of sunny sky, to the entrance of the building in Cromwell decoration, to the Crystal Palace of 1851, yet the general Road. As was to be expected, neither the Queen nor any impression seemed to be that there was & magical charm of her children were present; but the royal family was abont the latter which was wanting to its successor. The ably represented by the Duke of Cambridge, supported distinctive difference probably was that the crystalline by the Crown Prince of Prussia, the Archbishop of Can. walls and roof of the Palace of 1851 admitted such an terbury, and other august personages. The Lord Mayor universally-diffused light that the idea of “inclosure" of London lent his gorgeous and historical presence to did not present itself; while in the building of 1862 the | grace the ceremonial, coming “in great state, with a solid roof and rayless walls of the nave, lighted by Gothic suite of aldermen, common-councilmen, and city officers, windows in the clorestory, gave the unavoidable impreg. in seventy carriages.” When all were in their places, the sion that you were within a building. The two great Duke of Cambridge standing on the raised dais in front domes were certainly much inferior in effect to the glo. of the throne, Earl Granville, as the representative of rious transept of 1851; nor was there within the whole the Commissioners having charge of the Exhibition, structure any one spot which offered that unconfined stepped forward, and presented an address to the Duke, coup d'oeil—that sensation of space to be felt but not as the Chief Commissioner for the opening. In this deseribed-which could be obtained from several points address allusion was made to the loss which the Queen dvantage in its predecessor. The long avenue of the had recently sustained, in the following appropriate Lave gave unquestionably a grand prospect; but it was terms : 50 packed with 'trophies’ and other large and unmanage- "And, first of all, it is our melancholy duty to convey able objects, that it suggested a confined and crowded to Her Majesty the expression of our deep sympathy tesling." The internal colour-decoration was committed with her in the grievous affliction with which it has pleased
the Almighty to visit Her Majesty and the whole people and in motion; when we have said that you might see of this realm in the death of her Royal Consort. We there (and also hear, for the din was terrific) locomotives cannot forget that this is the anniversary of the opening of many descriptions, Nasmyth hammers, marine enof the first great International Exhibition, eleven years gines, planing machines, weaving and spinning machines, ago, by Her Majesty, when His Royal Highness, the brick-making machines, hydraulic cranes, and centrifugal President of the Commissioners of that Exhibition, pumps, we have, after all, indicated but a small part of the addressed Her Majesty in words that will not be for bewildering variety of machines that the annexe con. gotten: ... When we commenced our duties, and tained. The same may be said of all the other departuntil a recent period, we ventured to look forward to the ments in that portion of the Exhibition which represented time when it might be our great privilege to address Her the industrial arts. A few particulars respecting the Majesty in person this day, and to show to Her Majesty number of exhibitors will enable the reader to judge in within these walls the evidence which this Exhibition some degree what this multiplicity must have been : we affords of the opinion originally entertained by His Royal quote them from an article written at the time :Highness-evidence furnished alike by the increased “The three great foreign states, or collections of states, extent of the Exhibition, by the eagerness with which all now exhibiting are, of course, France, the Zollverein (or classes of the community have sought to take part in it, German Free-trade Union, which includes Prussia), and and by the large expenditure incurred by individual ex. Austria. The French courts will probably be filled by hibitors for the better display of their produce and between 3,000 and 4,000 exhibitors, and the Austrian machinery. We can now only repeat the assurance of display will probably be furnished by an equal number our sympathy with Her Majesty in that bereavement of firms and individuals. The Zollverein display is farwhich deprives the inaugural ceremony of her royal nished by about 2,500 exhibitors, of whom Prussia can presence."
claim about 1,400. Russia shows through about 400 After the Duke of Cambridge, in the name of the exhibitors, Holland through about 350, Spain through Commissioners for opening the Exhibition, had made a about 1,150, Portugal through 1,000, Norway through suitable reply, the procession was reformed, and passed about 200, Sweden through 500, and Belgium through down the nave to the eastern dome. It was here that the about 900. Here, without reckoning Italy, Switzerland, great mass of persons invited to be present at the opening Denmark, Greece, Egypt, and a few small states, we have were seated; for here the finest and most delightful part at least 13,000 foreign exhibitors in the foreign part of of the day's programme was to be performed. The re the Exhibition; and, when the list is made complete, they nowned maestro, Meyerbeer, had composed an “Ouver will reach three times the number of British exhibitors. ture en forme de marche” expressly for the occasion; the The only part of the above list in which no very remarkable Poet Laureate had written a beautiful ode, which Stern. increase can be noted is the Zollverein, as the exhibitors dale Bennett, the Cambridge Professor of Music, had from these states in 1851 numbered 2,300. The other wedded to appropriate strains; and a grand march by states, without an exception, show a wonderful increase Auber (which proved to be a work of extraordinary spirit of exhibitors; and largely as France was represented at and verve) completed the programme of this grand the first Exhibition, her exhibitors now will be nearly concert.
doubled. The enormous increase of foreign exhibitors When the music was over, the Bishop of London shows a spirit of competition, a self-reliance, and a faith stepped forward and “delivered a fervent prayer suited in Industrial Exhibitions, which speak well for foreign to the occasion," which does not appear to have been any industry.” where reported. After that, the Hallelujah Chorus, from According to the ground -plan of the Exhibition Handel's “Messiah," was performed with great power, and building, there was an enormous area, in the angle on its conclusion the National Anthem was again sung. between the southern transept and the nave, reThen the Duke of Cambridge rose, and in a loud voice served for the French department; and a curious proclaimed :-"By command of the Queen, I now declare circumstance occurred in connection with this, which, the Exhibition open." This declaration was followed by when one thinks of the later relations between France a loud blast of the trumpets and great cheering from all and Prussia, is not without interest. The French asked present.
and obtained permission to inclose their court, and they The logic of narration would seem now to require from accordingly erected high wooden partitions all round it, us, that after having described the origin of the Exhibi- greatly to the disgust of Prussia, exhibiting in a more tion, shown how the building was erected, described its limited space west of the south transept, because the principal features, and recounted the ceremony of its chief supply of light on which her exhibitors had reckoned opening, we should proceed to give an account of what was thus cut off, or at any rate greatly obscured, and they was in it. But just here is our difficulty; it is so hard had little left to depend upon but the light from the to say what was not in it. It was like an enormous clerestory windows far above. The French were appealed bazaar, containing everything which the fancy and inven. to to reduce the height of their partitions; but the retion, not of our country only, but of all countries, had presentatives of " la grande nation ” would not recede an at any time taxed themselves to produce for the use and inch : they agreed with their Emperor that “when France the enjoyment of men. Take one single department of is satisfied, the world is at rest,” at any rate, ought to be; the Exhibition, the western annexe, for machinery at rest | and as the partitions perfectly answered the purpose of
the French exhibitors, why should they put themselves Suppression of the Insurrection-Rupture of Diplomatic Re
lations with Brazil : How occasioned--Corn Ships from America out of the way for the sake of the semi-barbarous peoples
The Relief Fund-Dr. Pusey Indicts Mr. Jowett for Heresybeyond the Rhine ? Since then the French have received
Seizure of the Alexandra-The Prince of Wales at the Guild. a lesson severe enough to cure them for many a day of hall: At the Oxford Commemoration-Inauguration of Two
Albert Memorials—Deaths of Eminent Men in 1863 : Sir James this national tendency to arrogance.
Outram ; Sketch of his Careor: Lord Clyde; His Achievements A few words now as to the magnificent collection of
and Character: Lord Lyndhurst: Sir George Lewis : Archbishop pictures. England had an advantage here over foreign Whately ; His Remarkable Character and Powers ; Sketch of his
Career-Affairs in Japan : Murder of Mr. Richardson : Compencountries ; for, whereas it was allowable to exhibit any
sation Refused by the Prince of Satsuma : Kajosima, his Capital, English picture painted within the century previous to
Bombarded and Burnt. the opening of the Exhibition-and, in fact, the best part | THE year 1863, on which this history now enters, was of the collection did date from the last century,—the
| one which, so far as England was concerned, was unforeign collection included, with but trifling exceptions, marked by political agitation and unclouded by the none but works by living artists. Six thousand works anxieties of war. There was much distress in Lancashire, of art, exclusive of sculpture, were displayed in these owing to the entire or partial stoppage of innumerable galleries. Such a gathering of the masterpieces of our looms, till now dependent on American cotton. The best artists — Reynolds, Gainsborough, Wilson, and world was hunted through by the agents of the great Hogarth-was never seen before. Who that had the cotton industry, in order to find out new sources of sup. good fortune to be present there could ever forget ply, or, by introducing or fostering cotton culture in how the inimitable “Blue Boy” of Gainsborough various suitable localities, to secure at least an increased seemed to light up one end of the gallery-how the lovely supply in the future. In India, every road leading down Duchess of Devonshire smiled and coquetted from the can. the Western Ghauts was traversed by an unwonted string vas of Reynolds—how satire, humour, and earnest purpose of country carts, conveying the precious commodity to seemed to contend for the mastery in those wonderful some port of shipment; still, notwithstanding all that serial pictures of Hogarth? The Pre-Raphaelite school, could be done, the supply of cotton remained exceedingly and all the more eminent living or recently deceased limited, and much of what came was of a very inferior artists, with the exception of J. M. W. Turner, were quality. A general subscription, set on foot towards the well represented.
end of 1862, produced in the first month of 1863 the Oddly enough, the first case that was received and sum of £750,000 for the relief of the distress. It was opened for the Exhibition of 1862 came from Africa, a observed that the general trade and industry of the continent not accustomed to take the lead in the industrial country continued to prosper, notwithstanding the col. race, or in the march of humanity. This was from the lapse of this one branch of it. Especially in every branch free negro settlement of Liberia, and consisted of speci- of the hardware trade, particularly in the sale of arms mens of palm and other oils, native woods, &c.
and munitions of war, immense quantities of which were The productions of the British colonies occupied a made in this country to the order of both belligerents, an considerable area near the eastern dome, and were ex activity was apparent exceeding all former experience. ceedingly interesting, especially those from Australia and The basis upon which, under the regime of Free Trade, New Zealand, in the curiosities from which there was a the industry of this country reposed, was proved by this large native element which gave a piquant and peculiar experience to be far broader and more solid than the character to the display.
most destructive and blasting storm, so long as it affected The Exhibition was "closed on the 1st of November, only one portion of the field, could seriously impair. having been open for the period of six months. Yet Parliament met as usual in the first week of February, vast as were the multitudes that daily thronged it, the and was opened by commission. The first clause of the concourse of visitors did not quite come up to the number royal speech informed both Houses of the fact which in 1851. The total number was found to have been by this time every one was aware of, that, since they 6,117,450, about 50,000 under the gross number of visitors last met, Her Majesty had “ declared her consent to a to the Exhibition of 1851.
marriage between His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales and Her Royal Highness the Princess Alexandra, daughter of Prince Christian of Denmark.” The mar.
riage was celebrated in the following month, and the CHAPTER IV.
rejoicings with which it was accompanied were so genuine The year 1863–Summary-Meeting of Parliament-Marriage of the and so universal, that it seems worth while to dwell at
Prince of Wales : Public Rejoicings : Fatal Accidents in London :
somewhat greater length than would otherwise be neces. Proposal for the Taxation of Charities : Objected to and aban sary on the circumstances of the auspicious event. donei-Mr. Dillwyn's Motion on the Irish Church: Speech of The preliminaries were settled in the course of the Mr. Bernal Osborne: Reply of Sir Hugh Cairng--Close of the
visit paid by the Queen to the continent in the autumn of Session-Polish Insurrection of 1863 : Its Origin and Progress : Attitude of Prussia: Diplomatic Intervention by Earl Russell :
1862, and in consequence the Princess became a guest at Attitude of France: Russia offers an Amnesty: Earl Russell's Osborne in November. Her father, Prince Christian of Six Points: Russia declines to entertain them : France proposes
the house of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, to England and Austria a Definite Engagement for Common Action : Proposal declined: Reflections: Mouraviff takes the was at that wo nei presumpave to the crowa OI Den. Command against the Insurgents : Affair of the Zamoyski Palace : | mark, to which he succeeded in 1865. Everything having