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peasantry, and the larger and sounder portion of the effected for Poland by going to war? Russia could not nobility, were sincerely and loyally attached to the be attacked by land on a grand scale unless with the conRussian Government, there was a considerable population sent and co-operation of Prussia or Austria, which on the in the towns, and also a minority of the nobles, who present occasion there was no chance of obtaining. By were corrupted by the poison of revolutionary passions, sea she was, indeed, more or less vulnerable, both in the and nourished the guilty desire of separating Poland Baltic and the Black Sea. But in the Baltic, the expefrom Russia's paternal sway; these revolutionists had rience of the Crimean War was not encouraging, for the been plotting an insurrection; and it was with the damage inflicted by the English fleets had been out of humane view of disconcerting their schemes, and averting all proportion to the immense expense incurred ; and in the bloodshed and suffering which a rising in arms would the Black Sea, since Sebastopol had been dismantled, it have entailed on the country, that the Government had could scarcely be said that there was anything worth at. resorted to the late conscription, in order to disperse and tacking, or the attack on which could much affect the render harmless the ring leaders of sedition. With re- progress of the struggle in Poland. At any rate, as a gard to an amnesty, the Poles must first lay down their war undertaken for Poland must be mainly naval, and arms, and then they would experience in the fullest France had not a particularly strong navy, it would be measure the effects of that clemency which animated the absurd to undertake it unless in alliance with England. paternal heart of the Emperor.
It was thus that the Emperor probably reasoned; and Earl Russell, in reply, urged with considerable force, with regard to the latter point-the assistance of Eng. that representative and national institutions, during the land—we shall presently see that there was no serious existence of which 2,000 young men had been seized arbi- thought at any time of rendering it, unless in the form trarily in the night, and condemned to serve as soldiers of those edifying moral lectures upon the duties of in the Russian army, in defiance of justice and positive government which Earl Russell so liberally and perse. law, could not well be regarded by the people which veringly dispensed, and which foreign countries treated enjoyed them as satisfactory or sufficient. But, in fact, with such unaccountable disregard. there was a radical and fundamental difference of view Moved, however, it would seem, by the representations between the two Governments, and no exchange of diplo- which reached him from almost every civilised nation, the matic notes could bring them much nearer to each other. Emperor of Russia did, in April, proclaim an amnesty, Wherefore it was significantly asked by the Russian by which he held out the offer of a “ free pardon to all ambassador, Baron Brunow,* whether the communica- those of our subjects in the kingdom implicated in the tion Her Majesty's Government was about to make at late troubles, who have not incurred the responsibility of St. Petersburg was of a pacific nature. Earl Russell other crimes and misdemeanours committed on service in replied that the British Government had no intentions the ranks of the army, and who may, before the 1st [13th] that were otherwise than pacific ; yet vaguely intimated May; lay down their arms and return to their alle. that this might not always be the case; "the state of giance." But the Central Committee (which now called things might change;" and if the horrors of the insur- itself the Provisional Government) called upon all true rectionary war were continued and aggravated,“ dangers Poles to reject the " pretended amnesty," seeing that “it and complications might arise not at present in contem- was not with the intention of obtaining more or less plation."
liberal institutions that we took up arms, but to get rid France, the ancient ally and patron of Poland, could of the detested yoke of a foreign Government, and to renot but regard her sufferings with deep emotion. Yet, conquer our ancient and complete independence.” Lanwhen, in March, Prince Napoleon, in the Senate, made an guage such as this was, of course, taken advantage of by the incendiary speech on Poland, to which the Minister for Russian Government, and adduced, in its communications Foreign Affairs, M. Billault, made a cautious reply, the with foreign Governments, as evidence that what the inEmperor hastened to address the following note to his surgents wanted was not reform, but revolution. But minister :
Earl Russell had by this time formulated, in concert with "MY DEAR M. BILLAULT, - I have just read your Austria and with the knowledge of France, the plan speech, and, as ever, have been happy to find in you so for the regeneration of Poland which he had been long faithful and so eloquent an interpreter of my policy. meditating, and was now prepared to propose for the
“ You have been able to reconcile the expression of my acceptance of the Russian Government. The plan, as sympathy for the cause dear to France with the regard unfolded in his despatch of the 17th June, comprised . due to foreign Sovereigns and Governments. Your words the following six points or articles :were on all points in accordance with my meaning. I 1. A complete and general amnesty. reject any other interpretation of my sentiments.
2. National representation in a form resembling that "I beg you to believe in my sincere friendship.
which had been granted by Alexander I.
“ NAPOLEON." 3. A distinct national administration, carried on by In truth, the Emperor ever since the Crimean War had Poles, and possessing the confidence of the maintained a very friendly understanding with the Czar, country. and did not desire to disturb it. Besides, what could be 4. Full and entire liberty of conscience, involving the
repeal of the restrictions imposed on Catholio • See Earl Russell's dispatch of the 10th April, 1863,
5. The Polish language to be recognised in the kingdom Referring to this critical moment of the negotiations, the
as the official language, and used as such in the Times, in its “Summary for the year 1863,” after courts of law and in the schools.
stating that Prince Gortschakoff about this time showed 6. The establishment of a regular and legal system of signs of yielding, proceeds, “ It had transpired, however, recruiting.
in the course of the discussion, that England would All these reforms were just and desirable per se; but neither follow the lead of France, nor allow herself under to propose them was tantamount to an interference in the any circumstances to be drawn into a war in defence of
internal politics of a foreign state which an ordinary Poland. The Russian Government consequently as. · statesman, in whom philanthrophy did not outrun common sumed a defiant tone,” &c., &c. The propositions of the
sense, would have thought it idle to attempt, unless ho three Powers were quietly ignored; Russia proceeded in intended to enforce his interference at the point of the her task of restoring order by the methods familiar to sword. Prince Gortschakoff, had he thought it worth despotic Governments, and the fate of Poland was while, might have proposed to the British Government sealed. points such as these (we merely mention them as illus. Certainly there was no obligation arising out of previous trations, without expressing any opinion of their desir. treaties or relations, which could make it incumbent on ability):-1. The establishment of religious equality in Great Britain to go to war on behalf of Poland : it may Ireland. 2. The repeal of the law which excludes even be said that the national sentiment would have conCatholics from the office of Lord Lieutenant. 3. The demned, and rightly condemned, any Government which atreform of the Irish judicial system, by the admission tempted to commit it to an armed intervention, keen as was of Catholics to the highest judicial post, from which the sympathy, and just the indignation, with which the they were then excluded.* One can fancy the struggles of the one side, and the tyranny of the other, were look of stupefaction and disgust with which such a regarded by Englishmen. But then it was due to the honour dispatch would have been perused in Downing Street, and dignity of the nation that the line within which its in. and with what promptitude, diplomatic civility barely terference would be limited should be clearly traced from veiling contempt, the Russian Government would have the first; there ought to have been no possibility of been invited to mind its own business. Nor could it be mistake. Had Earl Russell distinctly intimated all expected that Prince Gortschakoff, on his side, would along that under no possible circumstances would England return an answer substantially different, although the take up arms, the Polish insurgents would have known simultaneous pressure which France and even Austria that they had nothing but good wishes to expect from us, were bringing to bear upon the Russian Government and other Powers would have appreciated the diplomatic caused the rejection of the six points to be conveyed in efforts of the Foreign Minister at their exact value. It language studiously measured and urbane. “The Princi. was cruel to talk to Baron Brunow about the possibility pal Secretary of State of Her Britannic Majesty,” said that “the state of things might change," and to intimate Prince Gortschakoff, writing in July, “will dispense us that if the struggle went on, “ dangers and complications from giving an answer to the proposed arrangement for might arise not at present in contemplation,” because a suspension of hostilities. It would not resist a serious such language, vague as it was, tended to induce the examination of the conditions necessary for carrying if belief that, under certain circumstances, England might into effect » Turning the tables on the remonstrating take up arms. Lord Russell, doubtless, knew just as Powery, he said that the speedy re-establishment of order well then as subsequently that England never would go depended greatly “upon the resolution of the great
to war for Poland; but perhaps he thought that “somePowers not to lend themselves to calculations on which thing would turn up;" he was playing, if it be not the instigators of the Polish insurrection found their irreverent to say so, a kind of diplomatic game of "brag," expectation of an active intervention in favour of their
and reckoned on the Russian Government's being fright. exaggerated aspirations.”
ened by bold words into a concession of what was deThe end of the diplomatic comedy was not far off. The
manded. England was thus made to appear before the Emperor Napoleon, observing that the views of the three
nations as playing a somewhat unworthy part; and, unPowers-England, France, and Austria—as expressed in fortunately, as we shall presently see in the case of their communications to their representatives at St. Peters.
Schleswig-Holstein, this was not the last opportunity borg, were not precisely in accord, proposed to the other two given to Lord Russell of exercising the peculiar species Courts to take, in the form of a convention or protocol, an
of intervention of which he was a master. engagement to pursue in concert a regulation of Polish
The task of repressing the insurrection in Poland was affairs, by diplomatic methods, or otherwise, if necessary.t
now committed to General Mouraviff, known for the siege The meaning of these words plainly was, that if diplo and capture of Kars. He is charged with having authomatic methods failed, the three Powers would not shrink
rised the perpetration by the soldiery of acts of bar. from the arbitrament of war, in order to compel Russia barous cruelty in Lithuania; but it is fair to say that the to do justice to Poland. “Our proposition,” the state.
Russians charged the insurgents with the commission of ment quoted from drily continues, " was not accepted.”
frightful excesses; and in the absence of precise informa
tion as to the conduct of both parties, it is better to • Two of these " grievances" have been since removed.
suspend our judgment. In Russia itself, a feeling of in+ French Official Statement: "Annual Register" for 1863, p. 222. | dignation against the insurgents, amounting to hatred,
displayed itself among tho population, and found ex. the building, but from the opposite side of the street.” * pression in loyal addresses presented to the Czar by the Even to wear the customary mourning for the dead nobility and merchants of St. Petersburg. The sternest was forbidden, an order being issued at Warsaw, on the severity was resorted to, wherever there was any opening 27th September, prohibiting the wearing of mourning in for it, by the Russian authorities. This was notably memory of those who had fallen in the insurrection. illustrated when an attempt was made to assassinate One of the last successos gained by the insurgents was General Berg, who had just been appointed military on the 3rd of the same month, when Lelewel, at the commander of Warsaw. The occurrence took place on head of 700 Poles, attacked and defeated a superior the 19th September. “He was driving through the Cracow Russian force. But he was soon overpowered by a comsuburbs, and had just reached a large building which bined movement of Russian columns; Lelewel himself formed part of the Zamoyski Palace, when shots were was killed, and his followers driven over the frontier
fired, and some bombs were thrown (whether from the into Galicia. Czuchowski, the last of the Polish leaders building or not is uncertain, for the Russian and Polish of any eminence, was defeated at Radom, on the 6th accounts are at direct variance on this point), and they November, and taken prisoner in a wounded and dying burst in front of his carriage, without injuring any one. condition. The insurrection was practically at an end; The proprietor of the Zamoyski Palace (which contained, and to reward the loyalty or neutrality of the Polish besides rich furniture, some invaluable manuscripts re- peasantry, the Emperor relieved them, by an ukase publative to the early history of Poland) was at the time lished in the February of the following year, of the absent, and resident in Paris. But this did not save his burden of the prescriptive feudal rights of the nobles, to property from destruction. Russian troops were ordered which their tenure had hitherto been subject. to surround the palace, and everything which they could Pacific modes of obtaining redress were not invariably lay their hands upon was thrown out of the windows, and preferred by Earl Russell. When an act of vigour could committed to the flames. Both it and the adjoining be performed which did not risk involving the country building were then confiscated, and turned into military in war, he was ready to perform it. Thus ho justified the barracks. Nothing, however, was discovered to implicate conduct of the English envoy at Rio Janeiro, Mr. Christie, any one either in or connected with the palace; and the Poles assert that the bombs were thrown, not from
• "Annual Register," 1863. Vol. IX.-No. 418.
who had instructed (January 2nd, 1863) the British among the well-wishers and ill-wishers of the Church of naval commander on the station to seize several Brazilian England, on account of a suit brought in the Chancellor's merchant vessels, in reprisal for the pillage of the Prince Court at Oxford by the Rev. Dr. Pusey against Professor of Wales, an English merchant ship. This ship was Jowett, charging him with having maintained heresy in wrecked in the province of Rio Grande in 1861; the certain of his published writings, particularly in the pubnatives pillaged the wreck, and were said to have assas- lication so well known as “Essays and Reviews.” The sinated some of the crew. Much angry correspondence Assessor, Mr. Mountague Bernard, after hearing the case ensued; the Brazilian Government dismissed two of its fully argued, gave judgment. He first of all overruled officials for want of promptitude in the matter, and pro-. | the exception which the defendant had made to the juris. secuted to conviction eleven other offenders; but the diction of the Court; and then, after examining the British Government still considered that more vigorous statute under which he thought himself empowered to measures should have been taken, in order to prevent try the case, he decided that it was so vague in its terms such outrages for the future, not less than to punish the as to leave him, in his opinion, a discretionary power actual offenders. A claim for compensation on account whether to proceed to judgment or not; in the exercise of the pillage of the cargo was advanced by the British of which power he declined to let the case go forward. Government; this claim seems to have been regarded in Notice was given of appeal against this judgment, but Brazil as excessive, and a similar view was certainly taken the intention was afterwards abandoned. The merits, or by several speakers, when the matter was debated in the rather the exact nature, of the controversy of which this House of Commons. Mr. Christie was then instructed suit was a symptom, we shall endeavour to appreciate in to propose arbitration, but accompanied with conditions a later chapter, devoted to a review of the history of which the Brazilian Government thought it inconsistent theology in England during the last twenty years. with their honour to accept. Reprisals were then autho. The officials whose business it was to see that the prorised to be made, and were carried out as above stated. visions of the Foreign Enlistment Act were not infringed The Brazilian Government then paid the sum demanded were resolved not to be a second time caught napping, as under protest, and a rupture of diplomatic relations be in the case of the Alabama. There was a three-masted tween the two countries, ensued. Another matter which wooden steamer, the Alexandra, being built at Liverpool. had caused ill feeling—the unwarrantable arrest of three The rumour ran that it was being fitted out for warlike officers belonging to a British frigate, the Forte, by a purposes, and was destined for the Confederate nary. guard of Brazilian police—had been referred to the The Commissioners of Customs accordingly seized the arbitration of the King of the Belgians, who pronounced vessel before completion. The owners dispnted the his opinion (June 18th, 1863), that in the mode in which legality of the seizure, and the case was tried by Chief the laws of Brazil had been applied towards the English Baron Pollock, guided by whose interpretation of the officers, there was neither premeditation of offence nor Foreign Enlistment Act the jury brought in a verdict offence given to the British navy.
against the Government. An appeal against the verdict Before we turn our eyes to America, and survey the was dismissed by the superior Court. But the failure of important events of which that continent was this year the prosecution against the owners was a matter of little the theatre, various occurrences of domestic interest re- moment when set against the practical evidence afforded quire to be noticed. In February, two American ships, to America, by the seizure of the Alexandra, of the dethe George Griswold and the Achilles, laden with flour, termination of the Government, so far as the means at the gift of Americans to the Lancashire fund for the their disposal allowed, to compel individual Britons to relief of the distressed operatives, arrived in the Mersey. observe that neutrality which was the unalterable choice It was a gift gracefully made and happily timed, and of the nation. called forth warm-hearted demonstrations of gratitude, In June, a civic entertainment of unusual splendour the commander of the George Griswold being presented was given in the Guildhall, on the occasion of the Prince with an address by the Chamber of Commerce at Liver- of Wales taking up his freedom. The son of a freeman, pool, expressive of thankfulness for the munificent gift. as all the world knows, is himself a freeman; and as the In connection with this subject of the Relief Fund, the Prince Consort had been invested with the City franchise, reader may be glad to hear to what a magnitude it had the Prince of Wales came into the same privilege by grown in April of this year. Mr. Wilson Patten, one of inheritance; but ancient use and wont require that, just the members for South Lancashire, stated in the House as in feudal times the heir to a fief was called upon on of Commons, on the 27th April, that the total sum raised his father's death, “relevare hereditatem,” to take up the up to that time amounted to £2,735,000, apportioned as inheritance (paying a round sum on the occasion under follows :—the Central Relief Committee, £959,000; in the name of a “relief” to the superior lord), so the son clothing and provisions, £108,000; subscriptions from of a deceased freeman should “take up his freedom” different localities, £306,000; private charity, £200,000; —that is, apply for and receive formal admission to and Mansion House Committee, £482,000 ; Poor Law Board, registration on the list of the burgesses. A ball was £680,000. Of this sum, the county of Lancaster con selected as the occasion on which this ancient ceremony tributed £1,480,000. At the same date there was a gross should be performed. The Prince and Princess arrived balance in hand of £845,000.
at the Guildhall soon after nine, accompanied by Prince Towards the end of February, there was great agitation Alfréd, in his lieutenant's uniform, and several other
members of the royal family. The Lord Mayor and “Originally intended only to commemorate the InterLady Mayoress advanced to receive the City's guests, and national Exhibition of 1851, now dedicated also to the led them up the hall as far as the dais. Here the cere. memory of the great author of that undertaking, the mony of admitting the Prince to the freedom of the City Good Prince, to whose far-seeing and comprehensive was gone through, with all the legal formalities, and a philanthropy its first conception was due, and to whose speech from the Chamberlain, in reply to which His Royal clear judgment and untiring exertions in directing its Highness spoke as follows:
execution the world is indebted for its unprecedented "My Lord Mayor, Mr. Chamberlain, and Gentlemen,- success—Albert Francis Augustus Charles Emmanuel, It is, I assure you, a source of sincere gratification to me the Prince Consort. Born August 26, 1819. Died Do. to attend here for the purpose of being invested with a cember 14, 1861." privilege which, for the reasons you have stated, you are. Another inauguration of an Albert Memorial took unable to confer upon me, and which descends to me by place at Aberdeen in the October of this year. It was a inheritance. It is a patrimony which I am proud to bronze statue, by Marochetti, placed upon a polished claim, this freedom of the greatest city of the commercial granite pedestal, and represented the Prince Consort world, which holds its charter from such an ancient date. seated and wearing a field-marshal's uniform, with the My pride is increased when I call to memory the long robe of the Thistle over it; in one hand he held a scroll, list of illustrious men who have been enrolled among the and in the other a field-marshal's hat. This statue had citizens of London, more especially when I connect with | been subscribed for by the city and county of Aberdeen. the list the beloved father to whom you have adverted in The Queen was present, and made a gracious reply such warm terms of eulogy and respect, and through (through Sir George Grey) to a loyal address presented whom I am here to claim my freedom of the city of to her; part of the reply ran as follows :London. My Lord Mayor and Gentlemen, the Princess “It is with feelings I should vainly seek words to exand myself heartily thank you for the past-for your press that I determined to attend here to-day to witness loyalty and expressions of attachment towards the Queen, the uncovering of the statue which will record to future for the manifestations of this evening towards ourselves, times the love and respect of the people in this county and for all your prayers for our future happiness." and city for my great and beloved husband; but I could
The ball went off as such festivities usually do, but was not reconcile myself to remain at Balmoral while such a enlivened and distinguished by a pretty little surprise tribute was being paid to his memory, without making which the Corporation had prepared for the Princess. an exertion to assure you personally of the deep and On returning from the supper-room to the hall, the royal heartfelt sense I entertain of your kindness and affection ; party was led through the Court of Aldermen. Here, in and at the same time to proclaim in public the unbounded a large deep recess, was a moonlight scene of a palace, reverence and admiration, the devoted love, that fills my with a broad spreading lawn reaching down in the fore heart for him whose loss must throw a lasting gloom over ground to where real plants and ferns had been artistically all my future life.” arranged, so as to make them seem almost a continuation After the address and reply, prayer was offered up by of the picture. This picture was a view of Prince Chris. the Principal of the Aberdeen University, and the statue tian's palace of Bernstorff, where the Princess Alexandra was uncovered in full view of Her Majesty, who, along was born; and standing in the centre of the lawn was a' with the members of the royal family, stood in a balcony figure of the Princess herself, as if in the act of moving opposite. The Queen is said to have gazed for a moment forward towards the entrance of the mansion.* The with earnest emotion on the striking likeness of her late Princess is said to have been highly gratified and de- illustrious husband. lighted by this delicate and courtier-like compliment. Seldom has a year witnessed the disappearance from
In this same summer, at the Oxford Commemoration, the scenes which their genius, valour, or virtue had the Prince of Wales was invested with the honorary ! adorned, of a greater number of illustrious men than the degree of Doctor of Civil Law, on which occasion the year 1863. Two of the heroes of the Indian Mutiny, Earl of Derby, as Chancellor of the University, addressed Sir James Outram and Lord Clyde ; four distinguished the newly-admitted doctor in a speech alike perfect in statesmen, Lord Lyndhurst, Lord Lansdowne, Lord Elgin, its Latinity and exquisite in its urbanity.
and Sir G. Cornewall Lewis; the veteran politician, Mr. • On the 10th of June, occurred the inauguration of the Ellice, often called the Nestor of the Whig party; and, Albert Memorial of 1851, at the Horticultural Gardens, l among authors, Archbishop Whately and Thackeray, South Kensington. With the exception of the Queen,' are among those who within the twelvemonth paid the most of the royal family were present, and the Prince of debt of nature. Outram, a native of Derbyshire, during Wales presided over the proceedings. An address was an active career in Eastern climes, extending over nearly presented to the Prince, to which he made a short and forty years, won universal respect, not only for his well-worded reply; and the memorial was then un- courage and capacity in war, but for his thorough honesty, covered. Besides other inscriptions relating to the ' firmness, and justice, as a ruler and administrator. In Exhibition of 1851, one tablet bore that the Memorial the affair of the Ameers of Scinde he withstood to the then uncovered was erected by public subscription. face the fiery and imperious old conqueror, Sir Charles
Napier, by whom he thought those princes had been • " Annual Register."
I hardly dealt with, and his views were finally adopted by