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while standing beside the Admiral on the bridge of the
CHAPTER V. Euryalus. Having come abreast of the last battery, and the weather continuing boisterous, the Admiral signalled
The American Conflict in 1863—Hooker takes the Command of the
Army of the Potomac : Turns the Left Flank of Lee's Armyto discontinue the action, and to seek shelter for the
Battle of Chancellorsville-Death of Stonewall Jackson-Defeat ships. The gale continued all night, but the squadron of the Federals_Hooker's Congratulatory Order-Lee resolves rode it out well. On the next day, the town having been
to Invade Pennsylvania : His Motives-Hooker is Superseded
by Meade-Battles of Gettysburg-Grand Confederate Charge: set on fire and mostly burnt down tho day before, the
Repulsed with fearful Slaughter--Lee retires into Virginia-DePrince's palace, or castle, was bombarded and destroyed. scription of Vicksburg : Its great Strength-Grant resolves to On the 17th, the squadron worked its way out of the bay
Reduce it: Failure of the First Attempts-Fighting on the
Mississippi-A“Yankee Trick"-Grant occupies Jackson-Siege and returned to Yokohama. The damage inflicted is thus
and Capitulation of Vicksburg–The Position of Chattanooga : summed up by the Admiral: "The disabling of many Its Importance to the Confederates--Battle of Murfreesboro' guns, explosion of magazines, and other serious damage -Bragg retires---Advance of Rosecrans-Bragg Abandons to the principal batteries, the destruction by fire of the
Chattanooga : Battle of Chickamanga-Burnside occupies East
Tennessee-Grant Supersedes Rosecrans: Defeats Bragg near three steamers and five large junks before mentioned, the
Chattanooga-Waning Prospects of the Confederacy-Operations whole of the town of Kagosima, and the palace of the in Virginia, Affair of Mine Run-Termination of the Campaign Prince, together with the large arsenal and gun factory and
-Coast Warfare-Defeat of the Federals at Galveston: At
Sabine Pass-Fall of Fort Pulaski and of Pensacola-Siege adjacent storehouses ; added to which may be noticed the
of Charleston-Attack by Iron-clads on Fort Sumter : Its injury to many of the junks lying in the inner harbour, Failure-Gillmore's Plan of Attack : Occupies Morris Island : caused by explosion of shells which may have passed
Bombards Fort Wagner-Death of Colonel Shaw at the Head of
a Negro Regiment-Employment of Negroes on Both Sides-The over the batteries." The loss to the squadron in killed
“Swamp Angel "-Charleston Bombarded-Wanton Destruction and wounded was sixty-three.
-Fort Wagner Taken-Affairs of Mexico: Origin of the Joint Soon after the opening of Parliament next year, the
Expedition of England, France, and Spain : Difference of View
among the Allied Powers: The French Pamphlet: General bombardment of Kagosima was made the subject of an
Almonte: England and Spain abandon the Expedition : French impassioned speech and a condemnatory motion on the repulsed at Puebla : Arrival of Reinforcements under General part of Mr. Buxton, who insisted that the town was in Forey: Capture of Puebla : The French entor Mexico : Assembly humanly and of set purpose set on fire, and that great
of Notables offer the Imperial Crown to Maximilian ; He hesitates
to accept it-Captain Speke's Discoveries in Central Africa: numbers of innocent persons, including women and
His Death, children, must have perished in the flames. The motion was rejected at the time, and a few weeks afterwards, a
THE campaign of 1863 in Virginia and Pennsylvania letter from Colonel Neale was read in the House, in which
possesses the highest interest. After the bloody repulse it was stated that all the inhabitants of Kagosima with.
at Fredericksburg, the hopes of the Confederates were • drew before the bombardment commenced, and returned
greatly raised, while the spirits of the friends of the after it was over, and that the town was speedily restored
Union were correspondingly depressed. All through to nearly its original state. But there is reason to be
the spring, Stuart and other Confederate cavaliers were lieve that this view of the matter was a little too rose
executing audacious raids, attended with general imcoloured. Some envoys from the Prince of Satsuma,
punity, against the communications, magazines, and who visited Yokohama, in December, 1863, made known
scattered posts of the Federal armies. In one of these there the real state of the case. The damage done to the
General Stoughton, from Vermont, was taken in his
bed, near Fairfax Court House, and with his guards and town, they said, was considerable. Three miles of houses were burning at once. The loss on their side was about
five horses hurried off across the Rappahannock. The 1,500 men. These certainly may have been all soldiers
incident struck a spark of grim humour from the Presi. engaged in the batteries, but the number seems larger
dent. Some one spoke of the loss to Mr. Lincoln next than would have been likely to be struck whiloso
morning. “Yes," said the President; "that of the
horses is bad; but I can make another general in five employed. • However this may be, the dénouement of the matter
minutes." * is exceedingly curious.
Burnside had been superseded in the command of the The Prince of Satsuma had certainly suffered reprisals to an extent exceeding many
Army of Virginia by General Hooker, an active and times the amount of the indemnity demanded. His
vigorous man, but far too deeply convinced of his own palace had been burnt—his steamers and his gun factory
surpassing genius for war. The army had again been destroyed — his capital city laid in ashes. Yet these
brought up to a formidable strength, numbering, in very injuries—so strange is the working of the Asiatic
April, more than 120,000 men of all arms. To force the mind-appear to have induced him to make friendly
position of Fredericksburg by a direct attack had been overtures, and to seek for peace. These were signs of
shown by a dear-bought experience to be well-nigh im. overwhelming power, and power is almost the only thing
possible; but might it not be turned ? Hooker came to
the conclusion that it might, and ordered a series of which the Asiatic truly reverences. Certain it is that, before the close of the year, the Prince offered to pay,
movements with that object. Below Fredericksburg a
show was made by his orders of forcing the passage of and actually paid, to the British chargé d'affaires at Yokohama, the £25,000 which had been originally de
the Rappahannock, in order to perplex the enemy; but manded from him as compensation money for the murder of Mr. Richardson !
| his real effort was made upon the Federal right, higher time it was dark, and the fighting was nearly at an end.
up the river. Several corps, the movements of which Forming a new front, the Confederates advanced upon were skilfully veiled from the enemy, were thrown first Pleasanton's guns, but were repulsed with loss. It was across the Rappahannock, and then across the Rapidan, in front of these guns that Stonewall Jackson fell, shot and established themselves firmly at Chancellorsville, down by his own men. His “ Life,” by a Virginian well on Lee's left, and threatening his communications (quoted by Mr. Greeley), gives the following account of with Richmond. This was in the last days of April. the matter. It seems that, after having ordered General “I have Lee's army in one hand and Richmond in the A. P. Hill to advance with his division, reserving his other,” was the "thrasonical brag” of the exultant fire unless cavalry approached from the direction of the Hooker, as he rode up to the large stone house—at enemy, he had ridden forward into the darkness, in order once mansion and tavern—which then constituted Chan- to ascertain the position and penetrate the movements of cellorsville. A general order, couched in boastful and the Federals. “So great was the danger which he thus exaggerated language, invited the army to sing a pæan ran, that one of his staff said, 'General, don't you think over their successes-somewhat prematurely, as the this is the wrong place for you?' He replied quickly, event proved. In fact, the wooded and intricate naturo • The danger is all over; the enemy is routed. Go back, of the country made the proximity of the two armies a and tell A. P. Hill to press right on. Soon after giving source of greater danger to Hooker than to Lee, for the this order, General Jackson turned, and, accompanied by one was intimately acquainted with every inch of the his staff and escort, rode back at a trot, on his well-known ground, while the other knew nothing about it. Mr. Old Sorrel,' towards his own men. Unhappily, in the Greeley truly says that never did the old proverb receive darkness—it was now nine or ten o'clock at night-the a more striking confirmation of its wisdom : “Never little body of horsemen was mistaken for Federal cavalry halloo till you are out of the woods."
charging, and the regiments on the right and left of the Lee was taken by surprise : he had not looked for an road fired a sudden volley into them with the most attack in force on his left; but he lost not a moment in lamentable results. Captain Boswell, of General Jacktaking the necessary measures to foil the strategy of son's staff, was killed, and borne into our lines by kis Hooker. Orders were sent to Jackson, who with his horse; Colonel Crutchfield, Chief of Artillery, was division was guarding the banks of the river below wounded; and two couriers were killed. General Fredericksburg, to march at once upon Chancellorsville. Jackson received one ball in his left arm, two inches Jackson, with his wonted rapidity, put his troops in below the shoulder-joint, shattering the bone and motion, and marching through the woods across the severing the chief artery; a second passed through the Federal front, at a distance sufficient to screen, though same arm, between the elbow and wrist, making its not entirely to conceal, the movement, fell like a thunder- exit through the palm of the hand; a third ball entered, bolt upon the Federal right. This was towards six in the palm of his right hand, about the middle, and, the evening of the 2nd May. A fire of artillery had been passing through, broke two of the bones. going on during the best part of the day between Lee's
“ He fell from his horse, and was caught by Captain main army, posted on wooded hills to the right and left of Wormby, to whom he said, “ All my wounds are by my the road leading from Fredericksburg, and Hooker's centre own men.' and left, massed in and around the cleared space surround | “The firing was responded to by the enemy, who made ing Chancellorsville. But for a long time there were no a sudden advance; and, the Confederates falling back, indications of a severe conflict; and although the Federals their foes actually charged over Jackson's body. He was became aware of Jackson's movement, and in the after- not discovered, however; and the Federals being driven noon attacked his columns with effect, routing the rear. | back in turn, he was rescued. Ready hands placed him guard and taking 500 prisoners, they seem to have been upon a litter, and he was borne to the rear, amid a heavy at a loss to conjecture what was his object. The 11th fire from the enemy. One of the litter bearers was shot Corps, commanded by General Howard, and forming the | down, and the General fell from the shoulders of the men, right wing of Hooker's army, was therefore taken com- receiving a severe contusion, adding to the injury of the pletely by surprise when Jackson burst upon them out arm, and injuring the side severely. The enemy's fire of of the woods, at the head of 25,000 men. It was the artillery on the point was terrible. General Jackson was last victory of this great captain, and perhaps it was the left for five minutes until the fire slackened, then placed most complete and brilliant of them all. Howard's in an ambulance, and carried to the field hospital at corps, being overpowered, fell back towards Chancel. Wilderness Run." He died eight days afterwards, and lorsville, and, as the Confederates pressed on incessantly, his remains rest at Lexington in Virginia, his nativo the retreat soon dagenerated into a rout; other divisions, place. ! other corps, were drawn into the vortex of confusion and So died-by such a miserable accident-the most daring disaster, and the disordered mass was rolled backward and skilful leader of men whom this civil war had yet towards the stone honse. Sickles, however, with two produced -- a man whose magnanimous character and clivisions of the 3rd Corps, and General Pleasanton's splendid genius for war, and the eager loving confidenco cavalry and horse artillery, who had held the position which these inspired in his soldiers, were worth to the next to the routed 11th Corps, caused his men to face about Confederate cause an army of 50,000 men. Besides his and take the pursuing Confederates in Aank. By this in lefatigable cuergy, his extraordinary skill in timning and
co-ordinating movements, and his coolness and decision in sage of the rivers was undisputed, and, on our withexecuting them, Jackson must be credited with that intui. | drawal, not a rebel ventured to follow. The events of tive comprehension of the moral conditions which contri- last week may swell with pride the heart of every officer bute to success or failure in war, which is one of the highest and soldier of this army.” qualities of great commanders. He knew his own men The loss in killed and wounded on the Federal side in thoroughly, their strong and their weak points; he knew the battles round Chancellorsville exceeded 17,000 men. exactly what could be got out of them, and what would That of the Confederates is not accurately known; it was discourage them; again, he thoroughly and exactly ap- certainly very heavy. praised the psychological as well as military qualities of By this time General Grant was getting the upper the Federal commanders opposed to him, and regulated hand on the Mississippi, and was taking those measures his strategy accordingly. Against the circumspect he which, as we shall see when we come to describe the knew how to be cautious; against the rash and heedless campaign in the West, resulted in the fall of Vicksburg. he was enterprising and audacious. Though sometimes Why did not Lee, at this critical moment, send one of checked, he was never beaten in the field; and Lee might his ablest lieutenants to reinforce General Johnston well write to him, before yet he knew that the wounds on the Mississippi, so enabling him to make head against were fatal, “ If I could have directed events, I should Grant, instead of committing himself to the doubtful have chosen, for the good of the country, to be disabled enterprise of an invasion of Pennsylvania ? Had miliin your stead.”
tary considerations alone influenced him, this is the When the war broke out, Jackson was a professor course which he would have doubtless taken; but, in fact, in a military college; his appearance to the last had the grounds of the advance to Gettysburg were chiefly more about it of the scholar than the soldier; he used political. The democratic party at the North, who had to ride at the head of his troops with head bent down, not liked the war from the first, were getting weary of in a shabby uniform, on an ill-groomed horse, and with the continued ill-success of the Federal generals, and one stirrups absurdly short. His death appears to us to have crushing victory gained on Federal ground might probeen the real turning point of the war. The subsequent bably have emboldened this party to raise again, and Confederate advance into Pennsylvania was only due to effectually, the cry for peace and recognition of the the nnexhausted impetus which their army still derived Confederacy. With these views and hopes, Lee, who from his victory at Chancellorsville ; and the irremediable had been joined since the battle by Longstreet's division, character of his loss was seen at Gettysburg, where Lee and had, perhaps, for the time an actual superiority of shattered and demoralised his army by direct attacks numbers, led his army into the Shenandoah valley, in the upon the Federal lines, which Jackson, had he been alive, first days of June, and marched on steadily towards the would probably never have consented to. For that he frontier. At Winchester, the principal place in the did assume the responsibility of disobeying an order of valley, a force of 10,000 Federals was posted, under Lee's which he thought ill-judged, is a fact which stands General Milroy. This force was attacked by Early, one on record; at Antietam, for instance, he refused com- of Lee's best generals, on the 14th and 15th June, and pliance with Lee's order to attack the Federal right, after utterly crushed, the entire command being either killed, he had ascertained by a reconnaissance that the enemy captured, or dispersed. Jenkins, the commander of a were too numerous and strongly posted to permit of the brigade of Confederate cavalry, crossed the Potomac attack being made with a reasonable hope of success. without opposition, and entered Chambersburg, in Penu
But for a time the tide of Confederate success was not sylvania, on the 15th June ; Lee and Longstreet, with stopped by Jackson's death. On the following day, May the main body, crossed the frontier on the 24th and 25th. 3rd, Lee pursued his advantage, driving the Federals out By this time Hooker had become aware of the Conof and beyond Chancellorsville, towards the Rappahan- federate march through the valley, and of its object. nock. Sedgwick with the 6th Corps had, under orders Falling back in the direction of Washington, he crossed from Hooker, crossed that river near Fredericksburg and the Potomac at Edward's Ferry, and moved upon advanced towards Chancellorsville, in order to inclose Frederick. Not deeming his forces sufficient to cope Lee's army between two fires. But Hooker's defeat left with Lee's army, he asked permission of the CommanderLee at liberty to send a large force, commanded by in-Chief, General Halleck, to withdraw from Maryland M'Laws, against Sedgwick, who was heavily defeated, Heights (near Harper's Ferry), and unite to his own thrown off his line of retreat and supply, and driven across army the force of 11,000 men under General French the river. Hooker also, in pursuance of the decision of a which was guarding that important post. General council of war, transported his beaten army across the Halleck refused; whereupon Hooker (June 27) begged Rappahannock, on the night of May 5th, unmolested by to be relieved ; and Halleck, who was evidently glad of the Confederates, whose losses were no doubt extremely the opportunity, at once acceded to the request, and serious. Arrived at the place whence he had set out, I appointed General Meade to the chief command. A Hooker issued a congratulatory order to his troops of a hazardous measure this! to change generals in the truly amazing character. If it is a good trait in a general presence of a bold and skilful enemy, who was actually not to know when he is beaten, none ever had it in greater on Federal soil; and one that seems inconsistent with Mr. perfection than General Hooker. He says, “ By our Lincoln's famous dictum, that “when you're in the celerity and secrecy of movement, our advance and pas- / middle of a ford, it's not the proper time to swop
nd Halle, woker (smeton Gener
horsos." Yet the substitution answered admirably; for Gettysburg a desirable battle-ground. But, on the 1st, Meade, though not an enterprising general, was modest bodies of Federal cavalry, advancing upon Gettysburg, and sensible, and not at all likely to ruin his army by had got into action, with indecisive result, with part of folly and precipitation. That Halleck felt the full-danger the Confederate ariny; supports came up on both sides, of the crisis, and also trusted his new man, is evident and by degrees the combat with which the day began from the fact, that ho allowed Meade to incorporate swelled into a battle. General Reynolds, in command of
French's troops with his army, though he had refused it 'the 1st Corps, drove the Confederate advance through to Hooker.
Gettysburg to the hills which lio north and west of the Lee now advanced upon Gettysburg, a small town of town; but, advancing too far, he was in his turu repulsed 3,000 inhabitants, the capital of Adams county, and the and killed. Fortunately, there was a steep range of hills, focus of a well-cultivated, hilly, and, in parts, thickly overlooking Gettysburg from the south, then curving wooded region. The battles which were fought here on round and trending away in a southerly direction on the the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd July, taken together with the sur left, which afforded to the beaten Federals a position ronder of Vicksburg to Grant, which took place at the from which they could not easily be driven. General same time, were decisive of the fate of the Confederacy. Howard had taken the command, and sent urgent Chance brought on the terrible struggle, at any rato on messages to Meade, announcing the events of the tho Federal side, for Meado had not at first thought day. Meade was at Taneytown, a place some twelve
or fifteen miles from Gettysburg, but without a mo- the night and assumed the command; Lee had also come ment's delay he sent orders to all his corps and divi- | up and examined the field. sional commanders to concentrate on Gettysburg. Thus, The battle of the next day (July 2) was indecisive.
at the close of the first day's battle, though the Federals General Sickles, on the Federal left, having advanced to had suffered heavily and been driven back, they were occupy a lower intermediate range of hills, lying between massed in great foreo on Cemetery Hill, the curvilinear those occupied by the two armies, was pushed back with ridge south of Gettysburg above described, and awaited heavy loss to the true Federal position on the Cemetery with hope the conflict of the morrow, The Confederates ridge, whence ho could not be dislodged. Ewell, how
were posted on the ranges north and west of Gettysburg. I ever, who held the Confederate left, advancing in great Each side had summoned up its reserves and outlying force, wrested a portion of that ridge, to the south-east brigades; Meade arrived on the ground in the middle of l of the town, from Slocum's corps. All the efforts of the
• Vol. IX.—No. 419.