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crown (never worn since the short and troubled reign of aroused by the invader of our soil, are sentiments comIturbide) should be offered to the Archduke Maximilian mon to all the Mexican people.” Nor was the language of Austria, brother of the Emperor Francis Joseph. In of M. Doblado, a moderate Liberal, and a man highly the event of his refusal to accept the crown, the Emperor respected, who had lately been a rival of Juarez in the of the French was requested to select a candidate for contest for the Presidential chair, less outspoken. “The the imperial dignity. A deputation of Notables visited question of party," he said, “exists no more. Hencethe Archduke Maximilian (October 3, 1863) at his villa forth must disappear, along with political animosities, all of Miramar, near Trieste, and offered him the im- the deplorable party designations to which our civil wars porial crown. Maximilian hesitated; and well he might have given rise. In the bloody struggle upon which we For although there was no Mexican army remaining have entered, there are now only two camps-Mexicans which could withstand the French invaders in the field, and Frenchmen-invaders and invaded.” It was evident
yet the principle of resistance was tenaciously upheld that for a long time to come monarchy would not be by a large section of the population, and the aversion secure in Mexico without active aid from France. But of the people of the United States to this forcible might that aid be certainly counted upon ? The opposiconversion of their republican neighbour to imperial | tion in the French legislative body had just been rosentiments was no secret to any one. On the very day cruited by the accession of some of the ablest politicians. on which the French entered Mexico, Juarez published a and debaters in the country-M. Thiers among the numproclamation, dated from San Luis de Potosi, which ber; the war in America might shortly come to an end; breathed nothing but defiance. “Concentrated on one was it so certain that in the face of opposition at home, point,” he said, “ the enemy will be weak on all others; and ill-will, if not hostility, on the part of the United if he divides his forces, he will be weak everywhere. Ho States, the French Emperor would continue his intervenwill find himself compelled to acknowledge that the tion in Mexico for the time that the circumstances reRopublic is not shut up in the towns of Mexico and quired ? Poor Maximilian—a Hapsburg, and the brother of Puebla; that life—the consciousness of right and power, a legitimate sovereign-could perhaps hardly realise tho the love of independence and democracy, the noble prido | full bearing of the truth, that in the case of a ruler who
has come to power by such means as those employed by ness in bribing, coaxing, mystifying, or browbeating the Louis Napoleon, the interest of the conservation of his native rulers whose kingdoms he traversed, reached tho dynasty will always override every other consideration. shore of a vast lake, to which he gave the name of VicBut he hesitated, as has been said; and made his accept- toria Nyanza, and seen the White Nile flowing out at its cnce of the crown conditional on its being tendered to northern end, in the direction of Gondokoro. Captain him in pursuance of a truly popular vote, and secured by Speke too hastily assumed that he had found the true European guarantees. For the time nothing more could source of the Nile in the Victoria Nyanza, just as, nearly be done. In Mexico, the French arms were everywhere a hundred years ago, Bruce was convinced that he stood triumphant; Juarez was driven from San Luis de Potosi, at the fountain head of the great river, when he had and his principal bands broken up or weakened by deser- merely traced up the lesser current of the Blue Nile.
tion, while General Comonfort was killed in action. The We now know that the Nile runs out of another large provisional Government, sitting in the capital, was named lake, the Albert Nyanza of Sir Samuel Baker, into the the Regency; it had a triumvirate at its head, consisting Victoria Nyanza; and the true source of the Nile is to this of General Almonte, General Salas, and the Archbishop day wrapped in mystery, and will remain so till the entire of Mexico. Thus for Mexico ended the year 1863. hydrographic basin of the Albert Nyanza has been ex
From the mysterious central lands of Africa informa- plored, or else unless the river discovered by Livingstone tion of the most interesting character came this year (which most geographers suspected to be a branch of to England, being communicated by the enterprising the Congo) shall be proved to be really identical with tho travellers Captain Speke and Captain Grant, who landed Nile. Captain Speke, though one of the best hearted of at Southampton on the 17th June, and five days after- men, was rather too much disposed to self-assertion and wards received a public welcome at a special meeting of the magnifying of his own discoveries ; and this led to the Royal Geographical Society. Starting from Zanzibar, unpleasant controversy between him and other African and penetrating the country in a north-westerly direction, explorers, such as Captain Burton. A day had been Captain Speke had, though with incredible difficulty, and fixed, in the autumn of 1864, for a discussion between through the exertion of wonderful patience and adroit. I him and Burton on the question of the Nile sources,
Vol. IX.–No. 420.
- - - before a meeting of the British Association at Bath, when calls “heedless rhetoric," spoke of us as a “fierce a sudden and lamentable accident put a period to the and combative nation ;” but the phrase is a ridiculous explorer's career. He was shooting in Neston Park, in anachronism. The commercial classes, which now form Wiltshire; and from the posture in which the body was the immense majority of the English nation, are—so long found, he appeared to have been getting over a low stone as trade prospers-of an imperturbably pacific temper. wall, when by some mischance his gun exploded while | One or two members only-notably Lord Grey-raised the muzzle was pointed at his breast. The charge enter their voices in Parliament to advocate the course which the ing his body passed completely through, severing the main England of our fathers and grandfathers would certainly arteries of the chest, lacerating the lungs, and passing have adopted. But the suggestion was received either close to the heart. Death ensued in a few minutes. with blank silence or with disapproval. .
But of the manifestation of this modern temper, with reference to the famous question of Schleswig-Holstein,
it is not yet our purpose to speak. For the present we CHAPTER VI.
shall confine ourselves to the narration of such events Course of Events in 1864-Pacific Temper of the Nation-Opening of in our domestic history for the year as require to be
Parliament-Birth of an Heir to the Prince of Wales : Speech of recorded.
| The session of Parliament was opened by commission
The coccinn of pewiemont no ona, - Sentiments of Mr. Cobden-Mr. Gladstone's Financial State
on the 4th of February. In the royal speech Her Mament: Elasticity of the Revenue: Application of the SurplusMr, Stansfeld, Junior Lord of the Admiralty, named in connec jesty expressed her confidence that Parliament would tion with Plots against the Emperor Napoleon's Life: Discussion
sympathise with her in her gratitude to the Almighty of the matter in Parliament : He resigns Office--Mr. Disraeli moves a Vote of Censure on the Government : it is rejected by a
on account of the Princess of Wales having given birth narrow majority-Mr. Gladstone's remarks on the Extension of | to a son, “an event which has called forth from her faiththe Suffrage - Resignation of Mr. Lowe-Convocation passes a ful people renewed demonstrations of devoted loyalty and Synodical Judgment on “Essays and Reviews:" Speech of the
attachment to her person and family.” The speech menLord Chancellor on the Judgment: Reply of the Bishop of Oxford-Prorogation of Parliament-Visit of Garibaldi to Eng
tioned the recent invasion of Schleswig-Holstein by the land: He arrives at Southampton: Kis reception in London : at forces of Prussia and Austria, and the subject was soon the Crystal Palace-Death of the Duke of Newcastle : Sketch of after taken up and keenly debated in Parliament; but his Career ; and of that of Mr. Senior-The Shakespeare Ter. centenary: Speech of Professor Max Maller-Progress of
we have already expressed our intention of reserving this Rationalism : Sentence on Dr. Rowland Williams and Mr. Wilson, whole matter for a future chapter. -Arguments on the Claim of Bishop Gray to Metropolitan In the debate on the address, Lord Derby adverted, Jurisdiction over the See of Natal -Speech of Mr. Disraeli at Oxford on Clerical Rationalists.
with that felicity of phrase for which he was notorious,
to the birth of an heir to the Prince of Wales. “At this The year 1864 was for England as uneventful as the time last year," he said, "we offered our humble conyears which preceded and followed it. The course of gratulations to Her Majesty on the auspicious marriage peaceful industry and the accumulation of wealth went of the heir to the throne with a Princess every way on undisturbed, and the gradual abatement of the distress qualified to share the high destiny reserved for him, and in Lancashiro diffused a general feeling of relief and / whose personal beauty and attractions, and the natural satisfaction. The revenue was found to display that and unaffected charm of whose manner, secured for her, wonderful elasticity which Mr. Gladstone, the wizard of from the first moment of her entrance into this kingdom, financiers, seemed to possess a spell for infallibly endow. i the admiration and, I may say, the affection of her ing it with. True, an ancient ally of England, the adopted country. On this occasion we have to congratuintegrity of whose territory we were bound by treaty to | late Her Majesty and the nation on the happy issue of maintain, was this year violently assailed by two of the that marriage, in the birth of an heir to the throne in the great Powers, and despoiled of nearly one half of his second generation; and although, my lords, happily for dominions. In former times the outrage would inevitably this country monarchical institutions are so firmly estabhave led to war, or, at least, to the menace of war. The lished in the hearts and affections of the people, and their regal England of the Middle Ages, the aristocratic Eng- attachment to them has been so strengthened by the land of the reign of Anne and the first two Georges, the private virtues and personal qualities of the illustrious England of the country gentlemen in the days of the lady who occupies the throne, that it is not with us, as it great Napoleon, all agreed in considering the honour and might be with other countries, a subject of additional word of the nation to be things worth fighting for to the congratulation that we thereby obtain greater stability for death. But the commercial England of the nineteenth the throne, or greater security for the dynasty, yet we century has changed all that; and reprobating the Quixotic i may be permitted to rejoice at the prospect we have rashness of English ministries in the old times, who often before us of a direct line of succession from the present took great pains to protect weak states, curb the ambition illustrious wearer of the crown and her immediate deof arbitrary princes, and preserve the balance of power, scendants—from a sovereign who has done so much to it seems to have decided that no treaty can be so binding, cast a lustre on that crown, and also to strengthen the no oppression so glaring, no suffering so unmerited, as to hold which monarchical institutions have upon this nation. make it worth while to go to war. Mr. Cobden, in the . . . I am sure there is not one of your lordships debates of this very year, indulging in what Mr. Disraeli who does not offer up a fervent prayer to the Throne of
Grace that that bright prospect may remain unclouded, past year, it appeared that there was a surplus of and that, long after the youngest of your lordships has £2,037,000. On the general prosperity of the trade of passed away from this scene, the throne of these realms the country, Mr. Gladstone entered into some striking may be occupied by the descendants of the illustrious details. The aggregate amount of that trade, it appeared Prince and of his new-born heir
(including imports and exports), had been, in 1861,
£377,000,000; but, in 1863, it had risen to the unpreEt nati datorum, et qui pnscentur ab il'is."
cedented sum of £444,000,000. The disposal of the In the course of this session many measures of political | surplus was the next point of importance. A great Sight or social reform--the Ballot, the reduction of the County was made by the farmers' friends to prevail upon the Franchise, the abolition of Church Rates and of Tests, Government to apply at least a portion of it to the rethe Permissive Bill—were introduced into Parliament | duction of the malt tax. But the Government wisely and discussed, but in no single instance were they carried. resisted all these overtures, and in so doing were supSterility attended all the legislative throes of our political ported by a decided majority of the House. That tax, assemblies. Nor are the debates on foreign affairs either producing so many millions to the revenue, was felt to be pleasant or profitable reading; for in the midst of much too important to be made the subject of experiments; if acrimonious criticism of the proceedings of the Ministry, / it was to be touched at all, it must be thoroughly and the general result comes out clearly, that the critics, had systematically revised. But although the Government they been in the place of the Government, would have thus resisted the attompts to take off or diminish the pursued substantially the same policy. Thus, although duties on malt used in the manufacture of beer, they Mr. Cobden, in his speech on the resolution brought in made a concession to the agriculturists in the shape of a by Mr. Disraeli censuring the foreign policy of the Govern- remission of so much of the duty as had been hitherto ment, severely blamed the proceedings of Lord Russell | levied upon malt used for the consumption of cattle. with reference to Schleswig-Holstein, the grounds of his The House finally agreed to apply the surplus in the censure were, not that we had disregarded treaties, or manner proposed by Mr. Gladstone—that is to say, partly broken faith with Denmark, but that we had laboured so in effecting a substantial reduction in the duties on sugar, much as we had done to maintain the former and preserve partly by taking off a penny in the pound from the the latter. Mr. Cobden expressed the genuine com- income tax. mercial spirit when he asked, “What was this Treaty of In course of the discussions on the Navy Estimates, a 1852, of which so much was heard ? A few gentlemen singular incident occurred, which cost the Government sat around a table, and decreed the destinies of nations the services of one of the Junior Lords of the Admiralty. which were not consulted in the matter.” Similarly, the A trial had recently been held in Paris, in which two concautious and pacific temper of the man of business, so spirators, Greco and Trabucco, were charged with a plot strikingly contrasted with the temper of the gentlemen and against the Emperor's life. In the course of the trial, men of honour which in former times inspired our policy, the Procureur-General stated that a paper had been appeared in the review which he took of the British army found on the person of Greco, directing him, if in want and navy, dispersed about the world, and engaged in the of money, to apply to a Mr. Flowers, at 35, Thurloo protection of our colonies; thence inferring that to en- Square, Brompton. This, the Procureur added, is the gage in a war with any of the great Continental Powers residence of an English member of Parliament, who, in would be for England attended with extreme difficulty 1855, was appointed banker to the Tibaldi conspirators and expense. And the same prudential spirit appeared, against the Emperor's life. When the report of the trial in various degrees, to animate the great majority of our came to be read in England, people asked each other public men. When the notions of the gentlemen prevailed, what member of Parliament lives at 35, Thurloe Square, England was not wont to count the cost so narrowly. It and who is Mr. Flowers ? A reference to the Post is not our business to decide which of these two policies Office Directory showed that the member in question was is best calculated to subserve the interests of the country, Mr. Stansfeld, the member for Halifax, and one of the or is the most just and rational in itself. On the one Junior Lords of the Admiralty; nor was it difficult to hand, the men of honour plunged us into ruinous ex- discover that Mr. Flowers, alias M. Fiori, was no other pense; on the other, the commercial school, though they than Mazzini, the ex-triumvir. Mr. Cox, one of the have saved our money, have lowered our character and members for Finsbury, first drew the attention of the prestige in Europe. The course of events in Europe House, and of the member for Halifax, to the passage in during the next fifty years can form the only adequate the Procureur-General's speech, when Mr. Stansfeld, in criterion to guide, on this important question, the judg reply, expressed great indignation that the Crown proment of the philosophic historian.
secutor of a friendly Power should have ventured to The financial statement of Mr. Gladstone was again, connect him, a member of the British Parliament, and a among all the domestic transactions of the session, the minister of the Crown, with the atrocious crime with chief point of attraction. His expectations of buoyancy which the prisoners were charged. He knew nothing and expansion in the revenne, as a consequence of that either of Greco or of Mr. Flowers, whose letters were very reduction in fiscal burdens which ostensibly tended addressed to his house. As to Mazzini, he gloried in to diminish it, were again remarkably verified. On a the friendship of such a man, the greatness and nobility comparison of the rovenue with the expenditure of the l of whose character were little appreciated; and he was
persuaded that to say that Mazzini had ever incited to periled in July, when Lord Malmesbury, in the Lords, assassination was as base a libel as could be uttered. and Mr. Disraeli, in the Commons, moved the following
Incredible as it may serm, it would appear that, on the resolution : “ That this House has heard with deep confirst occasion of the subject being mooted, it did not cern that the sittings of the conference recently held in occur to Mr. Stansfeld that “Flowers” was merely the London have been brought to a close without accom. translation of the Italian word “Fiori.” For, on a sub-plishing the important purpose for which it was convened. sequent night, he distinctly admitted that he had autho- That it is the opinion of this House, that while the course rised Mazzini to have his letters addressed to his house pursued by Her Majesty's Government has failed to under the designation of M. Fiori, an expedient to which maintain their avowed policy of upholding the integrity Mazzini was compelled to resort, because letters addressed and independence of Denmark, it has lowered the just to him from abroad in his own name were certain to be influence of this country in the councils of Europe, and opened and read in some foreign post-office.
thereby diminished the securities for peace.” To the Mr. Stansfeld's first explanation left the matter still arguments used by the principal speakers in this debate, involved in considerable mystery. The subject was re- we may, perhaps, hereafter return; at present we notico vived by Sir Laurence Palk a few nights afterwards, it merely as an incident in the political history of the and warmly discussed, Mr. Pope-Hennessy reading ex- session. In the Lords, the Government was defeated by tracts from letters written by Mazzini, with reference to a majority of nine; but this was not unexpected. In the other transactions, in which he appeared to justify assas- Commons, there were some brilliant passages of arms sination in certain cases. Again, on the motion for going | between the party leaders; but Mr. Horsman, it was into Committee of Supply, Sir H. Strachey moved as an generally felt, was not far from the truth, when he said amendment, “ That the speech of the Procureur-Imperial that “the Government had made mistakes, but their on the trial of Greco, implicating a member of this opponents had endorsed them; so the parties were pretty House, and of Her Majesty's Government, in the plot for much upon an equality.” On a division, the amendment the assassination of our ally the Emperor of the French, to Mr. Disraeli's resolution, moved by Mr. Kinglake, was deserves the serious consideration of this House.” In carried by a majority of eighteen in a very full House, so the debate which ensued, Mr. Stansfeld made the admis- | that the Government was saved. sion respecting M. Fiori and his letters which we have On the question of Parliamentary Reform, little interest already quoted; and also stated-with reference to the was at this time felt in the country, and the apathy of charge that he had acted as banker to the Tibaldi the constituencies extended itself to their representatives conspirators--that he had never had any knowledge of, in the House of Commons. Yet the question may be much less sympathy with, the plots of assassination justly held to have advanced a stage, in consequence of a with which the names of Tibaldi, Orsini, and others remarkable declaration made by Mr. Gladstone during were associated. He admitted, however, that he had the debate on Mr. Baines' bill for substituting a £6 rental at one time allowed his name to bo inscribed on bank- qualification for the existing £10 householder franchise notes (issued probably by tho society of Carbonari, or in boroughs. The previous motion had been moved by .revolutionary conspirators to procure the liberation of Mr. Cave; but Mr. Gladstone declared that althongh Italy), which he believed would have been used, not in there was a general concurrence of opinion that tho the interest of assassins, but to aid in the establishment present was not a suitable time for the introduction by of a free and united Italy; but, acting on the advice of the Government of a comprehensive measure of Reform, friends, ho had withdrawn the permission. Lord Palmers- yet he could not vote for the amendment, because it went ton and other members of the Government warmly to deny that the question of the reduction of the franchise defended their colleague, and the amendment of Sir H. was one which ought to be discussed and, if possible, Strachey was rejected by a majority of ten. Neverthe settled. “ What,” he asked, “is the present state of the less, Mr. Stansfeld, finding that the discussion of his constituency, any departure from which some honourable conduct was becoming prejudicial to the position of the gentlemen deprecate as a domestic revolution ? At Government, rosigned his post as Junior Lord. And, present we have, speaking generally, a constituency of however confident we may be that Mr. Stansfeld was in which between one-tenth and one-twentieth-certainly capable of consciously assenting to plots which included less than one-tenth — consists of working men. And assassination within their scope, it must be admitted that what proportion does that fraction of the working classes the matter was sufficiently serious, and that he had acted who are in possession of the franchise bear to the whole in a manner which laid him open to the charge of great body of the working men ? I apprehend I am correct in imprudence. For, as our readers will recollect, one of saying that they are less than one-fiftieth of the whole the witnesses on the trial of this very Tibaldi-Grilli—who working classes. Is that a state of things which it would had turned king's evidence against his accomplices, dis- be a domestic revolution to meddle with ? I contend, tinctly implicated Mazzini in the projects for the assassi. then, that it is on those who say it is necessary to exclude nation of the Emperor which were then on foot. And a forty-nine-fiftieths that the burden of proof rests; that member of the British Government must be like Cæsar's it is for them to show the unworthiness, the incapacity, wife---above all suspicion of complicity with the darker and the misconduct of the working classes." He argued portion of the plots of revolutionists.
earnestly that the proper way of dealing with questions The existence of the Government was seriously im- I such as this, was not to wait till a vehement agitation