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such as that these endogenous plants are not exogenous, and the like. Other truths concerning them must be discovered by observation, not from the force of words.

Now, we submit to those who are already, or shall by study become, competent judges of the question, that it was the latter, the true function of scientific terminology, and not the mistaken one of seeking in any wise to rear science upon it as a basis, that the framers and defenders of the creeds attempted. Even in a later day, the famous Master of the Sentences, Peter Lombard, is found arguing against those heretics who maintained that the human soul is of one substance with the Creator (insisting on the term breathed into,' in Gen. ï. 7, inasmuch as that which any being breathes forth must be part of himself), as elinging with obstinacy to the words of Holy Writ (verbis scripturæ pertinaciter inhærentes).' And of the important difference between the East and West, upon the single or the twofold procession of the Holy Spirit, he expresses the opinion, which may, we trust, be found correct, that the difference is verbal rather than real: etiam in hoc in eandem nobiscum fidei sententiam convenire videntur, licet in verbis dissentiant." And if we go back to the doctors of those earlier ages, whose authority stands with us so much higher than that of the schoolmen, the case seems still more clear. At Nicæa each Bishop appears to have rehearsed the faith, which had been always professed by himself and the church over which he presided, and all (with some eighteen exceptions at most) condemned the views of Arius as unheard-of. What was sought was some new phrase which should exclude the new error. But that the master mind, which virtually ruled that council, only regarded the famous Homoousion as the expression of old truth, stated in such a way as to put a seal to the teaching of the Church, and its true interpretation of Holy Scripture, and effectually protest against the nascent heresy, is shown, if we mistake not, by the following words, among many similar ones which we might quote, addressed by S. Athanasius to the Semi-Arians:

* Those who accept everything else that was defined at Nicæa, and quarrel only about the One in substance, must not be received as enemies ; nor do we attack them as Ariomaniacs, nor as opponents of the Fathers; but we discuss the matter with them as brothers with brothers, who mean what we mean, and dispute only about the word.”

This is surely not the language of one who was inclined to build

up theology upon mere words; nor is it possible to judge the mind of the Church of that date more fairly than by the

1 Sentent. lib. ii. distinct. xvii.

2 Ibid. lib. i. distinct. xi, D. 3 Vide Keble, Sermons, (Postscript,) p. 386. • S. Athanasius, Epistle on Councils of Ariminum and Seleucia, chap. iii. (P. 138. Oxf. Tr.)


tone of one who ultimately became in these matters its spokesman and representative.

But does it therefore follow that, because a science is not strictly deductive, it thereby ceases to be a science? Such a doctrine would annihilate the inductive sciences at a blow, and all others which do not attain to the rank of purely deductive sciences. But definitions may still prove extremely valuable in the way of keeping us out of error. This,' says a recent editor of a work by Malthus, is the real use (and a most important one it is) of definitions in political economy, to determine what they do or do not include. They are intended to avoid • ambiguity, and not, as in mathematics, to serve as the basis of our reasonings."

Now, if Dr. Bushnell means, as we suspect he does mean, that language is insufficient, in the case of theology, for this latter object, all we have to remark is, that the assertion is a mere ipse dixit, which remains unproved, and is contrary to the general sense of the Christian world. As a plain matter of fact, the dogmas of Nicæa (which he especially attacks). have remained as a witness against all forms of Arianism for more than 1,500 years. Lambeth, and Trent, and Augsburg are here at one. • Ecclesiæ

magno consensu apud nos docent, Decretum ‘Nicænæ Synodi de unitate essentiæ divinæ et de tribus personis terum et sine ulla dubitatione credendum esse.' These are the opening words, not of an Anglican article or Tridentine decree, but of the Lutheran Confession of Augsburg. The consub

stantiality of the Father and the Son was established,' says Gibbon, by the Council of Nice, and has been unanimously

received as a fundamental article of the Christian faith, by the • consent of the Greek, the Latin, the Oriental, and the Pro' testant Churches. Will the rationalism of Germany, will the cavils—for such we must call them-of Dr. Bushnell, succeed in persuading us to relinquish that inheritance? We speak more of the Nicene Creed than of that which bears the name of S. Athanasius, simply because it is the primary object of assault in the book before us and in kindred works, not as for a moment supposing that the latter is not equally defensible, and has not, like a finger-post marked dangerous,' saved numbers from the precipices of heresy.

Creed of the saints, and anthem of the blest,
And calm-breathed warning of the kindliest love
That ever heaved a wakeful mother's breast,
(True love is bold, and gravely dares reprove,)
Who knows but myriads owe their endless rest

To thy recalling, tempted else to rove?'? 1 Definitions in Political Economy. New Edition, with Notes. By John Cazenove. (London, 1853.)

2 Lyra Apostolica

Even if the language of these creeds imparted only negative ideas, which we are not prepared to admit, it would be much, if we cannot learn what our Creator is, at least to know what He is not. We need not have recourse to professed theologians to gain an admission of this principle. Les notions négatives,' writes a famous metaphysician, 'servent à nous garantir de l'erreur. * Elles ne sont pas donc pas nécessaires dans le cas où il est 'impossible de se tromper. Elles sont très-necessaires, très-impor* tantes, par exemple, par rapport au concept que nous nous

faisons d'un être tel que Dieu. ' Dr. Bushnell feels the force of this view, and makes large admissions concerning it, (p. 295.) How he reconciles these admissions with the general purport of his argument, and his condemnation of the Nicerte and Athanasian Creeds, we do not understand, and must leave to others to discover.

Amongst the advantages divinely vouchsafed, we must still humbly believe, to the former, at least, of those solemn docu- ments, is that of having been composed in Greek. The Semitic languages, unsurpassed in the expression of all that is simple and pathetic in narrative, or wise in moral precept, or sublime and awful in devotion and denunciation, yet fail in the combi. nations required for subtlety of argument, and definiteness in the expression of what is abstract. Thus the Koran, being composed in Arabic, a Semitic language, reminds us (it has been truly said) in its finer passages far more of Moses and the Prophets than of Apostles and Evangelists. The New Testament, we may boldly say, could not have been composed in Hebrew. A vehicle for its teachings was provided in that western tongue, which had already been tried, and not found wanting, in every species of human composition, whether requiring copiousness or precision,—that 'musical and prolific • language that gives a soul to the objects of sense, and a body • to the abstractions of philosophy.'? It proved, as might have been expected, equally well adapted for the flowing eloquence of a Christian orator, like S. Chrysostom, or the terse definiteness of dogmatic confessions, and the apologies for them, by S. Athanasius, or S. John Damascene. Indeed, S. Augustine, if we recollect aright (though we cannot at this moment point out the passage), declares that he need not have written upon certain questions of doctrine, had there but existed any good translations from the works of the Greek fathers.

If the difference between the relation of language to material and to immaterial objects in reality render it inadequate

· Kant's Logic, (Introduction,) chap. viii. French Transl. by M. Tissot. (Paris, 1840).

Gibbon, chap. Ixvi. Cf. S. Augustine's Græci, quorum lingua in gentibus præeminet.' (De Civ. Dei, Lib. VIII. cap. x.)


for dogma, the objection must apply not merely to theological science, but to all mental science whatever. Are our secular philosophers prepared to admit this conclusion ? Have the labours of Greece and Alexandria, Germany and Scotland, in ethics and metaphysics, been so wholly futile, as not to deserve the name of science? The truth is, that the dislike to dogma in matters of faith too often, we fear, proceeds from something within the breast far deeper than any sincere belief in the inadequacies of language. Men who would be the last to resigo their confidence in the conclusions of mental science, are often obstinately opposed to the possibility of religious dogmatism. Dr. Bushnell, however, at once more honest and more pious than many of his fellow-workers, grants that his arguments include other things beside creede.

• The views of language and interpretation I have here offered suggest the very great difficulty, if not impossibility, of mental science and religious dogmatism,'—P. 61.

That admission will, we feel convinced, cause many an impugner of creeds to shift his ground, and resign the position taken up by our author. With other objections to dogma we are not, however, so immediately concerned. Let thus much alone be borne in mind, that if moralists and metaphysicians do not assert for their conclusions the certainty which is claimed for the dogmas of the universal Church, they have not a written revelation to appeal to, which, when rightly understood, must be infallible ; they do not form a body whose collective decisions have the promise of a blessing from on high. Lo I am with you alway (mrágas tas ñuépas), even unto the end of the world. This is my covenant with them, saith the Lord: my Spirit that is upon thee, and my words which I have put in 'thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the * mouth of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed's seed, saith the Lord, from henceforth and for ever.'!

In asserting that Dr. Bushnell appeared to overrate the powers of language with respect to physical science, we intended not only to signify that such science cannot be raised upon that basis, but likewise that words, even respecting matter, can convey to us no more than the impressions gained from the senses. And do the senses impart to us any true idea of the essence of matter? They show us the qualities, but do they exhibit the substratum? Bacon thought it possible for man, to attain to a knowledge of the forms or laws of essence or existence, but his confidence has not yet been realized. The fact

is,' says Playfair, 'that in as far as science has yet advanced, 'no one essence has been discovered, either as to matter in general,

1 Mat. xxviii. 19; Isa. lix, 21.

We may

' or as to any of its more extensive modifications.'1 possibly find room, 'ere we conclude, for a few additional remarks upon the case of the physical sciences; at present we quit them, with the observation that this last-named feature of the question ought not to be ignored. What marvel that our ideas and symbols of the Almighty should be earthly, and viewed as by a mirror and enigmatically,' when percbance neither our senses, nor consequently our words, can ever fathom the real nature of His created works?

And as to the position (one very closely allied to the rest we are opposing, and perhaps favoured by some portions of Dr. Bushnell's Lectures) that there can be no legitimate ratiocination in the things of faith, it is surely opposed to the common sense of Christendom, and never consistently maintained an acted upon. If it be true, the work before us must be as worthless as all other treatises on theology, for its pages are replete with argument. In truth, all religionists, orthodox or inorthodox, do employ reason in support of their own views, and in refutation of the views of their opponents. They may reason, indeed, in very different tempers ; in a humble or a proud and self-sufficing manner, with a due or an undue submission to authority, under the influence of an enlightened and sanctified conscience, or in a hard, dry, coldly critical spirit; but argue they do, and probably will, until the end of time.

. The use of human reason in religion,' remarks Lord Bacon, ' is of two sorts: the former in the conception and apprehension

of the mysteries of God to us revealed; the other in the inferring and deriving of doctrine and direction thereupon. • The former extendeth to the mysteries themselves,--but how? * by way of illustration, and not by way of argument; the latter consisteth indeed of probation and argument.

And although we fear that we may seem to make quotations usque ad nauseam, and in defiance of all rules of composition, yet let it be pleaded in mitigation of the offence, that on so serious a theme the laws of literary excellence may well be left in abeyance. We are anxious to show how largely our views are supported by the authority of the wise and good among our friends, and even in many respects by the admission of opponents.

It is, we regret to say, in this last-named category, that we must rank the following observations of Bishop Hampden :

• It would be perfectly illogical and absurd for any one to deny conse1 Cit. ap. Hallam, Introduct. to Lit. of Europe, vol. iii. cap. iii. p. 199. (Ed. 1839) 2 Δι' εσόπτρου εν αινίγματι. 1 Cor. xiii. 12.

3 Adv. of Learning, book ii. In what follows there is more agreement with the opening of the 'Angelic Doctor's' famous Summa Theologiæ than might be expected from an enemy of scholasticism.

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