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the course it takes is in a line with the old 10,904 tons-is from Liverpool, the amounts bridge. At the north shore it joins the existing from all other ports being comparatively small. viaduct at Magdalen Yard Point. In the Of rails, Hull, Liverpool, Barrow, Middles. bridge there will be 75 spans in all, the four brough, and Cardiff - in the order namedhighest being opposite the four broken piers at were the only ports exporting large quantities. the south end of the gap in the present bridge. Their width will be 229 feet each, and height Inp parus and Silicon in Tron and Steel," in 77 feet above the high water level of ordinary spring tides, being 11 feet lower than the bighi- Dingler's Polytechnisches “ Journal,” Mr. A. est spans in the old bridge. The height of the E. llaswell describes a new method of analysis, first span on the Fife side is to be 65 feet, and in which the whole of the electro-negative subthe 22 succeeding spans gradually decline in stances present in the metal are obtained in the height to 60 feet 6 inches. The four spans, 77 feet insoluble residues, the iron being completely bigh, follow, and then the height of the remain separated in solution as the first operation. ing spans corresponds to the declinature of the The sample, in the form of filings or borings, bridge towards the north shore, where the spans

is treated with a 7 per-cent. solution of double are 23 feet high. The width and height of the chloride of copper and ammonium, at the lowdifferent spans, beginning from the Fife shore, est possible temperature in a corked flask. are as follows: One 100 feet span, 65 feet About twelve hours are required to effect the high; ten 106 feet spans, varying from 65 to 63 solution, the flask being frequently shaken. feet high; twelve 132 feet spans, varying from If the proper equivalent quantities of the 63 to 60 feet 9 inches high; one 130 feet 6 double copper salt are taken, the iron will be inches span, 60 feet 6 inches high; four 229 completely dissolved as ferrous chloride, free, feet spans, 77 feet high; one 229 feet span, 74 or nearly so, from copper, while the carbon, feet 9 inches high; one 211 feet span, 72 feet silicon, sulphur, and phosphorus will remain 9 inches high; two 229 feet spans, varying in association with the reduced sponge of mefrom 72 feet 9 inches to 68 feet 6 inches high; tallic copper. This, when carefully washed, one 211 feet span, 66 feet 6 inches high; four is dissolved in nitric acid, the silicon deter: 229 feet spans, varying from 66 feet 6 inches mined by evaporation to dryness and calcinato 58 feet high; one 148 feet span, 40 feet high; tion, and the phosphorus by precipitation, first eleven 117 feet spans, varying from 40 feet to with molybdic acid, and then with magnesia 27 feet 6 inches high; i wenty-four 63 feet in the usual way. The author gives several spans, varying from 35 feet to 19 feet 5 inches examples showing that the molybdic acid prehigh; two skew openings, 50 feet span each, cipitation is not affected by the presence of and 23 feet high: six 27 feet spans, 23 feet copper salts in the nitric acid solution. height, hand last of all the present arch

span Seture and use of steer, the Chinese appear 100 feet in width and 18 feet in height, which crosses the esplanade on the Dundee side of proficiency, Chinese records do not enlighten

to have attained a very early and remarkable the river. The gradients are shown to be as follows: From the first span at the Fife side reducing metals from their ores became known

us as to the precise period at which the art of to the twenty-second the line has an inclination in that country; but it is evident that it must of 1 in 733, then it becomes level, and continh

have been some centuries before the Christian ues so for about 1000 feet, when it begins to fall towards the north shore at the rate of 1 in cient of the Chinese writings, and Leih-tze, an

Mention is made of steel in the most an114, until it reaches 1 in 76 at the viaduct, and author who flourished about 400 B, C., described at about that gradient the line is carried into the process by which it was made. In the Yu the Tay Bridge Station, where it becomes Kung section of the Shoo King. Book I., it is level. The plans show the abandonment of the stated that among the articles forming the tribpresent objectionable junction of the Newport ute of Yu were nautical gem stones, iron, silline at the south end of the bridge, and the ver, steel, stones for arrow heads, &c. Legge substitution of another junction, which will points out that, in the time of the Han dynaslikely be satisfactory.

ty, ironmasters were appointed in several districts of the old Lian-Choo to superintend the

iron works. With the exception of this pasIRON AND STEEL NOTES.

sage, however, it is considered probable that

there is no distinct allusion to iron in Chinese THE Customs' returns for the past month

Steel continues 83,905 tons of pig iron from English, Scottish, day. Mr. James Henderson, à commissioner

to be manufactured in China up to the present and Welsh ports, and that Middlesbrough ex of Li-hun chang, the governor-general of Chilported more than half of this -44,848 tons. lili, a minister of the young King of China, Barrow-in-Furness ranks second, having ex

states that the “steel which comes to Tein-tsin ported 8,230 tons; and then follow Glasgow, from the Upper Yang-tse is highly prized, and with 7,655 tons; Newcastle, 5,081 tons; Grangemouth, 3,650 tons; Liverpool, -3,454 steel imported into China."

bears much higher prices than the Swedish tons; West Hartlepool, 3,360 tons; Whitehaven, 2,760 tons; Stockton, 1,878 tons; and PANGENBERG'S EXPERIMENTS enumerated have shipped more than 655 tops. der testing machine, maximun pull 100,000 Of bar and bundle iron, the largest shipment, i kilograms (100 tons) was erected, and a Klebe

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measuring apparatus was supplied, measuring

RAILWAY NOTES, to sooo millimeter (197000 in.), as well as various other instruments for conducting the ex W

E are informed that the directors of the periments. One series was designed to test

Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Rail. the truth of Wöhler's three laws, which are: way Company, have decided to apply the

(1) Fracture may be produced by the con- Westinghouse brake over the whole of ihat imtinual repetition of oscillating stresses, all of mense system, and that a contract has been them much below the breaking stress. It is made with the Brake Company for the supply the differences of strain, defined by the extent of the fittings for 1,500 vehicles as a first inof the oscillations, which then produce frac- stalment. The cost of fitting the whole of the ture.

passenger engines and carriages will amount to (2) The absolute value of these stresses only about 8,000,000f. Our neighbors are settling enters into the question so far that the greater the brake question in France in a much more this value the smaller are the differences which business-like fashion than the authorities on will finally produce fracture.

our own railways, for the Westinghouse brake (3) When the resistance of a material to one has now been adopted on lines having one-half form of stress has been found by experiment, ' -and by far the more important balf-of the its resistance to all other forms can be deduced entire mileage of French railways, and as the by calculation.

Railway Commission is insisting upon what The author's experiments have confirmed are virtually the conditions laid down by our the truth of the first law. With regard to the own Board of Trade, there seems little doubt second, they are not yet complete. They do that the whole of France will be efficiently not agree with the third, inasmuch as experi- equipped long before our own railway may. ments on transverse strain showed a mucb nates have done wrangling over the numerous greater tensile resistance in the most heavily inventions, both of their own and others, and strained fibre than that given by direct experi. which at present interfere with the settlement ments on tearing. Again, on comparing ex- of the brake question in this country. periments on Kruppsis axle steel, made in 1863 by Wöhler, and in 1873 by the Author, it ap

. B

REAKAGES OF STEEL RailS ON RUSSIAN pears that in the interval the material had been

RAILWAYS DURING 1879.-The statistical greatly improved in its resistance to the or returns of the Russian Ministry of Ways and dinary stresses of axles, but had diminished in Communications give the following interestits resistance to direct tension.

ing information on the breakages of steel rails This latter is, of course, no real defect, and on Russian railways during 1879. Up to Janis, no doubt, due to an alteration in chemical uary 1, 1880, on all lines, the length of which composition; but it shows that tensile tests amounted to 24,019 miles, 9,730 miles of steel alone will not indicate the character of a ma- rails had been laid. The total length of the terial , and also how necessary it is frequently tion sidings, was in 1879, 19,200 miles, and the

Russian railways, taking in consideration stato repeat such experiments.

The Author has further endeavored to inves- I breakages of steel rails during that year were tigate the connection between the appearance as follows: of fracture and the molecular changes, in Months.

Total

Total

Months. pieces broken by repeated strains. His theory

No.

No. is that under such strains texture of the January.

.639 July.

.247 metal is gradually changed from the crystal. February. ...598 August..

..156 line to the amorphous. There thus arise dif- March... .854 September. ..214 ferent states of equal density of the molecules, April.

.235 October... ..328 each state having its own limit of elasticity. May

.235 November. .341 As the strains go on, these limits of elasticity June.

..160 December. 692 are passed in the case of a continually increas The best rails, judging by the small quantiing number of the molecules, and the piece is ty broken, were of English manufacture, thus gradually weakened until rupture results. namely, those from Messrs. Brown, Bayley & This he considers to accord with the molecu- Dixon, Sir J. Brown & Co., Cammell & Co., lar theory of Fourier and Redtenbacher, viz., and the Barrow Hematite Iron and Steel Comthat metals consist of crystalline molecules of pany. attracting matter, each intermixed and sur.!

W

RITING on the manufacture of paper rail strain would then be to break up the molecules

way wheels, the Paper World says: into smaller and smaller elements. Hence is “ The paper is straw-board of rather tine texexplained the fact that just at the point where ture. It is received in the ordinary broad rupture begins the fracture looks dull and am- sheets, differing in no particular from those orphous (because the action has there been the used for straw board boxes or other similar most intense), while at a distance it is still work. These sheets as they come from the crystalline. The rays, which are generally paper mili are square, and are first cut to a cirseen converging to this point of rupture, are cular pattern. This is done on a table with a due to a flow of surrounding molecules to the knife guided by a radial arm. A small disc is more heavily strained parts. In phosphor. also cut from the center of the sheet to admit bronze, broken by repeated strains, a flow of the wheel center. The paper bas now to be the phosphorus to the more extended parts is converted from loose sheets into a compact, distinctly visible. — Abstracts of Institution of dense body, capable of withstanding the treCiril Engineers.

mendous crushing force to wbich it will be

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subjected in the wheels. This is accomplished the ordinary public mind and the mind that as follows: Ten sheets are pasted together, can master the mysterious reasons of railway one upon another, making a disc about } in. sages. At a station with only one platform thick.' Enough of these discs having been pre- such arrangements would be worse. A passenpared to fill a powerful hydraulic press, they ger arrives at the usual time for a traip, trains are subjected to a pressure of 1800 lbs. per are late, and the last train has only just gone, square inch. When removed, the discs are the gate is closed because another train is due. hung on poles in a steam-heated loft and left The passenger therefore waits until that train six days to dry. Thicker discs are then made, comes in and is gone, and then waits, unless, each formed by pasting together iwo or three after exhausting his stock of complimentary of those already finished. These are pressed expressions, he goes and takes a cab), tramcar, and dried as before, and the process is re. or omnibus. This sort of thing would not be peated until a block is built 4 in. thick and of so bad if the company had some fine stations about the specific gravity of lignum vitæ. they wished passengers to look at, but with After eadh pasting and pressing six days are stations without sides and with sieves for roofs allowed for drying, and when the block is com- it's-well it is not nice. plete it is left in a drying-room until thoroughly seasoned. The next operation is that of turning the paper blocks to fit the steel tires and iron centers. This is done in lathes in the

ORDNANCE AND NAVAL, same manner as if the material worked on was tough wood. A bed or recess is worked out for the web of the tire to rest in. The block is

RRANGEMINTS FOR THE DEFENCE OF THE A

MOUTH OF THE WESER.—The armorthen painted, and is ready for its place in the plated works for the defence of the mouth of the wheel.”

Weser will shortly be completed. One battery

for nine 21 cwt. guns, and two forts containing HE London, Chatham and Dover Railway 10 turrets, intended for 28 cwt. and 15 cwt. promising announcements as to new station ance with the approved principles of the presaccommodation. With the inclement weather ent day for coast defences. The armament of which now prevails an ordinary dry station is the above works will consist of 24 pieces. not the most desirable place to shiver away a The iwo new forts, situated one on the right half hour, but on the barns of stations with and the other on the left bank of the Weser, which the passengers are provided by the are built on a sand bank. They are washed by Chatham and Dover Company, even near Lon- the river at high tide, and are surrounded by don, words will not do justice to the outraged inaccessible ground at low tide. feelings of some of their passengers. It is The fort on the left bank is armed with therefore no desirable thing that passengers lighter turrets than the one on the right, and should be made to wait unnecessarily on the bas arrangements for these being worked by platform of such places. The Chatham Com- hand. Ten men can cause a complete rotation pany has, however, issued a regulation that the of the turret, weighing 492 tons, in five or six gate entrances to some platforms shall be minutes. However, by means of a special closed as soon as certain trains are due. No contrivance two men will suffice to bring this objection whatever can be made to closing about. The guns, mounted on carriages for these gates when a train is in sight or even minima embrasures, are worked by hand powsignaled, or at any time if notice is given that er, and can be served quickly enough to fire a it will be done, but closing them when a train round in a minute and a quarter. is due involves discomfort to passengers.

At There is a steam engine (the Allgemeine Zeitthe stations where there are two or three de- ung states that this engine is an hydraulic one) parture platforms this is especially the case in the fort on the right bank, which can cause during bad weather when rails are in bad con- the three turrets, weighing 590 tous, to revolve dition and all trains are or are liable to be more simultaneously and give 170 elevation to the or less late, for a passenger goes on to a plat- six guns in them. form, say ust before a train is due. He finds The chill cast armor plates which protect the that the train is not even signaled, and thinks fortifications at the mouth of the Weser bave he will be able to take a train signaled at an an aggregate weight of 7,529 tons, they were other platform. He leaves the first platform supplied by the Gruson foundry, which has and goes to the second only to find ihe gate also arranged the sub-structures of the turrets, closed. Finding this he goes back to the first and provided the ammunition lifts and the carplatform only to find that though the train is, riages for the minima embrasure. These armas he knows not even signaled, the gate is shut. or-plated structures have one great advantage This train is late, perhaps very late, and the over those hitherto construcied in Europe. passenger waits until it comes in and goes, Thus, if a piece is struck and rendered unserwhich he may have the pleasure of seeing it viceable by an enemy's projectiles in English, do. Then he may wait for another train not Belgian, or other turrets, it has to be left in yet due, so that if he bas patience he has time position till the end of the action, and you are io sit down-no be cannot sit down, because deprived of its fire. In the Weser turrets, on the seats not occupied by the other passenger, the contrary, a certain apparatus allows the inwho siis in a mackintosh lost in a reverie on jured piece to be rapidly removed and imme. railway pleasures, may be wet; but he can diately replaced by another which will continue stand and think of the great difference between the fire. Before being consigned to the mili

AM3,

No. 2.

192.

tary authorities the forts will be subjected to “ The American Bloomary Process,” hy T. experiments intended especially to test the Eggleston, PhD. armored turrets and the guns.

The Eighty-Ton Steam Hammer at CreuRemarkable practice has already been made sot,” by J. A. Herrick, M. E. with the 28 cwt. guns. Although the maxi The Weight, Fall and Speed of Stamps," mum charge of 58 kilos. of prismatic powder by H. S. Monroe, Ph. D. was employed, the precautions taken at first to “Rail Specifications and Rail Inspection in fire by electricity and remove the detachments Europe,” by C. P. Sandberg, C. E. from the turret were soon found to be super Cost of Milling Silver Ores in Utah and fluous. In fact, thanks to the small size of the Nevada,” by R. P. Rothwell, M. E. embrasure, which is just large enough to allow “Chemical Reactions in the Bessemer Proof the passage of the muzzle of the gun, the cess,” by Chas. F. King. powder gases cannot enter the turret, and are consequently not offensive to the gun detach: TEBUEU for November.

HE MONTHLY REPORT OF THE WEATHER ments. -- Allgemeine Militar Zeitung and Neue Frankfurter Presse.

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS AND

MODBETALLS, No. 4.
R
USSIAN COMPOSITE 8-IN. SIEGE GUN, CAST

New York: Bick(IN STEEL) AT THE FACTORY OF OBOUK-nell & Comstock. HOFF. —The gun consists of: 1. An inner tube of steel (3.8 m.) containing

MERICAN JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICS, Vol. rifling and chambers.

An envelope consisting of two parts: 2. One the breech and trunnions.

FFICIAL GAZETTE OF THE UNITED STATES 3. The other the muzzle part. The first of these two travels on the siege AVAL ENCYCLOPÆDIA.—Philadelphia: L.

NAVA carriage, and is united to the other by ring R. Hamersly & Co. screw collar.

The Naval Encyclopædia is now complete. There are two other small pieces.

It is a royal octavo of 1170 pages. The weights of the five pieces are as follows: This work has been prepared at a very large 1. Inner tube.

541 cost of time and labor, making it probably the 2. Breech...

.2904 most costly work ever prepared for the naval 3. Muzzle.

.1826 profession in this country. 4. Screw Collar,

98

The following summary of contents of the 5. Breech piece..

299 book will give an idea of its character and

value: Total. .....

.5668 kilos. I. A complete Dictionary of Nautical The interior tube is carried in a stiff-covered

Terms and Phrases. box.

II. Biographical Notices of Distinguished The gun was put together and placed at

Naval Officers of our own and foreign

services. Globosia, opposite Rustchuk, in three hours, after dark, by a detachment of 20 untrained III. Special Articles, including in their scope

the entire range of Modern Naval SciThe piece had been previously fired 130

ence, prepared expressly for this work times with 7.8 kilos. of prismatic powder.

by officers and others of recognized Seven shots were fired on the 25th of Au

ability in their respective fields of disgust, 1877, at 2,900 metres, at an earth battery;

cussion, and comprehending the fresh

est and most authentic information at. one piece said to have been dismounted * Six shots were fired at a gunboat on the 1st

tainable respecting the several subjects of September, one of which is said to bave bit IV. A Gazetteer of the principal Naval Sta

treated. it. On the 14th, 16th, and 19th November, 47

tions and Seaports of the World. shots were fired at 4,900 yards against boats.

V. A Supplement containing concise Records The gun stood together for three months,

of Living Officers of the Navy, includ. and was then taken to pieces with ease.

ing Captains, Commanders, LieutenantThe Russians also made a 4-pr. mountain

Commanders and Lieutenants, and gun in three pieces of 98, 114 and 164 kilos.

Staff Officers of relative rank.

The rerespectively.

cords of Flag Officers are included in

the body of the work.

Of the value to the service and nautical men BOOK NOTICES.

generally there can be no manner of doubt. PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED.

The publi-hers look confidenily for a generous THE TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN IN- officers of the service whom the book is pri

response to this, their final circular, from the ing:

TEAM BOILERS: THEIR DESIGN, CONSTRUCM. Drown, M.D.

By WILLIAM

H. SHOCK, Engineer-in-Chief and Chief of the * I think this is a mistake: some of the 8-in. shells Bureau of Steam Engineering, United States lay unburst in the town in September, but I heard nothing of a dismounted gun, and I think I should

Navy. D. Van Nostrand, No. 23 Warren have had there been one.

street, New York.

men.

The Determination of Sulpbur,” by Thos. STEMOPANE MANAGEMENT.

We may say at the outset that this hand for on the faithfulnesss and efficiency of the some quarto reflects great credit on the print- test life no less than property is almost always ers and engravers concerned in its production. dependent. The difficulties in the way of a It contains thirty-six full page and double page thorough test are often very great. There is, finely-engraved plates, which are placed at the therefore, grave significance in the author's end of the volume, and 150 cuts inserted in the words: text. It is printed on fine calendered paper, “Boilers which are faulty in design or built and is altogether a triumph of American typog- of inferior material, or have had workmanship raphy. The text is divided into pineteen chap- put on them, may stand the bydraulic test, ters, whose headings alnoe indicate its scope, but under the varying and continued strains of and the manner in which the various divisions actual practice they will, sooner or later, deof the subject are treated fairly entitle the velop weaknesses which seriously impair their author to say, as he does in the preface, that life and safety. Grave defects may be hidden he has “supplied a long felt need in this par- from view after a boiler is built so that they ticular branch of engineering and copstruc- cannot be discovered by the closest scrutiny. tion.” His short introductory chapter tells us Therefore, the inspection of boilers should of the materials used in the construction of commence with the process of construction, boilers in the earlier days of the steam engine, and should be repeated frequently during the why corper was superseded by plate iron, the lifetime of the boiler." latest forms of boilers due to the introduction The tricks resorted to by boiler makers, such of compound and high steam pressure, the as punching the rivet holes too close to the essential parts of a steam boiler, how infinitely edge of the plates when these happen to be forms may vary, the conditions which deter- cut too small, are here pointed out. The varimine the features of marine boilers, and par- ous kinds of tests and their relative values are ticularly those affecting boilers in war steam- minutely examined. “Management of Boilers. The general subject thus stated, he takes ers” takes the engineer skillfully through this up “ combustion” in a chapter which gives us important portion of his duties and leads nat. the latest chemical knowledge of fuels and urally to the consideration of “Causes and their constituents, the latest data on tempera- prevention of the deterioration of boilers.” tures of ignition and the total heat of combus- In general the deterioration arises from the tion. Taking in, as it does, all the facts relat- accumulation of scale or sediment, from coring to fuel as a source of power, it necessarily rosion, fracture, burning or distortion of gives, with all the precision attainable, the tig- plates. These are generally traceable to deures for calculating the important elements of fects of design, material or workmanship; to furnace draughts. He now proceeds to exam- mismanagement, the use of sulphurous fuel or ine the “transmission of heat and evapora- impure water and to galvanic action. In addition," a most important consideration, for on tion to this formidable catalogue the author the efficiency of the heating surfaces depends says: “There are some destructive agencies the rate of steam production, and so leads up at work shortening the life of boilers, the to the latest direction which inventiveness in action of which is not fully understood; and steam engineering is taking-namely, the use of instances of the rapid deterioration of boilers superheated steam. Its economy of fuel is un- occur, from time to time, for which no defindoubted, and ihe only other question to be an ite cause can be assigned.” Stationary boilers swered is that of “the bulk, weight and cost frequently last twenty years; the life of maof the superheating apparatus or the labor and rine boilers ranges, under favorable condiexpense of keeping it in working order and its tions, from nine to twelve years, and in liability to derangement." The chapters on naval vessels is often limited to six years of “ Materials" is interesting even to the lay use. The varying conditions of prolonged reader, who takes the slightest interest in strain and protracted idleness, of frequent immetallurgy. The use of copper, brass, the in- possibility during long cruises on distant stavaluable phospbor-bronze, cast iron, wrought tions of regular cleaning and repairs, account iron and latterly steel, which improved pro- for the shorter life of the war steamer's boiler. cesses of manufacture have made available, is Tbe closing chapter is devoted to a subject treated historically and scientifically, invalua- ugly in itself, but as it is one of the means by ble tables of weights of iron used for plates which the life of the boiler is determined, and rivets being appended. The chapter on must have a place-namely, “Boiler Explo** Testing the Material ” and “ Principles of sions:" the Strength of Boilers” involve matters of “It is,” says the author, “of the gravest great moment to the profession, and not less to importance that the true causes of every boiler the public. We now come to the making of explosion should be clearly understood in orthe boiler, and this is exhaustively considered der that their recurrence may be guarded in ten chapters, which take the engineer from against. The tendency to ascribe explosions the design on paper to the boiler set up and to obscure causes rather than to regard them ready for its final tests. As indicating the as the natural results of conditions which can minuteness of the details given we may say be prevented by intelligent care exercised in that these ten chapters on construction are the design, construction and management of divided into eighty-eight sections, which in boilers, has, no doubt, its origin in the desire clude a mass of tabulated data and mathemati- to escape responsibility for the results of culpacal formulas. " Tests, inspections and trial ble veglect, and has been productive of much of steam boilers ” is a chapter wbich again has mischief by engendering carelessness on the grave interest ontside of engineering circles, part of owners and attendants of steam boilers."

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