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steel had been poured into the three large referred to a former paper of his in the “ Pro-
ladles, the plugs were removed, and it ran into ceedings ” of the Royal Society of Edinburgh,
the mould, the weight when cast being about Vol. X., p. 712, in which he had shown that
10 tons. In its finished state the weight will when amorphous carbon in an impalpable pows
be about 872 tops. It is, without doubt, by far der is kept in coộtact with porcelain at a tem-
the largest crucible cast steel casting of its kind perature considerable above redness, but not
that his ever been produced. Messrs. Jessop sufficient for the latter to become tused, the
& Sons anticipate that this will be the begin- carbon will, if left for a number of hours,
ning of an important trade with Lancashire diffuse into the porcelain and ultimately per-
millowners, as they discover how much more meate it throughout. He considers the con
durable steel wheels are than the cast iron version of bar iron into steel by the cementa-
wheels at present in general use. The firm tion process as analogous to this—that is to
have previously cast wheels 13 feet and 14 feet say, the result of diffusion of carbon in an
in diameter, but to 28 feet was a great leap. impalpable powder into the bars of iron whilst
Now, however, they are prepared to undertake they are in an expanded and softened state.
castings up to 34 feet, having gone to very Silicon also appears to be present in the
great expense in laying themselves out for this amorphous condition, and to diffuse through
class of work. The operation of casting occu- iron in a similar manner.
pied eight and a half minutes.


ASSACHUSETTS RAILROADS.-From the ReUnited States, during the year 1880, indicates port of the Railroad Commissioners we an unusual amount of activity. The amount learn that the aggregate length of the railroads of steel manufactured in 1880 was 1,203,173 belonging to corporations making returns to tons (2000 lbs.) showing an increase of 30 per the Board is 2667.35 miles, of which 651.48 cent. as compared with 1879; of 64 per cent. miles are provided with double track. The compared with 1878, and 115 per cent. com- total length of track, counting sidings and pared with 1877. The annexed table shows branches, is 4257.78 miles. The increase durthe annual production of Bessemer steel in the ing the year being 107.79 miles. United States since 1872:

The average cost of standard gauge roads is

returned at $57,057.80 per mile, and the cost Year., Tons. | Year. Tons. , Year. Tons. of equipment averages $6613,90 per mile, mak

ing total cost per mile an average of $63,671.70; 1872 120,108 1875 375,517 1878 732,226 but this cost varies from $24,353 25 to 1873 170,652 1876 525,996 1879 928,972 $92,068.30. The average cost of the equipped 1874 191,933 1877 560,587 1880 1,203,173 narrow gauge roads is $31,293. 30.

The gross income for the year, of the sixtyDuring the year, the eleven companies pro- four corporations, was $35,140,374.77, and the duced a total of 917,592 tons (2000 lbs.) of net income $11,191,815.53, a gain of 10 per steel rails, and the development of this manu-cent. over last year. facture will be seen from the following table, The average earning per mile of road was which corresponds to the one above:

$11,377.90. For the eight roads terminating

in Boston the earning per mile averaged Year., Tons. Year., Tons. Year. | Tons. $12,079.70. 1872 94.070 1875 290,863 1878 550,398 D length of the "Prussian railway system 1873 129,015 1876 412,461 1879 683,964 1874 | 144,944! 1877 432,169 1880 917,592

was 6197 kilometers, including 798 which had

been added in the course of the year. By the Startling as this growth of production is, it end of the year the length had been increased will undoubtedly be surpassed by the output

to 6299 kilometers. The cost of the whole of the present year, for not only does the de- $74,665,270 – or at the rate of 244,312 marks per

system had been 1,493,305,418 marksmand continue in the United States, but several of the more important works materially 163,877,969 marks as against 155,881,124 in the

kilometer. The receipts for the year were enlarged their capacities last year; the Vulcan Steel Works at St. Louis got into working order previous year. There was, however, a diminuonly in March last, so that it contributed to tion of receipts per kilometer from 29,582 burgh Bessemer Steel Company, with a capaci decreased from 18,042 to 16,326 marks per kilothe total only during nine months; the Pitts- marks to 26,580, or at the rate of 9 per cent.;

though, on the other hand, the expenditure also ty of 60,000 tons of ingots a year, are just on the point of commencing work; and the Colo- meter, or 972 per cent. The general result rado Coal and Iron Company will be in opera of 61,826,748 marks, against 57,990,555 in the

shows an excess of receipts over expenditure towards the autumn.

year before.


Ta meeting of the Chemical Society on the 20th ult., a paper was

N accordance with the provisions of the read on a


Berlin Treaty, the Railway Commission “New Theory of the Conversic of Bar Iron appointed to deal with the new lines of the into Steel by the Cementation Process." by Mr. southeast of Europe will assemble in Vienna R. Sydney Marsden, D. Sc. The author first for the despatch of business in the second half

Pembina branch on the least side

of the river, Aship has lately been launched in Ger.

of February. The Bosnia Valley Railway Bill new reseaux, the railways belonging to the has passed the Upper Chamber, Austria. This State and those of privaie companies as folmeasure is very important, as it will bring lows: The old reseau, 6244 miles in length, Austria into direct communication with the earned £22,347,000, or more than 70 per cent. port of Salonica Herr von Schmerling re- of the total. The new reseau of 6253 miles marked that he looked upon the Austrian occu- earned £6,798,000. The State railways, 1179 pation of Bos lia not as a temporary but as a miles long, earned £537,600, and the various permanent thing. This railway, he thought, private lines, 517 miles in length, have earned would help to attach the natives of the prov- ibe remainder of the total. These results ince to Austrian rule by identifying their inter- sbow a large increase over the corresponding ests with those of the empire.

period of 1879; thus the old reseau shows an

increase of £2,486,000; the new rescau a rise of report of the Minister of Railways nearly £50,000. The line from Rhone and

the and Canals of Canada for the year ending Mont Cenis Railway classified in the Paris, June 30, 1880, has been presented to the Do Lyons, and Mediterranean system, earned minion Parliament. It is stated that on the £167,360 during the first nine months of 1880, section of the Canadian Pacific Railway from or nearly £18,000 more than in the similar Thunder Bay to Rat Portage, 294 miles, the period of 1879; the former figure represents an railways for 171 miles are laid, and from Kie- i earning of over £2300 per mile of line. watin (Rat Portage) to Selkirk on the Red River, 112 miles, the railways are down the whole way. For a distance of 16 miles beyond Red River, up to Victoria junction, Selkirk,

ORDNANCE AND NAVAL. nu line has been constructed, but communicaopen to by

HYDRAULIC and a temporary bridge over the river connects many, but as usual with vessels of the same the line with the Winnipeg branch. West- description, she has failed to attain the speed wards the railways are laid to within a few expected. As the readers of Iron are aware, miles of the western boundary of Manitoba, in these hydraulic ships water taken in through and the line is in operation to Portage-la Prarie, the bottom is expelled at both sides in the line 70 miles west of Winnipeg. The Canadian of the keel, and the reaction of the fluid issuPacific Railway therefore has at the presenting at high speed drives the hull abead if the time 232 miles in work as follows: Emerson to water is allowed to escape aft, or astern if it Winnipeg, 63 miles; St. Boniface to Selkirk, 23 escapes towards the bow. The notion is no miles; Selkirk to Cross Lake (east), 76 miles; new one, for as far back as. 1661 an inventor Selkirk to Portage-la-Prarie, 70 miles. In Brit- received a patent for propelling vessels by exish Columbia 127 miles are under contract, and pelling water from their sterns. In 1730 are being steadily prosecuted. The expenditure another patent was secured for doing nearly in connection with the Pacific Railway during the same thing, and since that time nearly fifty the last fiscal year was $4,444,572. The en- persons have taken out patents for hydraulic largement of the canal system is being rapidly vessels. About ten years ago a vessel called proceeded with, and during last year the ex. the “Waterwitch," of 1279 tons displacement, penditure on that account was $2,125,455. was built for our navy, to test a proposed sysThe new canals when complete will have a uni- tem of hydraulic propulsion, but, though the form system of locks, 270 feet long by 45 feet ship is only of light draught, bas good lines, wide, with a depth of 14 feet, and will enable and is fitted with engines of 775 horse power, steamers of 1500 tons to pass from Lake Supe- she has never exceeded, when at sea, a speed rior to Montreal and the sea. The total length of from five to six knots, and has never been of inland navigation from Lake Superior to trusted out of sight of land. The hydraulic the Straits of Belle Isle is 2384 miles, and the ship lately built in Germany is 110 feet long, completion of the new work cannot fail, it is 17 feet wide, with a draught of 1542 feet of considered, to have an important effect upon water, and was expected to attain a speed of the transport of grain from the Western States ten knots an hour, but on her trial trip she of America and Western Canada to the United could barely accomplish nine. She proved, Kingdom

however, to be extremely handy, running close

up to a sailing vessel which crossed her course, F TRENCH RAILWAYS.— The Director-General and then, stopping her way in a moment,

of Railways in France has recently pub. turned immediately to starboard. lisbed the results of working the main French lines the


lgxo, which retu first show momarked improve

. The of a new steam fire engine, 'de

ment between January and September, 1880. signed for the Imperial Austro-Hungarian warThe total gross receipts during these nine ship Tegethoff took place on Tuesday at months amounted to £30,292,000, or nearly 312 Messrs. Merryweather and Sons' fire-engine millions more than during the corresponding works at Greenwich. The engine is fitted period of 1879. During the year ending Sep- with a quick-raising steam boiler of the Merrytember last, 591 miles of new lines had been weather and Field improved type. The pump opened for traflic. The gross receipts of is provided with valves baving large clear £30,292,000 were divided among the old and openings through which seaweed, shavings,

THENCE GEORTYZTERELE Top Breen Holding and we have not yet reached the maximum

straw, and other foreign matter may pass with- inches to 23 inches-on the service system of out fear of injury or stoppage to ihe machin- calculation, nearly 25 inches. This is the class ery. At the trial steam was raised within eight of gun we have before commended as likely to minutes from cold water, and the engine be useful in future times. It is capable of pumped 360 gallons per minute through a 11- piercing wrought iron of the thickness of the inch jet to a height of 160 feet. Following armor employed on the Duilio. As a matter this test two, three, and four jets were thrown of fact, the plates of that ship are steel, so by the engine simultaneously, and as an experi- that they could not be penetrated, but must be ment, to show its capabilities for pumping destroyed by racking. For its size, the rackpowers the machine discharged an immense ing power of the 43-ton gun is very great. body of water through two 244-inch hoses. The 35 ton was of the same caliber, it had This last experiment was perhaps the most im- 8203 foot-tons stored-up work, a penetrating portant to the visitors present, as the primary figure of 219-06 foot-tons, and about 16-inch work of the engine (although a fire engine to penetration. Thus, for 8 tons increased all intents and purposes) is to pump out water weight the new gun nearly doubles the quanin case of a mishap, damage by torpedo or tity of stored-up work and the penetrating fig. sbot. Being complete in itself, such an engine ure. We must not blink the fact that 29 feet by means of suction pipes can draw water is a length of gun involving special allowance from any damaged compartment, and keep it in the turret and deck. The maximum width down until the necessary repairs are made. of both the Colossus and Majestic is 68 feet.

The power of this piece then is very great, THE

ING GUN.—The heavy breech-loading . On the most recent trials a gun pow in course of its departmental trials in velocity of 1930 feet was obtained with 300 the Royal Gun Factories naturally excites pounds of powder, and a pressure of 19 tons much interest, being the first breech Toader in

on the square inch.- Engineer. our service largertban the old Armstrong 7-inch guns, which fired shot weighing 110 pounds, with considerable difficulty, and were eventually supplied with sbells urder 100 pounds in

BOOK NOTICES. weight. The new gun weighs about 43 tons. Its caliber is 12 inches, and its length of bore

PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 290 feeze longer the method of closing the ILLUSTRMOFDVE WORKS

LLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF THE BALDWIN breech is the same as that adopted in the new and scree power in applied to the closing and OFFERTENGAGEFTCE OF Vol. 19, NTT

FFICIAL GAZETTE THE UNITED STATES locking of the breech. In general appearance,

. T

WELFTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOARD resembles the 9.2.inch breech-loading Wool OF RAILROAD COMMISSIONERS OF MASBAwich gun depicted in The Engineer of June CHUSETTS. 27, 1880. The new armor-clad vessels Colossus and Majestic will cach, we believe, carry M

ONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW FOR JANUfour of this description of gun, mounted in

ARY, 1881, two turrets, arranged similarly to those of the Inflexible, which vessel they will closely re The

THE WORKSHOP. No. 3. E. Steiger & Co. semble. They are to be 5 feet longer and 7 feet narrower, and are to be made of steel, with compound armor 16 inches thick. For a

HROUGH the kindness of Mr. James For. THI

rest, Secretary of the Institution of Civil full description the reader is referred to King's Engineers, we have received the following

War Shipg,” new edition. Up to the present published papers of the Institution. time the gun in question has not been the sub Address of James Abernetby, Esq., F. R. ject of any public trial, being, as we have s. E.” said, in the course of undergoing its early Machinery for Steel Making,” by Benj. proofs in the hands of Colonel Maitland, the Walker, M. I. C. E. Superintendent of the Gun Factories. In this “ Thé Monte Penna Wire Ropeway,” by stage it is impossible to give full detailed in. William P. Churchward, A. I. C. E. formation. We think, however, that we can “ Cribwork in Canada,” by Henry Taylor supply what is sufficiently near for all practi- Bovey, M. A. cal purposes. The gun was fired on Thursday, “Different Modes of Erecting Iron Bridges,” January 6th, with about 280 pounds of pris- by Theophilus Seyrig, M. I. C. E. Translated matic powder, which, with a projectile weigh. by Alfred Bache, A. I. C. E. iny 703 pounds, gave an initial velocily of about 1830 feet per second. The charge is be


ENGINEERING AND THE MEing gradually increased—the pressure in the CHANISM OF RAILWAYS, By Zrah Colbore being as yet only about 16 tons on the burn. For sale by D. Van Nostrand. Price $10. square inch. Taking it in its present condi This is not a new book, nor is it a new edition, however, the gun is a very powerful tion of an old one, but attention is called anew weapon, having about 16,330 foot-tons stored to this valuable treatise by the announcement ap work, or 435 foot-tons per inch circumfer- of a material reduction in the price. Two ence, which means a penetration of from 22 large quartos, describing and illustrating in



the fullest manner every department of loco This is a new volume of the well-known motive structure and use, are now offered for Weale series. It is prepared by a well-known ten dollars.

author for ibose readers who desire to become The plates afford working dimensions, and thoroughly acquainted with theories of structhe text fully describes the details.

tures, and the practical application of results

in the simplest way, and not as a mathematiCAETCHCEC; Curta. PerCHA. ET GOMME cal exercise

FACTICE. Paris : Librarie de Roret. For A convenient and compact volume is the resale by D. Van Nostrand. Price $1.75.

sult of tbis plan, containing as much science There are two volumes of this little French as a large proportion of working engineers work, of wbich the first is devoted to caout- are accustomed to employ. the raw material, and the machinery for the T By Robert

L. Galloway. "London: Macmanufacturing processes are briefly described. The plates are good, although few in number. millan & Co. Price $3.50.

This is a brief history of the use of steam

from 1660 to 1820. The object of tbe author. OUVEAU TRAITE DE CHIMIE INDUSTRI

as explained inftbe preface, is ioexbibit ibe sucELLE. Wagner et L Gautier. Paris: Librairie F. Savy. For sale by D. Van Nos der and piston engine, and not to give an ac

cessive steps in the development of the cyliotrand. Price $10.50. This extensive work is now in two large oc: been employed.

count of all the machines in which steam bas tavo volumes illustrated with the best style of woodcuts and in the most profuse manner. tions are excellent, although the latter will

The book is well printed, and the illustrathere being 487 such illustrations in the work. look familiar to readers of former sketches on

The first section of the work treats of Metal. this subject, and the number will seem small urgical Processes; the second, of Raw Mate compared with the abundance afforded in rials and Products of Industrial Chemistry; Thurston's history of the steam engine. the third, of Glass, Pottery, Lime and Plas.

The bibliography of the subject seems to be ter; fourth, Vegetable

Matters and their

Indus: fully given in the foot notes, a fact that will trial Applications; fifth, of Animal Matter; render the work valuable to students or writers sixth, Coloring Matters; seventh, Illumina- upon subjects relating 10 the history of engition; eighth, Heatiog, the Materials and Ap-neering progress. paratus. L'FB. Gunning." New York: R. Worthing Scammen. MONEW YORKING. P. Putnam's Sons.

IFE HISTORY OF OUR PLANET. By Wm. THEMARIONETU A AMERICA "By Charles M. ton. Price $1.50. This is paleontology in a popular, not to say

Price $10.00 an upscientific form. Facts are gleaned here

This is an illustrated quarto, giving, in adand there from the zoology of the past, and dition to the babits of the whales, seals and presented in the style of the popular scientitic Dolphins, an account of the methods of the

American whale fishery. lecturer. There is a tendency in all such works to give seeking for full information on these subjects,

The book will prove valuable to the naturalist undue prominence io the astounding facts, and to omit the expression of their logical and will also prove acceptable to any lover of connection; but it may be urged that by such natural history by reason of the fullness of the means the attention of the unlearned is first descriptive text and illustrations. arrested and directed to the proper sources of information.


EWING MACHINERY. By J. W. Urqubart, The book is fairly illustrated, and will, we Co. For sale by D. Van Nostrand. Pricë 80

C. E. London; Crosby Lockwood & have no doubt, be gladly received in those sec

cents. tions of the country where the author bas been heard on the lecture platform.

This is a late addition to the Weale series,

devoted exclusively to an historical and deABY LESSONS IN SANITARY SCIENCE. By will doubtless prove interesting to mauy, and

scriptive account of the sewing machine. It

? Presley Bl: kiston. Price $1.00. Land Drainage, Drainage of the Farm

information heretofore scattered through the House and Village, Drainage of Cities,

technical journals of several years.

and Plumbing, are the topics treated in an easy colloquial style by this author.

The writer possesses sufficient knowledge, derived from experience, and has produced a

MISCELLANEOUS. valuable, though brief and badly illustrated treatise.

WATERn Roefl paper is made by a new Ger: ATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION. By Fran- solution of ordinary glue add a little acetic

, Lockwood Co. For sale by D. Van Nostrand, asmall quantity of bicromate of potash in dis Price $1.20.

tilled water. These two liquids should be we


mixed together, and the sheets of paper which al. The act of deposit-made at the Federal have to be made waterproof drawn through Bureau at Berne-must be accompanied by a the mixture, and suspended from suitable lines legal attestation as to the place of manufacto dry. The proportions are not given, but 5 ture; the trade mark in triplicate, with exact per cent of acetic acid and 7 per cent. of a description of the article; a block of the trade saturated solution of bicromate of potash will mark, of a specified size and thickness; and

lastly, a sum of 20f. for eacb separate trade

mark. The deposit can be made by a third He manufacture of bicycles and veloci- party by procuration. The registration must dustries of the Midlands, and lately the rail- trade mark; the data of deposit and publicaway charges for the carriage of these products tion; the name, profession, and address of the have been considerably increased, in some proprietor; the description of the article and cases up to 100 per cent. The manufacturers of any modifications which might have been of Wolverhampton and Coventry have conse- made since the day of deposit. The descrip. quently interviewed the managers of the Lon- tion is given in the language of the depositor, don and North-Western, the Great Western, provided it is in one of the three national lanand the Midland Railways, secking a return to guages; if otherwise, in Frencb. Renewal is the rates that prevailed before 1881. The result accompanied by the same formalities as deposit. has been that with this month the recently ad- The law on trade marks does not deal wiih, or vanced rates have been lowered 50 per cent. on affect in any way, the law of patents, which bicycles, and something like 75 per cent. on which will form a subject of debate in the retricycles. The manufacturers in the Wolver- newal of commercial i reaties between Switzerhampton district have formed themselves into land and the neighboring States. Apropos of an association.

this, says a contemporary, it may be men

tioned that an international conference upon IURNAL VARIATIONS OF THE BAROMETER. the law of patents has just been sitting in Paris, metric coefficients of daily variations from ob- has taken part. servations made at thirty stations scattered over the globe. The average duration at each station COLO

(OLOR RELATIONS OF METALs.-In a paper was something over ten years. Under the

on the color relations of copper, nickel, tropics the effect of latitude is scarcely per- cobalt, iron, manganese, and chromium, lately ceptible, but between the latitudes of 20° and read before the Chemical Society, Mr. T. Bay60° the value of the quadrantal component de ley records some remarkable relations between creases .001 inch per degree of latitude. The solutions of these metals. It appears that iron, calculations and the discussions which have cobalt, and copper form a natural color group, resulted from them confirm Sir John Her- for if solutions of their sulphates are mixed schel's views, in regard to the universality of together in the proportions of 20 paris of copthe phenomenon, and Chase's explanation of per, I of iron, and 6 of cobalt, the resulting the cause.

liquid is free from color, but is grey and partially opaque.

It follows from this that a YIRCULATION OF AIR IN THE ST. GOTTHARD mixture of any two of these elements is comattention to the variations in the air currents tions are maintained. Thus a solution of cobetween the two openings at Göschenen aud balt (pink) is complementary to a mixture of Airolo. He finds two principal causes to be iron and copper (bluish green); a solution of operative in these changes: First, the south- iron (yellow) to a mixture of copper and cobalt ern opening is 30 meters (32.809 yards) higher (violet); and a solution of copper (blue) to a than the northern, which represents a pressure Bayley shows,

a solution of copper is exactly

mixture of iron and cobalt (red). But, as Mr. equivalent to that of a column of air 36 meters (39.371 yards) high at the subterranean complementary to the red reflection from coptemperature; second, the difference of baro- per, and a polished plate of this metal viewed metric pressures upon the two declivities of the through a solution of copper salt of a certain mountain. If the external temperature was

thickness is silver white. As a further conalways lower than the internal, if the baromet- sequence, it follows that a mixture of iron (7 ric temperature was the same at each side, parts) and cobalt (6 parts) is identical in color and if there were no modifications of velocity with a plate of copper. The resemblance is due to the heating and expansion of the air or so striking that a silver or platinum vessel covto the friction against the walls, the draft ered to the proper depth with such a solution would always be south ward. Meteorological is indistinguishable from copper. observations are regularly taken, both at

There is a curious fact regarding pickel also Airolo and Göschenen, to determine the elements worthy of attention. This metal forms soluwhich are required in order to know, monthly mixture of iron and copper solutions; but this

tions, which can be exactly simulated by a or annually, the number of days for which a given direction of current or an absolute calm mixture contains more iron than that which is may be expected in the interior of the tunnel.

complementary to cobalt. Nickel solutions

are almost complementary 10 cobalt soluHE new law upon trade marks now in force tions, but they transmit an excess of yellow procedure, viz.: deposit, registry, and renew- very nearly the mean of the atomic weight of

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