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and watertight, but their warnings were disre- the gauge is 1 meter (3.28 feet). The curves garded.

on the racked portions are everywhere of a ra

dius of 475 feet. At both ends, and at the Tanda

Herald of February 3rd,mays \HE PANAMA CANAL.–The Panama Star middle of the line for the dressing floors, are

"On sidings reached by switches of the ordinary Saturday afternoon, January 29, 1881, the construction, and å turntable affords access to French steamer Lafayette arrived at Colon the tracks laid in the works below. The teeth with MM. Armand Reclus, G. Blanchet, and of the rack are 3.9 inches from center to cenabout forty other gentlemen, who are to be ter; it weighs 90 lbs. per yard, and cost about employed on the Panama Canal. For the 223. per yard at the works. The rails, 31 present, and it is presumed permanently, the inches high, weigh 50 lbs. per yard, and cost Canal headquarters will be in Panama, al- £8 108. per (metric) ton. In spite of the genthough Colon will be the main point for dis. erally economical nature of the line, it was tribution of supplies, &c., for the work. The impossible to avoid some heavy works in cutexpedition is divided into two distinct sections tings and banks, the excavation in rock or departments. M. Reclus is the general amounting to more than 15,000 cubic yards. agent, with full powers from the Canal Com- It was also necessary to cross the line of the pany over all matters which may require his Nassau railway, the many streams in the valattention and decision on the isthmus. M. G. ley, and the road leading to the FriedrichshaBlanchet is director of the canal works. It is gen works. Some of the bridges are of iron, understood that the work of the various sec- but the greater part are of masonry. The tions and commissions is to be begun at once working stock is at present limited to one locoand pushed on with energy. It will relate motive and eighteen wagons. The engine, principally to the exact location of the line for constructed in the works of the Swiss central the proposed canal, clearing away the timber, railway at Olten, weighs 10 tons, or with fuel brush, '&c., thus opening up the country and water, 11.8 tons, and cost £1,120. through which the excavation will be made; Its load is 10 tons up to the mine, and 18 arranging matters of titles for right of way, tons down to the valley. The wagons weigh buildings, &c., and the general land grants of 0.9 ton each, and carry 2.5 tons. They are the company, and other matters of a prelimi- provided with brakes, and cost £32 108. each. nary character which must necessarily precede The greatest speed is six miles an hour. The the commencement of the actual work. A line was begun in April, 1880, and was only year or more must necessarily elapse before seven months in making. It cost, including the employment of machinery will be neces- working stock, 150,000 marks (£7,500) or 60,sary or possible, and in the meantime the num- 000 marks per kilometer (£4,800 per mile), ber of laborers' which will be needed will be which compares favorably with similar lines comparatively smal). The demand can be in Switzerland, costing from 140,000 to 97,000 easily supplied at present, or for some time to marks per kilometer. This makes the tenth come, on the isthmus or in the near neighbor- railway in Europe on the Riggenbach system, hood, and any great immigration of mere bone the others being at Arth Rigi, Vitznau-Rigi, and muscle seeking employment in ordinary, Rohrschach-Heiden, and quarry lines at Oscanal work is, for the present, unnecessary. termundingen and Laufen, and the Ruti line

in Switzerland; Kahlenberg, and Schabenberg

in Austria-Hungaria; and the Wasseralfingen RAILWAY NOTES.

line in Wurtemburg. - Wochenblatt für Archi

tekten und Ingenieure. T: THE FIRST Rack RAILWAY IN PRUSSIA.--BY

0. SARRAZIN.--The rich lead and silver mines of the Friedrichsbagen Consolidated

ORDNANCE AND NAVAL. Company of Oberlahnstein are situated be. tween Ems and Lahnstein, about 1%mile from

NEW ARMORED CRUISER. — Active the banks of the Labn. The company employs nearly one thousand work people, male for commencing the new armor-clad cruiser and female, and in 1878 raised 14,000 tons of mentioned in the Navy Estimates for 1881-2. ore, which had to be transported at ihe rate of She will be constructed in No. 12 dock, with46 tons a day down the valley to the river, in the extension works, a plan of building there to be conveyed in barges to its destina- which has many advantages over the method tion. The system of land carriage being no usually adopted of building on a slip. All the longer equal to the requirements of the mine, weights, instead of having to be raised, will it was determined to make a private railway be dropped to where they are wanted, and on the Riggenback system. The line, which when the ship is completed she will be simply was opened on the 8th of November, 1880, is floated out of dock, instead of having to be partly ordinary and partly rack railway. The launched into the water by the expensive and difference of level between the two termini is complicated method adopted in the case of 384 feet, wbich bad to be surmounted in a the Inflexible. The only drawback is the exlength of 8,200 feet, thus giving 1 in 24.4 as posure to the weather, and this will be remethe mean gradient. The steepest part worked died by some temporary shelter. The length by adhesion is 1 in 20.5, and by the rack rail 1 in of the sbip has been increased to 315 feet be. 10. The racked portion is altogether 1,968 feet tween perpendiculars, while her breadth is 61 long, divided into three inclines of respectively feet, and her mean draught 24 feet 3 inches. 262, 1,165, and 541 feet each. The width of About 120 tons of material, consisting of angle




remedied by fitting a drop rudder forward. By J. W. Urquhart, C. E.

steel plates and rivets have already been de were 435, and the horse power indicated 90. manded. A disposition of butts and edges of Six runs were made, the mead speed abead bethe bottom plating has also been submitted by ing 12.356 knots per hour. Two runs were the officials at Portsmouth, and approved by afterwards made with the screw going astern, the Construction Department at the Admi- the result giving an average speed of 10.14 ralty, add every effort will be made to begin knots, the revolution being the same. The the ship as early as possible in the ensuing steering qualities of the boat were next tested. financial year.

when the absence of the after deadwood gave

some remarkable results, the boat circling to EW STEAM PINNACE.—A boat of a very starboard and to port in 30 seconds, or onein the Solent, and submitted to the dockyard eter of 72 feet. With the engines going astern officers at Portsmouth for their approval. It the pinnace turned in 142 minute. As the prowas built by Mr. S White, of East Cowes, peller shaft revolves in solid water, and is only and in size, shape, and general construction is connected with the quarters by a bracket, almost an exact copy of the 48 feet steam pin- there was a remarkable absence of vibration. naces which he has supplied to the navy for The two rudders are simultaneously actuated guard and other purposes. The distinguishing by means of gearing and a double worm, feature of the new boat is the manner in which wbich effectually locks the rudder, and thus the dead wood and keel have been cut away to enables the wheel to be left to itself.- Times the extent of about one-balf of its length, by which a free flow of water to the screw is secured. The advantage, however, does not

BOOK NOTICES. consist in any accession of speed while going ahead, which remains the same, but in a con

PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. siderable gain to speed in going astern, which

NNUAL REPORT OF THE STATE GEOLOGIST it can do as rapidly as ahead, and in the remarkable bandiness which the new principle Trenton.

THE YEAR 1880. 8vo. Paper, confers in going round. A very small acquaintance with vessels is sufficient to show LECTURE on the Progress of the Works that when the helm is put hard over, the stem of a boat makes little forward progress, but is Bed of the Danube at Vienna, and tbe lessons made the pivot upon which the stern revolves. taught thereby; by Sir Gustav Wex. With As the stern is invariably the more deeply im- five sheets of drawings. Translated by Maj. mersed, the result is that, in turning, the craft G. Weitzel, U. 8. A. 8vo. Pamphlet. Gov. is compelled to force back a wall of water, ernment Printing Office. 1881. which retards the boat in going round, throws

New great strain upon the rudder and gear, and in

HE WORKSHOP. No. 4, for 1881.

T. creases the work of the engines. In cutting

York: E. Steiger & Co. away the deadwood, the resistance of the water is reduced to a minimum as it escapes un


RE for February. der the quarter, and the pinnace was found on in one and a half of its whole length. The NTBY GEBAN KANden, B.Th. Hartford. For new design also enables the craft to stop al sale by D. Van Nostrand. Price $1.75. most dead, its way being arrested by a supple

A small book for the use of students is here mentary rudder, which is placed abaft the provided by the Professor of theoretical and screw, and is worked simultaneously with the applied mechanics in the Worcester Free Inordinary rudder outside. By placing this rud

stitute. der at right angles with the keel, it acts as an effectual brake, and arrests the way of the study of Rankine will welcome this aid.

Students who have found difficulty in their craft. It was feared that the reduction of the

The so-called notes are given as supplementdepth aft would have the effect of diminishing the stiffness of the pinnace in turning, but ary to separate numbered articles of the appractical tests have proved that the difference plied mechanics. is scarcely appreciable. The great drawback tion of a truss, and an investigation of the

The author bas also added the graphic soluwhich has hitherto attached to torpedo craft

Peaucellier cell. is the size of the circle which they require in a defect has


London: Should Mr. White's plan be found applicable Crosby Lockwood & Co. For sale by D. Van to them, their activity in the water will be Nostrand. Price $2.00. greatly increased by its adoption. The little To say that this book is very well printed craft was put through a severe trial. The be-on tinted paper, and that the wood cuts, twen. havior of the pinnace bas answered every ex-, ty-six in number, are mostly well executed, is pection, while its remarkable handiness sur- to enumerate its chief merits. prised the officers in charge. At a previous It coutains some valuable hints to practical trial the boiler pressure, with closed stokehole, workers, and devotes much space to ihe rudi. was 120 lbs. (the same as in the torpedo craft), ments of electro-chemistry, but in either part while the air pressure from the fans equaled 4 it is too sketchy to prove of any special value inches of water ; the revolutions per minute to either the general reader or the artisan.

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DLES, WITH A GLANCE AT THE INDUSTRY F. R. A. S. London: Crosby Lockwood & OF FATS AND Oils. By R. S. Cristiani. PhilCo. For sale by D. Van Nostrand. Price adelphia: Henry Carey Baird & Co. For sale 80 cents.

by D. Van Nostrand. Price $6.00. This is the sixth edition, enlarged, of a In this, as in all complete works on subjects cheap form of a valuable book. It is of a relating to chemical techpology, the chemical convenient size (Weale series), and the tables and physical properties of all the raw mateare well selected and well arranged.

rials are fully discussed, and as in this case

the number of substances is considerable, a HE GAS ENGINEKR'S DIARY AND Text large space is devoted to the natural history of Wm. S. Mason. Birmingham: Office of “Gas der the book of value to many who are not inEngineer.” For sale by D. Van Nostrand. terested in the processes of manufacture, to Price $1.00.

which the volume is otherwise devoted. The portion of this work which is termed

The illustrations are numerous and good, the Literary Section ” will probably prove to and serve to describe with great minuteness be the valuable portion to gas engineers on the latest improved methods. this side of the Atlantic. This section is composed of several articles by different writers, IM

MAGINARY QUANTITIES, THEIR GEOMETRIspecially prepared for this work and devoted the French of M. Argand. By Prof. A. S.

CAL INTEPRETATION. Translated from to gas engineering and gas manufacture A portion of the work is devoted to tables, Hardy. For sale by D. Van Nostrand. Price

50 cents. formulas and statistics of special use to the working engineer.

This essay forms No. 52 of the Science Se

ries, and is presented just as it appeared in the IVER BARS, THEIR FORMATION AND TREAT

pages of this magazine. R

It is of the class of essays which most stuBy I. J. Mann. London: Cros. dents, who take delight in mathematics, will by Lockwood & Co. For sale by D. Van Nos- read with pleasure and profit. It will interest trand Price $3.00.

more readers than do the heavier articles of the This thin octavo of seventy-five pages deals mathematical journals, inasmuch as tbe subwith admirable conciseness with an important ject is one presented to the student almost at . subject.

the beginning of bis algebra. The table of contents is as follows:

The notes of the translator will, we think, Chapter I. Bar Formation.

be read with quite as much interest and profit II. Wave Action.

as the original essay.
III. Currents and Scour,
IV. Dublin Bar.

V. Dublin Harbor Improvement

Compiled by Romyn Hitchcock, F. R. Schemes.

M. S. New York: Romyn Hitchcock. For VI. Dublin Bar-Treatment by In- sale by D. Van Vostrand. Price 75 cents. duced Tidal Scour.

This is practically a descriptive catalogue of The illustrations, twenty-three in number, this interesting group of Protozoa. The charare good.

acteristics of the genera are given with satis

factory fullness; then follows a list of species THE COAL FIELDS OF GREAT BRITAN. By with the principal features described, after Edward Stanford. For sale by D. Van Nos minuteness. trand. Price $6.40.

The book will prove a great aid to students This is of local rather than general interest. who collect microscopic organisms, and, inThe descriptions of the geography and geolo- deed, is calculated to stimulate many to begin

such work. gy of the coal districts are exceedingly full


BY INCANDESCENCE, A brief Sketch of the coal fields of India E

AND ITS APPLICATION TO INTERIOR ILLUand of North and South America closes the

With 96 illustrations. By William volume.

Edward Sawyer. 8vo. New York: D. Van

Nostrand. 1881. Price 2.50.

is a book of great to sale by D. Van Nostrand. Price $6 00.

style is exceptionally clear and comprehensive. This a practical treatise on underground We, of course, perfectly understand that the pumping machinery, with complete descrip book is written in order to introduce the Sawtions in detail of a large number of the best yer system of lighting to the general public; known engines

iherefore, the closing words of the preface, The contents are classified as:

implicitly carried out as they are throughout Rotary Horizontal Engines, Non-Rotary the whole book, appear noble by comparison Horizontal Engines, Rotary and Non-Rotary with many books of the same order. We Vertical Engines.

quote: "Those who expect to find them devotAs a book of reference for the mining engi.ed to criticism of the labors of other experiDeer, the work must be of exceeding value, mentalists will be eqnally disappointed. In

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the position of an impartial student and ob- the light of the incandescent carbon is very un server, I have sought less to indicate defects like that of the voltaic arc. Its characteristics than to exhibit accomplishments.”

are the characteristics of daylight; and this is Of the work, fifty-three pages are devoted true to such an extent that, from its soft and to a full description of all the types of dyna- agreeable nature and absence of glaring effects, mo machines, of which only ten describe the the degree of illumination afforded is not alSawyer. Thirty-three engravings fully illus- ways readily appreciated.” Besides, incandestrate this portion of the book. A view of scent lights do not require shades. each machine, with diagrams of internal con Chapter IX. treats of “the division of the struction in detail are given, and explained in current and light;" a most interesting chapter, the text with unusual clearness and perspi- because of the widely different opinions of cuity. Especially is this the case in the wind- physicists upon the subject. This should be ing of the wires in the various methods of read by all who are interested, as the author construction, so that any intelligent mechanic states his case and calculations clearly. If could, from the drawings and text, easily con- verified by future experiment they are of great struct any of these machines. The various value, bui only actual experiment can decide. physical laws are introduced incidentally, as Chapter X is devoted to a description of the occasion requires. The writer has not seen Sawyer regulator, called here the switcb-a any book from which so much detail can be most important part of the system, as by it the learned as from this.

light is almost instantly turned up or down, As the Sawyer light is of the incandescent giving any degree of intensity of light as reclass, of course the book treats of that class in quired by the person using it. The subject is particular, devoting sixty-one pages of text illustrated in ten perspective and six diagram and thirty-two engravings to the lamps and views, including the current regulator, one becarbons, nearly one-half of wbich is taken up ing a fine view of the Maxim governor. Wbile with other patents. The details of the Edison these regulators admirably perform their funcalone are illustrated by seven diagrams, giving tions, he is careful, in perfect candor, to inthe best idea of the process of manufacturing form the reader (page 149) that, “By means of the Edison lamp we have seen; also, a fine these regulators the changes in the circuit ocview of the Maxim form. As a part of the casioned by the Sawyer switches for graduatlamp, twenty pages and five plates are devoted ing the light are insiantly balanced. But the to the manufacture and preservation of car- factremains that as much power is expended bons. A page diagram is given of the Spren- in driving the generator when there are a few gel pump, as used by Edison and others. All as when ihere are many lamps in a circuit, and conflicting patents appear to be given, with in a general distributing system, where econdates. The chemical notes beginning page 105 omy is the prime consideration, such regulaare excellent. His remarks, page 103, upon tors, however perfect in their operation, can the comparative cost of arc and incandescent have no practical application.” Weventure to fighting present the subject so clear that we remark that this is not a peculiar defect of the quote: Light by incandescence is considera- electric light, but is a foundation principle bly more costly than light by the voltaic arc, governing every other industry. when the volume of light obtainable is the sole Chapter XI is devoted to the consideration consideration. The same expenditure of pow. of the Sawyer patent for lighting the buildings er that will produce a light of 1000 candles by in the blocks of a city by electric lights. The the voltaic arc will not produce, on an average, history, plaus, meters, switches, etc., requisite more than half or one-third as much light as are fully set forth in the text and eleven diaincandescence in a divided circuit. It should grams. It also deserves careful study. In it not, however, be forgotten that the power of the “ Niagara Falls problem” is discussed at any light decreases as the square of the dis- length, and, to our mind, settles that question. tance from it, and that one-fourth of the light The last chapter is devoted to the commerof the arc, distributed at four or five appropri- cial aspects of the subject--that omnipotent ate points, thus reducing the power of each question, · Will it pay ?" This chapter inlight to be of that of the voltatic arc, will give volves so many points, exhibits so many tables substantially as good a general illumination as and calculations, which must be most carefully the arc.

The incandescent light is whatever studied before an opinion can be given, that may be desired. The arc light is necessarily a we have not time this month to devote to it. powerful one. The objection to it, if used It is in pript, in the book, for all interested to without a shade, is its great intensity and criticise. - Journal of Franklin Institute. ghastly effects; and in order to obviate these defects , glass shades of more or less espacity

. Somarch 7, 1881, The Engineer, of London, are employed, which, according to tests, involve a wastage in light of,

devotes nearly a column and a balf to a review With ground glass..

30 per cent.

of the recent work on “Steam Boilers,” by EnWith thin opal glass..


gineer-in-Chief W. H. Shock. U.S. N. The reWith thick opal glass.. 60

viewer calls it “the most important treatise on

boiler engineering with which we are acquaintIn some cases wastage is nearly 75 per cent." ed,” and gives great praise to the illustrations,

Experiments in France on the Jablochkoff, per, printing, binding, etc. He says: “The with the necessary opalescent globes. “it is plates are working drawings, which only refound that only 43 per cent. of its full power quire to be enlarged to be fit to send into the is available.' “It is proper to remark that shops, and in the matter of constructive de

tails they show much that will be found novel and Cotopaxi to a distinguished audience. and useful by English engineers.” It is not, While purely athletic mountaineers had his however, clear to the mind of the American sympathy in the practice of mountaineering engineer why he should call the bracing of the as a sport, Mr. Whymper confessed that his rectangular boiler, shown on plate 18, a curi- sympathies were much more with those who ous example” of “misplaced ingenuity.” On employed their brains as well as their muscles. this plate the best American practice of brac. His jo to the Andes was to be one of ing rectangular boilers is illustrated, and the work, and all its arrangements were devised so devices are in no way novel; but it is true that as to economize time to the uttermost. In obserEnglish practice, even in so-called first-class vations for altitudes and position, in studying work, is, in many respects, very inferior to the manners and customs of the country, in this. While summing up his opinion of the photography and sketching, in the collection book in the last paragraph, the critic calls it of objects of interest, from beetles on the "the most complete treatise on the marine summits of mountains to antiquities buried in boiler ever written,” in which there is little to the ground, he found quite sufficient to occupy call for adverse criticism; and says further on, his time. From Bodegas the party was com"it brings our knowledge of it (boiler engi- posed of two Swiss mountaineers, the cousins neering) down to the latest date and the ques. Carrel, of Val Tournacbe, Mr. Perring, some tions which may be asked, and the answers to muleteers, and their teams. When tbey which cannot be found between the covers, reached the summit of Chimborazo, on the must be few and far between,” he makes the 3rd of January, after a most arduous climb, unreasonable complaint that it does not give a they found the wind blowing at the rate of 50 satisfactory answer to all the perplexing ques- miles an hour, from the northeast, and driving tions which now disturb the mind of the ma- the snow before it. With extreme difficulty, rine engineer. The critic finds fault with the a reading of the mercurial barometer was writer for following closely in the footsteps of effected. The mercury fell to 14.1 inches with Rankine, in the chapters on combustion, trans- a temperature of 21° Fahr. This being workmission of heat and evaporation; but he does ed out, in comparison with a nearly simultanot point out a single fact wbich requires cor- neous observation at Guayaquil, gave 20,545 rection, nor does he indicate a safer guide. It feet for the height of Chimborazo. They beis hardly fair in the critic to give it as his gan the descent at 20 minutes past 5, with opinion that the investigation of the laws gov. scarcely an hour and a quarter of daylight, and erning the draught of chimneys is simply in- reached their camp (about 17,400 feet above serted “to give an air of erudition to the the sea level) about 9 P, M., having been out work.” If he had studied this chapter care nearly sixteen hours, and on foot the whle fully he would have found that a number of time. Passing from an extinct to an active very important conclusions are drawn from volcano, Mr. Wymper next gave an account of this investigation. From the fact that the his journey to the crater of Cotopaxi. Obrules given in the book regarding the manage serving with the telescope, during an enforced ment of boilers do not differ essentially from stay at Machachi, that much less smoke or English practice, the reviewer concludes that vapor was given off at night than by day, be they are directly derived from it. This may resolved; if possible, to pass a night on the be pardonable in an English critic. The re- summit. On the 18th of February the party viewer desires fuller information regarding the got to the edge of the crater, having passed use of steel for boilers. He should, however, almost the whole way from their camp at a be aware of the fact that many questions re- height of 15,000 feet to the foot of the final lating to this subject will necessarily remain cone over snow, and then over ash mixed with unanswered for years to come. For the en- ice. The final cone was the steepest part of lightenment of the critic, we add that steel the ascent, and on their side presented an anboilers have been introduced into United gle of 36 degrees. When they reached the States Naval vessels since the last three years crater vast quantities of smoke and vapor were and have given the most satisfactory results. boiling up, and they could only see portions This is due, no doubt, in a great measure, to of the opposite side at intervals, and the botthe superior quality of the material em- tom not at all. Their tent was pitched 250 ployed, which is entirely free of the defects feet from the edge of the crater, and during a found in many English steels, that cause so violent squall the india-rubber floor of the tent much trouble to the English boilermaker. It was found to be on the point of melting, a will be seen that the few unfriendly criticisms, maximum thermometer showing a temperature seasoning the high praise given to the book, of 110 degrees on one side of the tent and of are mostly trivial and unreasonable; the critic but 50 degrees on the other; in the middle it has been looking for new theories, but the was 75.5 degrees. Outside it was intensely author has given nothing but established facts, cold, and a thermometer on the tent cord because the latter are more needed than the showed a minimum of 13 degrees. At night former.-Army and Navy Register.

they had a fine view of the crater, which has from a diameter north to south of 2000 ft., and

from east to west of about 1500. ft. In the inteMISCELLANEOUS.

rior the walls descend to the bottom in a series

of steps of precipice, and slope a good thouG EOGRAPHICAL NOTES.—On Tuesday night, sand feet, and at the bottom there was a nearly

at the Royal Institution, Mr. Edward circular spot of glowing fire, 200 feet in diam. Whymper described his ascents of Chimborazo eter. On the sides of the interior, higher up

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