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to this day appreciated by the natives, his study has been the work the title of who for many centuries, have plundered which is above given. the ruins to build or to patch up their The Italian antiquaries of the sevenown even more ruinous houses. The use teenth and eighteenth centuries, Nardini, of bricks among the Romans, who largely Ciampini, and their contemporaries, had employed them as building materials, not largely drawn on the store of historias we see in the familiar instance of the cal information afforded by the Latin Temple of Concord, has been more than brick inscriptions ; Fabretti was, indeed, once the subject of the inquiry of indus. 'the first to set into any order the more trious antiquaries, for the Romans were remarkable of these, but his efforts were not content with producing the flat, tile. merely tentable; his collection of inscriplike brick which is so often to be met with tions was unclassified and incomplete. It in the lower portions of antique struc- was reserved to the worthy Abate tures scattered over the Empire, and that Gaetano Marini, the curator of the Vatiare known in England, but their bricks can Museum at the close of the last were indelibly stamped with the mark of century, to put together in a methodical their maker, the names of the reigning manner the stamped bricks of the choice consuls, and sometimes the year. From collection under his control; this task he this source, then, more than one patient admirably performed, preparing a learned archæologist has gathered a rich store of catalogue which however remained at information. But few inquirers have his death in an incomplete and manuventured far on the apparently arid and script form ; but, such as it is, this manudifficult road, which has hence remained script preserved in the Vatican Library, little explored. Some curious informa- has proved a mine of information to all lion has, however, been lately thrown on subsequent writers. Marini's catalogue the question by the researches of a was arranged with admirable order and French antiquary, M. Descemet, who has carefully classified, each brick of the col. published in a recent number of the lection being the subject of numerous Bibliothéque des écoles d'Athénes et de commentaries. Rome—an excellent publication, founded In spite of Marini's method, M. Descein 1877 and now at its seventeenth num- met has adopted another system more ber-an article on the “Inscriptions do- suited to the requirements of the day, as liaires latines” or Roman brick-marks, rendered necessary by the considerable more especially relative to the gens Do- additions made to the list of brick inmitia, in antique Rome the most renowned scriptions since the recent excavations. brick-makers.

In his introduction, M. Descemet has From an epigraphical point of view carefully shown the importance of the brick marks of the Romans have the study of these brick

these brick inscriparoused the attention of more than one tions, by which the date of the erecarchæologist, but the difficulties which tion of a building may be approximately have stood in the way of procuring the ascertained. But as the author hastens stamps, added to the enigmatical nature to add, the fact of bricks bearing dates, of the inscriptions themselves, have led or stamps being found in certain spots, the inquirers to fields where the results is not, of course, conclusive evidence to were more showy and more easily ob- the archæologist. Thns, in 1844, at Aix, tained. M. Descemet has long been in Provence, a brick of the year 123 was known to the antiquarian world ; as far found, stamped with the mark of a Roman back as 1857 his “Fouilles de St. Sabina” workshop, but the presence of this brick attracted no little attention, as also, in can alone be accounted for by the effect 1876, his study, “Sur quelques Regles of accident, as it was scarcely possible de Briques antiques,” published in the that a town near Marseilles, so long Bulletin de Correspondence Archæolo- famous for its pottery, should receive its gique. In possession of a valuable col- bricks from Rome. On the shores of the lection of stamps of his own, together Adriatic, at Pola and Zara, and in other with copies from the brick stamps of the towns of Istria and Dalmatia, the existVatican Museum, M. Descemet had at ence of a large number of bricks bearing his disposition more than ordinary the stamp of Rimini would tend to show sources of reference, and the result of that the brick trade, which still exists on

both sides of the Adriatic, can be traced the gens Domitia that attention has been back at least eighteen centuries. paid. Why this gens has been chosen

But apart from the geographical infor- the author explains. It would appear mation these stamped bricks afford, the that the gens Domitia possessed the inscriptions they bear throw not a little largest and most important of the brick light on an ill-known state of Roman mauufactories of ancient Rome. Apart society—the education of the slaves, who from this, the gens take no mean place in though we have classic evidence proving the history of Rome ; in the person of that they were placed under school- the virtuous Marcus Aurelius, it ascended masters, would seem to have little pro- the imperial throne. From the brick fited by this education, as the inscriptions inscriptions gathered, the wealth of the it was their duty to stamp could only emperor would appear to have been have had their letters placed upside down enormous, as we learn by the large numor transposed (as they are often found) ber of workshops his gens employed, in by persons unable to read, who copied company with those of the gens Aria as well as they could a model under their which he inherited through his marriage eyes.

with Faustina. How these stamps and brick inscrip The interest of this quiet and appartions were made is a point of some ently little-inviting study would be thus uncertainty. Had the ancients moulds, seen to be great. Its historical value is or did they use movable types ? This no less appreciable. We are comparalatter method would suppose a great tively far from the days when the history invention of the fifteenth century to have of ancient times was merely gathered been forestalled. M. Descemet, who de- from former texts ; the aid afforded by votes some pages to the discussion of the numismatics and epigraphy is largely question, concludes in favor of the mould, called into requisition by the more serious such as we see examples of in more than modern historians. This little work of one national collection. The stamp was M. Descemet shows us how, even from cut in relief, or incised, and then—like the humble sources of the brick inscripthe butter-print of the present day- tions, important facts may be gathered. made use of. As for the character of The careful and beautifully cut Roman the spelling to be met with, this would stone inscriptions, so easy to read, are naturally arise from the want of educa- not sufficient; the research can be carried tion of the workman.

further, as we see for instance, in the stuAmong the various other points con- dy by M. Mumont on the ceramic inscripsidered by M. Descemet, the reason why tions of Greece, and even more strikingly the Roman bricks bear the date of their in the delightful study which M. Dressel production is not the least curious; but published some time since on the shatwhen Pliny's advice to the architect is tered débris of Monte Testaccio. M. remembered, only to make use of bricks Descemet's inquiry into the brick-marks when two years old—“ædificiis nonnisi of ancient Rome has already yielded some bimos probant,”—an explanation may, curious information ; it is to be hoped perhaps, be found. A point has been that his success will encourage him to omitted by M. Descemet-one to which further study in this yet far from exattention is drawn in a recent able article hausted field of archeological research. in the Revue des Questions Historiques -in his neglecting to refer to the palms, pine cones, and animals so often 'found stamped on the Roman bricks. It is now The invention of binocular glasses has known that with the potters whose name usually been attributed to Father de represented or recalled any object or Rheita, who died at Ravenna in 1660. animal, this object he stamped on the A printed placard has lately, however, pottery or brick of his make. Thus, been discovered in the Biblotheque by where we meet with the stamped image Signor Govi, which indicates that the of a wolf we may be sure that the work- credit of the invention is due to one D. man's name was Lupus.

Chorez, who lived at the sign of the As the title of the work shows, it is “Compass” on the island of Notre-Dame, alone to the brick inscriptions relative to and who made the “lunettes” in 1625.

.

AN INSTRUMENT FOR GAUGING THE FLOW.OF STREAMS.

By M. DE PERRODIL.

From the "Abstracts” of the Institution of Civil Engineers. This instrument, which is called a The velocity of the current is obtained hydro-dynamometer, measures the veloc- by the equation v=ova; where a is ity of a current by means of the torsion the angle of the torsion, and the value of produced on a wire by the pressure of c can be determined, either approxithe water against a disc fastened to the mately from the coefficient of torsion of end of the wire.

the material, or actually by experiment. A narrow frame, resembling in form The Author determined by experiment the longitudinal section of a tube termi- the value of c for the three differentnating in a bulb at the top, is immersed sized discs he employed. The instruvertically in the water, and turns, near ment was placed under one end of. a small its upper extremity, on a vertical pivot footbridge revolving round a central at the end of the horizontal bar which axis, and it moved in an annular trough, encircles, at its other end, an upright 2 feet wide, containing water. By turnpole driven into the bed of the stream. ing the footbridge, any desired velocity A little, short, hollow cylinder, fastened could be imparted to the instrument, and to the under side of the bar exactly be the motion was so regulated as to keep low the pivot, receives the end of the the angle of torsion constant. The vertical wire, which can be secured by a motion imparted to the water by the screw. The wire, which is situated in instrument passing through it was also the axis of the frame, passes through the observed, so that the actual velocity of center of the horizontal graduated the instrument through the water might circle, fastened, above the water-level, be accurately ascertained. across the widest part of the frame, and A brass wire, 6} feet long and finch is secured to the bottom cross-stay of the in diameter, was employed. A disc with frame. A needle, fastened to the wire a radius of 24 inches was used for velocijust above the graduated circle, serves to ties not exceeding 1 foot 4 inches per measure the torsion of the wire. A disc, second, with a radius of 11 inch for placed in the same plane as the frame, velocities between 1} and 34 feet per projects from the end of a horizontal second, and with a radius of inch for arm fastened to the bottom of the frame. velocities between 31 and 10 feet per

The instrument having been fixed with second. The distances in these three the disc at the desired depth, and on the cases between the center of the wire and up-stream side of the post, the disc as the centre of the disc were respectively sumesa position paralled to the current be- 8 inches, 4 inches, and 2 inches. The tween the frame and the post, the needle Author considers Woltmann's hydrome. and the frame are in the same plane, and tric mill inferior to his instrument, as the needle at the zero of the circle. On errors may occur in registering the numturning the needle by hand a torsion is ber of turns of the mill, and also in produced on the wire, and the frame and marking the time, and as it has to be disc

may be thus made to assume a posi- drawn out of the water to be read. Also tion perpendicular to the current. As the true equation for deducing the velocthe needle oscillates inconveniently, ity from the results of observations with owing to variations in the velocity of Woltmann's mill has not been thoroughly the current, the wire is secured at the top agreed upon, M. Chasles considering it to by the screw as soon as the frame and be an equation to a straight line, and disk are exactly perpendicular to the Herr Baumgarten an equation to a paracurrent, and the needle being fixed, the bola ; but experiments conducted by observer is free to note the oscillations the Author, and recorded in the last of the graduated circle, and can read off article, confirm the correctness of M. the mean angle of torsion, which is inde- Chasles' view. A superiority is claimed pendent of friction.

for the instrument over Pitot's tube, on

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account of its indicating the mean velo- the following receipt for a welding compound: city with greater accuracy. Morever, 64 parts of borax, 20 parts of sal-ammoniac, 10 the instrument actually employed can of colophonium. M. Rust changed it as fol

parts of ferrocyanide of potassium, and 5 parts indicate a velocity of sinch per second ; lows : 61 parts of borax, 1794 parts of sal-amwhereas Woltmann's mill ceases to re- moniac, 104 parts of ferrocyanide, and 5 parts volve in a current whose velocity is of colophonium. He states that with the acid reduced to 4 inches per second, and a

of this compound, welding may be accom

plished at a yellow red, or at a temperature bePitot's tube is even less suited to measure tween the yellow red and white, and that no accurately low velocities.-Annales des treatment is necessary after welding. The borax Ponts et Chaussées.

and sal-ammoniac are powdered, mixed and are slowly heated until they melt. Heating is continued until the strong odor of ammonia

ceases almost entirely, a small quantity of REPORTS OF ENGINEERING SOCIETIES.

water being added to make up for that lost by A of MERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. then added, together with the colophonium,

evaporation. The powdered ferrocyanide is the following papers : No. 205. The location of the Chimbote Tun- allowed to cool by spreading it out in a thin

smell of cyanogen is noticed. The mixture is nels, by 0. F. Nichols. 206. Practical Consequences of Variation and chloride of sodium are formed, ammonia

| layer. During the process given, boric acid of the Wet Section of Rivers under being expelled. The same product may, thereGeneral and Special Conditions, by fore, be obtained by mixing 41.5 parts of boric

Robt. E. McMather. 207. Wind Pressure against Bridges, by 15.5 to 26.7 parts of ferrocyanide of potassium,

acid, 35 parts dry chloride of sodium or salt, Ashbel Welch.

7.6 parts of colophonium, and 3 to 5 parts of 208. Cheap Transportation versus Rapid dry carbonate of soda. The only trouble with

Transit and Delivery, by Martin Cory- this mixture, which gives the same results, is

ell. 209. The Crippling Strength of Wrought- dry place.

that it decomposes easily unless it is kept in a Iron Columns, by C. L. Gates. E NGINEERS' CLUB OF PHILADELPHIA.

The latest number of Proceedings contains

ENGINEERING STRUCTURES. I. The Lightof

Vare River, from the Head of the Bay TouriLamonthly official report on the st.

to Philadelphia. By EDWARD PARRISH. Gothard Tunnel works affords some interesting II. Rock Drills. By FRANCIS L. MILLER.

information as to the condition of this underIII. A Machine for the Solution of the Equa- taking at the end of September last. From it

tion of the Nth Degree. By F. T. FREE- we learn that as regards the main tunnel the The Mexico and Vera Cruz Railroad. By enlargement to the full size of the arch bad COLEMAN SELLERS, JR.

been carried out, through the whole distance,

with the exception of a length of 131 ft. while V. Quantitative Determination of Combined Carbon in Cast Iron and Steel. By length of 30,260 ft. The masonry of the lining

the entire excavation had been completed for a David TOWNSEND. VI. The Future

Sewerage Requirements of of the arch was also completed for a length of the City of Philadelphia. By RUDOLPH sides for lengths of 32,440 ft. and 30,931 ft.

42,830 ft., and that the eastern and western HERING.

respectively. Moreover, the portion of the tun

nel completely finished, with waterways, reIRON AND STEEL NOTES.

suges, etc., reached 30,504 ft., or about two

thirds of the whole length. The heading for W

ELDING CAST STEEL.—Two points must the curved entrance tunnel at the Airolo end

be taken into consideration chiefly in has also been made for a length of 233 ft., only effecting the welding of steel : It is necessary 46 ft. remaining to be pierced. During the to render the film of oxidized iron on the sur month of September the number of men emfaces to be united by welding as fluid as possi- ployed on the main tunnel averaged 3051, while sible, and some means must be found to restore the total value of the works executed up to the to the steel the carbon eliminated during the end of the month reached 49,835,545 francs, or process of heating to the welding temperature. nearly two millions sterling. The average According to the Revue Industrielle, M. Rust temperature of the air in the central part of considers boric acid the most effectual in per- the tunnel averaged during the month 84.2 forming the former, and ferrocyanide of potas- deg. Fahr., while the maximum temperature sium in doing the latter. M. Rust considers was 89 deg. The daily consumption of oil in the functions of the ferrocyanide to be also to the tunnel averaged 1274 lbs., and of dynamite restore to the steel nitrogen, upon which he 518 lbs. As regards the railways which are looks as an important constituent of the metal. being made in connection with the main tunnel, In 1850 a workman of Mulhouse, Alsace, sold there has been executed up to the end of Sep

Vol. XXIV.-No. 1.-6.

LAND.

S out

tember on the line between Immensee and charges more than from about 40 to 50 cubic Fluelen 62 per cent. of the earthworks and 59 feet per second, for then the current has suffiper cent. of the masonry structures ; on the cient velocity to carry off along with it all the length between Fluelen and Goschenen, 75 gases which it sets free.- Translated papers of and 67 per cent. ; between Airolo and Biasca, the institution of Civil Engineers. 77 and 88 per cent. ; between Cadenazzo and Pirro, 67 and 73 per cent. ; and between Giubi ANITARY CONDITION OF THE ST. GOTHARD asco and Lugano, 63 and 39 per cent. of the two TUNNEL.–Such alarming accounts bave classes of works respectively. Altogether in been made public of the sufferings of the the five lengths of line named there had been men employed in this work, that, at the infinished an average of 72 per cent. of the earth- stance of the Italian Government, the Swiss works and 67 per cent. of the masonry. Of Federal Council appointed a committee of the 49 tunnels on the lines of approach to the medical men to inquire into the matter. main tunnel the direction headings have been They have reported that there is no epidemic driven from end to end in the case of 34, there disease as was supposed, but that the unhealthy being included in this latter number all the conditions under which the laboris carried on, tunnels on the Immensee-Fluelen section, induce chest complaints and other internal while in the Airolo-Biasca section the headings / diseases, lower the general health, and above are pierced in eight tunnels out of thirteen. all produce anæmia, or deficiency of red parThe value of the works executed on the ap- ticles in the blood. The temperature rises as proach lines up to the end of September was, they penetrate into the tunnel from 12 deg. according to the prices paid to the contractors, Cent. to 31 deg. Cent. ; the air is loaded with 29,537,300 francs, or about £1,181,490. During aqueous vapor, carries a large proportion of the month of September the average number carbonic acid, and is rendered additionally imof workmen employed on these approach lines pure by miasma from stagnant water, smoke of was 13,420, of which number 6,040 were en- lamps, and human exbalations ; there is little gaged in the tunnels.

light, the ventilation is deficient, and the men

are often working in water. In winter matters IPHON OVER THE SAINT MARTIN CANAL-In become still worse, as the frost prevents the works of the Bercy district, it was necessary commencement of the work up to March of to connect the sewers, which used to discharge this year, the deaths among the employes have into tbe Seine, with the main sewer on the been 122, of which 47 were by accidents ; and opposite side of the St. Martin canal. This in the first three months of 1880, 90 men were was accomplished by constructing an arched dismissed with anæmia. The habit so general siphon over the canal, which, besides possess among Continental workmen of working all ing the interest of novelty, was not liable, like seven days of the week must be counted as a reversed siphon going under the canal, to one of the sanitary disadvantages; for those collect deposit in its central portion. The rise who took days of rest were found to resist best of the siphon is 26 feet 3 inches, which renders the unhealthy influences. The company prothe entire exhaustion of the air more difficult vides medical and hospital accommodation, to maintain, as the pressure inside the siphon, be- and seems to do what is in its power for the ing only about one-fifth of an atmosphere, some health of its men, and the help of the famiof the gas contained in the water is set free, lies of those who succumb. Tromps were adopted for removing the air and gas. Two tromps with an inlet orifice of 11 NEW RAILWAY BRIDGE ACROSS THE inch diameter, and an outlet of 4 inches, sufficed to make a vacuum in six minutes ors of the North Eastern Railway have felt which one tromp was then able to maintain. In that the existing railway bridge which cases order to reduce, as far as possible, the con- the river Tees at Stockton is not sufficient for sumption of water in working the trompe, the the increasing traflic of the district. They flow through the supply pipe is controlled by have, therefore, recently decided to construct a float. The float closes a valve whenever the a new bridge, and the Tees Side Iron and Envacuum is complete, and opens it again as soon gine Works Co. [limited], Middlesbroughas a further exhaustion is needed. By thus formerly Messrs. Hopkivs, Gilkes & Co., who regulativg the supply, or by using a third built the Tay Bridge-have been entrusted tromp with an inlet orifice of only & inch, and with the work. The erection of ibis bridge an outlet of 4 inches, the consumption of will form only a part of several proposed alwater was only from 10,600 to 12,300 cubic terations, which will also include the diversion feet in twenty-four hours. The siphon has of the existing lines of rails, and the erection been surmounted by a chimney, raised to a of a new iron station, which will be apheight of 344 feet above the level of the sewers, proached from Maudale road and Siockton at the top of which the tromps work. As the Bridge road. The site of the new bridge will waters of the sewer cannot possibly be drawn be a little to the east of the present one, and up to this height, the tromps are by this means the structure will be so erected that it will removed from all danger of obstruction. One carry the diversion of the Thornton road over important advantage of the method adopted is, the railway at a point where it intersects Darthat whereas lifting pumps might be unable to lington and Cleveland streets, thus giving im. discharge the waters delivered after a great proved facilities to the road traffic in these two rainfall, the tromps are relieved from the ne- important thoroughfares. The plans for the cessity of working as soon as the siphon dis-/ station have not yet been matured, but they will

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