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embody all the facilities that the public can result obtained. 11. The notion of the irrireasonably require. The new bridge will imme-' gated meadows creating any nuisance of condiately abut upon the existing one, and like it, sequence, or being a source of any specific diswill consist of three large water spans and one ease, has long been abandoned as untenable by smaller land span on each side of the river; our most distinguished medical men who have each of the large spans will be about 89 ft. 3 considered the subject, and by Dr. Littlejohn, in. long, while the smaller ones will measure medical officer of lealth for Edinburgh. "Irri28 ft. The level of the bridge will be 35 ft 6 gation, like everything else, is a subject that in. above low water mark, and 23 ft. 6 in. above requires careful consideration in each case, high water spring tides. The superstructure combined with some practical knowledge and will consist of wrought iron plate web girders experience, and it is probably the want of such with wrought iron cross bars, and the rail-bear- caution that has caused so many disappointing girders are of the usual North Eastern ments and failures in dealing with the ques. type. The main girders measure 27 ft. 9 in. tion.-Engineer. centers, 7 ft. 6 in. deep and 2 ft. 6 in wide, while the cross girders-thirty of which are required for the bridge-are 8 ft. centers, 1 ft.
RAILWAY NOTES, 9 in. deep and 1 ft. 6 in. wide. The girders
RITING on railway accidents in Germany, composed of two cast-iron cylinders carrying .the Berlin correspondent of the Daily a plate brick filling which is surmounted by a Neus draws attention to the condition of the massive stone capstone. These cylinders will German railways under State management. He be sunk to a depth of 30 ft. below the bed of says: “Another serious railway accident has octhe river. The lower portions of the cylinders curred on the Belgian-German Frontier, near will be 10 ft. 6 in. in diameter, but about half Herbesthal, on the direct Cologne and London way up it is reduced to 8 ft., and finishes with line. A collision took place between a passenger a regular tapering to 7 ft. at the top, upon train and a goods train with great violence. which is placed a simple moulded cap. The Eight persons were killed on the spot, and a metal will vary from 15 in. at the bottom of large number severely injured. The frequency the cylinder to 1} in, at the top. The whole of serious accidents in Belgium, and especially structure is characterized by a neatness and in Germany, is at last beginning to attract atsimplicity of design which makes it admirably tention here; and the English traveling public suited for the position in which it is placed, should not forget that the lines they mostly and the traffic it is designed to carry. The use are at present the most dangerous. On rescantlings in all cases are, as in all North East- turning from Cologne last week, I was lucky ern work, amply sufficient to carry the heavi- enough to miss my train to Berlin, which I est loads that can possibly be brought upon the heard on the following day had been smashed bridge.- Engineer.
up near Dortmund, with a large number of
killed and wounded, Now that the Prussian rail. He following particulars, descriptive of the ways have become state property, the govern: were recently given in a letter by an Edinburgh branch of the railway service. For instance, firm of civilian engineers: 1. Tue acreage of the number of the line inspectors has been reirrirated ground at Craigentinny is 250. 2. duced to a minimum, one chief inspector being The population draining into the stream is made responsible for so many hundred miles fully 100,000. 3. The average quantity of of line, over which it is practically impossible seware a:plied per acre was till last year about to give the necessary supervision under only 11,000 gallons daily, but the Edinburgh water one head. Secondly, when a railway accident supply has been increased, and probably 15,000 does occur, such secrecy is observed that a long gallous would be more correct now. 4. The time elapses before the public are made aware sewage is only applied to the land about once of the exact number of dead or injured, and every three weeks in rotation, and it is also the matter is hushed up as soon as possible; used during the greater portion of each winter and the press having no means of obtaining a as well as in summer. 5. The sewage is applied true account, pays exceedingly little attention for several hours each time-depending on the to these terrible disasters-that is to say, unless nature of the soil-four to eight hours or so at they happen in England, and then as much is a time. 6. The cost is infinitesimal compared made of them as possible. For the past fortwith the production, two or three men doing night not one single day has elapsed but an acthe whole work of flooding the land. 7. The cident more or less serious has been curtly reproduce consists entirely of grass, which is ported in the German papers as happening on soid in plots by public roup each spring to the German railways. I hear that the Progressists cowfeedersor dairymen, and is cut and carted are going to interpellate the Prussian Parliaaway by them. 8. The average produce is 30 ment concerning the new state management of to 40 tons per acre, and the price per acre va- the railways. One thing certainly is striking, ries from about £25 to $45. 9. A great por- that under the new regime pointsmen only get tion of the now irrigated meadows formerly 1s. 6d, to 1. 90. per day." consisted of stretches of land worth perhaps 10s. per acre.
10. It is an error to assume, as TUNICULAR RAILWAY.— La Nature gives an many seem to have done in England, that on
the sandy stretches are suitable for irrigation; as way lately brought into use at the Giessbach, a rule, the better the soil the better the for conveying passengers between the pier and
the hotel on the mountain side. This line is more, for whereas the estimates show a necesworked on the same principle as the conve- sity for a capital of only 60,000,000f., the comnient trams at Scarborough, by which people pany is to be formed with a capital of 100,are carried up and down the cliff, i. e., two car. 000,000f. This has given rise to the supposiriages are connected by a rope, so that one as- tion that there is a design of eventually extend. cends while the other descends; the excess of ing the network in Bulgaria. The negotiations weight being supplied to the descending car- with the Roumanian and Bulgarian governriage in the form of water. At the Giessments are said to be already so far advanced, bach, the line is a single one, except in a small that in both legislatures the law authorizing portion at the middle, where the two carriages the company to build, and insuring it a handpass each other. This crossing is effected au some guarantee per mileage, is to be brought tomatically. Six wheels of one carriage hav: in shortly, so that the work may begin next ing all their flanges exterior, whilst those of spring. The anticipation may, perhaps, not be the other have theirs interior, the rails being realized, but there seems liitle doubt that the adapted in accordance, to give the desired re- scheme of this railway connection is now seri. sult. A wagon for luggage is worked with ously entertained. out the cable, by means of a toothed whcel catching in a rack-rail; this is driven by four men. The carriages have a pinion on the front SPE
PEAKING of a train wbich was blown over a ,
precipice on the Wellington and Gray. and a catch which is raised by a counter weight town Railway, New Zealand, on the 121b Sepwhile the cable is tense, but acts in case of rup- tember last, the following particulars are given ture. The water is from a reservoir, supplied in the Melbourne Argus, and are more detinite by the Giessbach fall. This railway is 346 than any previous account which has reached meters long, and the slope in some parts is as
us: The train was composed of—first, two much as 28ctm. per meter. A rising carriage composite carriages, then the ordinary guard's filled with (40) passengers may weigh 9,500kg. ; brake van, then the Fell engine, then two lugand the excess of weight for the other carriage gage vans filled with furniture, produce and is 1,300kg The velocity is about 1 meter per sundry goods, and, last, the incline brake van, second, so it takes 346 seconds (about 6 min. with a guard in it. The wind on the plain was utes) to make the journey.
not stronger than usual, there being only an
ordinary breeze; but as the train went up the LARGE meeting at Victoria (Vancouver's different spots, where the configuration of the
mountain's side very strong gusts were felt at A . ing that separation from the Dominion would ing, however, happened, and the train went on be the best course if the government of the all 'right through the first tunnel, and had latter fails to carry out its obligations with re
emerged through a cutting within fifty or sixty gard to the Pacific Railway.
yards of the second or middle tunnel. This
spot is called Siberia, on account of the violent A "nahew pregade in Berlin, in November, and piersiensihlasts hie dine poep down the hol
; new traction engine, adapted to military pur: in making the tunnel; but on the right side the
embankment, formed from the stuff taken out poses. This engine drew five heavy guns of 15 centimeter bore, through the streets for over hollow formed by the embankment side and two hours, at the cost of two marks an hour. the adjacent hill is only a few feet deep, while The trial was considered by Count Moltke and on the other side there is a steep declivity of the staff very satisfactory. Probably, the Daily
over 100 feet, running down to a creek. The Neros Berlin correspondent says, the traction train was going slowly along this embankengine will become an institution in the Ger. I ment, when the wind, catching it broadside man army.
with enormous force, without an instant's warning, lifted the two front carriages apd van
clean off the rails, and swung them around A CCORDING to intelligence from Paris in the and down the deep embankment, one hanging
Presse, which is confirmed from other to the other. The carriages were swung round quarters, the project of direct railway com- farther than what would have been at rightmunication with Constantinople, via Roumania angles with the rails, and as they were then and Bulgaria, has been taken up very serious motionless, formed an acute angle with the enly. The report of M. de Serres, the engineer- gine. The first carriage as it swung over went in-chief of the Austrian Staatsbahn, who was on its side, and the shock started the body sent last summer at the instance of the late M. from the bed and wheels. The body rolled Isaac Pereire, the president of the Paris Com- away down, breaking to pieces as it went, and mittee of the Austrian Staatsbahn, to open ne- the wind carried the pieces in every direction. gotiations with the Roumanian and Bulgarian The second carriage was turned square on its governments, convinced those who had taken side, and so remained, all the windows, of up the idea, and also the late M. Isaac Pereire, course, being shattered in. The van was partly of the feasibility of the scheme. It seems that thrown over, and rested obliquely, two wheels a separate company, mostly composed of being sunk in the embankment, and the other Fre capitalists, is to ake in hand the two in the air. The engine, the two goods scheme, and that the necessary capital needed vans, and the other brake retained their posihas already been secured by subscription-Day tion on the rails.
ORDNANCE AND NAVAL,
the committtee, without after all achieving much, unless an efficient system of instruction is set on foot by the Adjutant-General.
THE INCREASING POWER OF GUNS.-A re
achieved by Sir W. Armstrong and Co. in
BOOK NOTICES, the production of a gun, weighing 95 cwt., discharging a projectile weighing 120 lbs., with
reau for October. 746.3 foot-tons per ton weight of guns. The
Papers of the Engineer Department, U. S. gun is an experimental one, and we should Army, contains: Hollow Brick Foundations, suppose that such a result must be exceptional, Arches in Masonry Bridges.
By Wm. H. being, of course, very extraordinary, and a Bixby, Lieutenant of Engineers, Washington: stride in advance even of the 613.5 foot-tons Government Printing Office. per ton of gun obtained by the 6in. Armstrong, reported in The Engineer of November 5th. Leon Augoc. Paris; Dunod.
Les Tarifs des chemins de Fer, par N. C. At present we speak of this as an abnormal individual result. How much the gun is able M
ODERN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS a
DETAILS. -Nos. II. and III. New say. The fact, of course, indicates something York: Bicknell & Comstock. Price, $1.00 unprecedented. In recording this we would each. take the opportunity of correcting an expres
This excellent work maintains the excellent sion which may mislead a reader in the article character exhibited in the first issue. The of November 5th above referred to. We there style of the designs and the finish in execution spoke of a delicate point, namely, the question make this work invaluble to the young archiof priority of Armstrong 6in. and Krupp's 15- tect. centimeter guns, whose results we compared Suburban cottages in wood form the illustogether. Speaking from the reports of each trated subjects of the two numbers before us. lying before us, we considered that the two The minuteness of detail leaves nothing to be pieces dated from about the same time. In desired in the way of completeness. doing so we unconsciously did injustice to the issmestrong gun; for while Krupps pamphlets
. THE CURRENT GOLD AND SILVER Coins of issued at the Meppen trials, as we understand Ph. D., M. A. Philadelpha: R. S. Menarnin. them, contain the records obtained of their For sale by D. Van Nostrand. Price, $ 3.00. earliest private trials, wbich took place on
This is an illustrated quarto, giving by picDecember 17th, 1878, the report of the Arm-torial illustration and tables all ihat can be destrong results dealt only with a certain series sired in the way of information about gold and of Government trials. Previous to this, we and silver coins. have now ascertained, a Government trial had taken place on May 2nd, 1878, and private duced to United States standard.
Weights, fineness and intrinsic values are retrials as early as December, 1877. This, it will be seen, argues a year precedence for Arm is given from 1792 to the present time.
The entire history of United States coinage strong as compared with Krupp, which in a question of this kind may mean everything, alphabetical index is added.
To facilitate the use of this work a complete and should certainly be clearly stated.
PHYSICAL TREATISE ON ELECTRICITY AND A
MAGNETISM. By J. E. H. GORDON, B. ROBERp.in Arbert NBER.AT WONLLW I cle.
Captain Roberts, R.A., recently de- A. New York: 1880. Price, $ 7.00. scrihed a range finder designed by himself to In the present time of rapid progress in pracan Artillery audience, General Turner, C.B., | tical electrical science, every new treatise is the commandant of the garrison, and his staff scanned in expectation that it contains somebeing present. This range finder mainly con- thing new in the way of exposition of the later sists of a telescope with large field, such as recognised phenomena. The great need has, it is proposed to issue to field batteries, however, been of late a treatise that should mounted on a tripod stand, with cross lines discuss collectively the phenomena of electriciand prism. The glass is directed at the ob- ty and magnetism from the physical standpoint ject, and the prism then applied so as to cause only, as distinguished from the mathematical, ihe line of vision to be deflected at a right angle and should, moreover, regard the work of the to a staff carried on the shoulder of an as- practical electricians as something within the sistant, and correctly placed by means of a province of accepted theories. second small glass and optical square. Num The present work seems to accomplish this. bers are read off, for the use of which the Under the head of Electro Statics, all the orrange can be read off a slide rule. The opera- dinary experiments of the lecture room in friction is a rapid one for intelligent men. It tional electricity are discussed, together with would not bere be fair to compare it with all the elaborate devices of the philosophers Watkins' or Nolan's systems. It is, at all used in their researches. Under magnetism events, a matter for congratulation that so all that relates to magnets, terrestrial magnetmuch interest should be displayed in range ism and the delicate methods of measuring and finding by combatant officers. The best con- recording the latter. ceivable range finder might be introduced to Electro kinetics covers a wider field; and be.
ginning with battery cells the author passes to Five chapters are devoted to barometers the consideration of the units of measure and alone, five chapters to thermometers; then foltheir application in practical uses. Electro low chapters on hygrometers, rain-gauges, magnetism and magneto electricity are dis- anemometers, electroscopes and ozonometers. cussed under this beading; also the various Tables for barometers and boiling point phenomena produced by the induction coil, thermometers are added. secondary batteries and the laws of electro The text is embellished with ninety-eight lysis.
wood cuts. Electro-optics forms part four and closes the work.
EGRETTI & ZAMBRA'S DESCRIPTIVE CATAThroughout the treatise the works of the LOGUE OF PHILOSOPHICAL INSTRUMENTS. leading philosophers are described and their Negretti & Zambra: London. For sale by D. opinions quoted. All varieties of instruments Van Nostrand. Price, $ 2.50. of research are fully illustrated and their ob The peculiarity of this catalogue is that the jects and uses described.
construction of the apparatus is so far deThis work is undoubtedly the most complete scribed, and the range of subjecis so comprecompendium of electrical science in the Eng. hensive, that the so-called catalogue becomes lish language.
an exceedingly convenient encyclopedia. RACTICAL BLOWPIPE ASSAYING. By Geo.
An occasional essay on the progress in some 1
ATTWOOD, A. I. C. E. New York; D. department of scientific research increases the Van Nostrand. Price, $ 2.00.
usefulness of this landy volume.
There are several hundred illustrations disQuantitative assaying with the mouth blowpipe is a difficult process. Platiner’s volumi tributed through 540 pages of royal octavo
text. nous treatise has been followed by the few who have acquired enough proficiency to feel confidence in their results, but even with the most
MISCELLANEOUS enthusiastic students, the success under this guidance is so out of proportion to that at
EHMANN'S HIOT-AIR ENGINE. – The risks
L tained with similar effort in qualitative deter- of steam to engines of small power are now
and trouble incidental to the application minations that but few have patience to acquire any considerable skill in determiningthe generally recoguized. A steam boiler must alquantities in their essay.
ways have close and personal attention by a The present treatise, recognizing fully the for attention and possible dangers, are avoided
fairly skilled or practiced band. These needs dificulties of the process, proceeds in the most by the use of heated air as a source of power concise way to inspire confidence in the learner instead of steam. The elasticity and expan. and lead him to adopt sure and available meth- sion of air heated to 600° or 800° Fahrenheit is ods to insure success. First, the elementary bodies are mentioned and thus to enable a small engine to be driven
sufficient to develop an appreciable pressure, and directions given for their determination separately. This, with the description of the up to a moderate power, such as that of a half apparatus and reagents coustitute the first two be obtained, but will require larger diameters
or one horse. Larger powers may of course parts of the work. Part III is devoted to the assaying of silver, tained by the expansion of the hot air is not
of cylinders, as the effective pressure to be obgold, mercury, copper, lead, bismuth, tin, capable of any great increase. The engine we iron, pickle, cobalt and coal. The author suggests a useful check in the factured by Messrs. W. H. Bailey & Co., of
illustrate herewith is Lehmann's patent, manuway of synthetic assays, wbich consists in the Salford, Manchester, and is a very well designed preparation of weighed quantities of the pure and effective specimen of its class. The conelement or elements to be determined, mixed struction of the engine is horizontal, the heatwith materials resembling as nearly as possible the ore to be determined. Any loss of the ing apparatus consisting of a brick-built fur
in this is fitted a steel air heater which element sought in the artificial mixture serves
may be raised to a dull red heat. The workas a guide to correct the regular assay.
Part IV. contains useful tables. The illus- ing cylinder is fixed outside the furnace, and trations and typography are excellent.
its front part is jacketed by water jacketing. _The book is designedly of convenient size A cold chamber is thus provided in which the for carrying while prospecting.
expanded air is condensed and contracted to
its original volume. The working piston is an A . :
MENTS, By Negretti & Zambra: Lon cup-leather packing. As this packing is fixed don. For sale by D. Van Nostrand. Price, in the cold portion of the engine it does not $ 2.00.
suffer from the heat, and will last a long time The fame so justly earned by these makers without attention, whilst at the same time it of scientific apparatus gives weight to their forms a tight and frictionless method of packstatement recarding the instruments employ. ing. It has always been difficult to apply a ed in any department of scientific labor. piston packing in these engines which will * For the proper care and use of meteorologi- stand the heat of the air. Any class of packcal instruments, an instruction book is indis. ing, which must be packed by a gland, would pensable, such a treatise is provided with this also offer on a large plunger far too great a minute description of the construction of the proportion of frictional resistance in engines instruments.
lof such small power as those worked by hot
air. The working plunger operates directly water closet (except the “trapless” closets) to upon a rocking lever, to the end of which is be trapped. attached the connecting rod driving a crank 5. Every trap to be ventilated from its highand fly-wheel carried in bearings on the top of est point into a pipe running out above the the cylinder. A circulating pump to supply roof, and disconnected from ihe soil pipe. the water jacket is tixed on the bed-plate, and 6. Joints in iron pipes to be leaded and driven from a rocking bar by a return crank caulked to rust joints. Joints between iron and connecting rod. The hot air is first ex- and lead pipes to be made with tinned iron or panded in the hot chamber which causes the brass ferules, soldered. piston to drive forward, the air then escapes at 7. Catch-basins to be built outside of the the end of the stroke, and by passing through house wherever possible, and ventilated by a a cold chamber is reduced to its former bulk, special pipe. and may be thus returned to the hot cham 8, Water closets to connect with the outer ber without much back pressure on the piston air by a window or light shaft, and to have a or plunger. The same volume of air is thus ventilating flue. used continuously, first being expanded and 9. Avoid pan-closets, and use hopper or imthen contracted for the working and back prored closets. strokes respectively. No foul heated air is thus 10. On the upper fluor each water closet to discharged by the engine, to which there is no be flushed from a separate tank through a pipe exhaust.
not less than one and one quarter inch in uiIt is somewhat surprising to note the im- ameter. mense rapidity with which ihe air can absorb 11. Catch-basins to be periodically cleaned heat and give it up again, as we find that as by the city authorities. many as 1000 revolutions per minute have Sanitary Legislation. It is the custom of all been obtained from the smaller sizes. This cities to control, by municipal ordinance and power of speed will no doubt depend upon the by supervision, matters affecting the public skillful arrangement and extent of surface of bealth. Nothing can more properly come the heating and cooling chambers. This engine within the scope of municipal legislation than appears to be very economical, as the makers measures regulating house drainage, in order state that a 1-horse engine will run for twelve to prevent, as far as possible, the generation hours at a consumption of 50 lbs. of coke. A and spread of infectious diseases. It is obgreat advantage also is that such an engine viou-ly necessary to make the precautions obmay be safely left to run itself down, since no ligatory upon all the people, as their efficacy damage can ensue to it, as it will only stop depends on the general use of them, and it is when the fire gets to low. In this way Leh- to the interest of all that they should be unimann's engine may be left to run all night versally adopted. Your committee, therefore, without any attendance or the fear of a mis recommend that an ordinance be passed by the hap. When applied to farm or domestic pur common council of Chicago embodying the poses the engine need cost little or nothing to most important of the foregoing recommendawork, as the heat of the stove may be utilized lions, as follows: for warming purposes, and even the hot water 1. That every house which shall be confrom the cooling jacket would be found ser- nected with the city sewers, after this ordinance viceable. A pumping apparatus may be at goes into effect, shall bave a continuous pipe tached to the bed plate of the engine so as to of not less than four inches inside diameter, form a compact and serviceable pumping running from the street sewer to at least two engine.
feet above the roof of the house, without any
trap throughout its entire length; the opening OMETIME ago the executive committee of at the house wall to be larger than the soil pointed a sub-committee to consider the sub NOTE.- As there may be some who will ject of house drainage. That committee con- prefer to use a trap on the house drain or soil sisted of Frederick Baumann. James R. Wil pipe, this vent pipe may in that case be made lett and Bryan Lathrop. After considerable independent of the house drainage, and be investigation and prolonged deliberation the carried through the house without any opencommittee has embodied its ideas in a report, ing into it.] of which the following is a brief summary of 2. Every sink, basin, bath tub and water the recommendations made:
closet (except “trapless” closets) to be trap1. Concrete the ground under the entire ped, and every trap to have a vent pipe from building.
its highest point. 2. Ventilate the main sewers by a perforated 3. Joints in iron pipes to be leaded and cover on every man-hole.
caulked or rust joints. Joints between iron 3. Every house to have a cast iron soil pipe, and lead pipe to be made with tinned iron or not less than four inches in diameter and one. brass ferules, soldered. quarter inch in thickness, tarred inside and 4. Soil pipes to be of iron. outside, running from sewer to roof, without 5. All water closets to be connected with a trap, accessible for inspection throughout its the outer air by a window and ventilating flue entire length, and with as great a fall as possi. or a light shaft. ble; the openings for waste and soil pipes in 6. Sanitary inspectors to be appointed, unthe house walls to be larger than the pipes, to der the direction of the health commissioners, allow for settling.
to enforce the observance of the foregoing pro4. Every sink, wash basin, bath tub and I visions.