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D.—Coinage.

His coins bore the distich :—

Sikkah zad, az fazl-i-Haqq, bar sim o zar,
Padshāh-i-bahr-o-bar, Farrukhsiyar.

“By the grace of the True God, struck coin on silver and gold,
“The emperor of land and sea, Farrukhsiyar.”

A parody of these lines was current at the time in Dihli :—

Asikkah zad bar gandum o moth o mattar
Bādshāh-i-dànah-kash, Farrukhsiyar.

“Struck coin on wheat, lentils and peas, .*
The grain gathering emperor, Farrukhsiyar.”

There are 116 coins of this sovereign in the three collections, at the British Museum, in Lähor, and in Calcutta; of gold, 18 (14 of the large and 4 of the small issue), and of silver, 98 (circular 97, square, that is, the dirham-i-Shara'i or legal dirham, 1). One hundred and twelve are dated by the regnal year. Each year of the reign is represented, 1st (8 coins), 2nd (17), 3rd (9), 4th (7), 5th (19), 6th (19), 7th (29), 8th (4). All except 6 coins (3 places not identified, 2 forged, 1 mint illegible) can be classed under the Şübahs in which their mints were situated. These 110 coins belong to 23 mints in 15 out of the 21 Sübahs—those unrepresented being Kābul, Kashmir, Ajmer, Allahābād, Bidar and Barâr. The number of coins from each mint is Lāhor (16), Multân (7), Tattah (1), Dihli, 33 (Shāhjahānābād 27, Bareli 2, Sihrind 4), Gujarāt, 7 (Sūrat 7), Akbarābād, 11 (Akbarābād 6, Itäwah 3, Gwaliyār 2), Audh, 1 (Lakhnau 1), Mälwah, 2 (Ujjain 2), Bahār, 8 (Patnah ‘Azimābād 8), Bengal, 7 (Murshidābād, 6, Jahāngirnagar Dhākah, 1), Orissa, 3 (Katak 3), Khāndesh, 4 (Burhānpur 4), Aurangābād (1),

1 Sayyad Mahomed Latif, “History of the Punjab,” 189, note, and KulliyātiJa‘far, Zatalli, p. 57 at end. The Malāhat-i-maqāl of Rāo Dalpat Singh, B.M. Or. 1828, fol. 74a, attributes these lines to Mirzā Ja‘far, Zatali of Närnol, and states that for writing them he was condemned to death (see Beale, 189). The first line has ming instead of moth, and the second line is given as Bādshāh-i-tasmahkash, (strap-stretching) Farrukhsiyar. “The Coins of the Moghul Emperors in the B. M.,” 1892, p. 179-190, “Coins of the Mogul Emperors” by C. J. Rodgers (Calcutta, 1893) and “Coins of the Indian Museum ” by the same (Calcutta, 1894). Mr. M. Longworth Dames “Some Coins of the Mughal Emperors,” (Numismatic Chronicle, II, 275 or 309, London 1902), has added Ahmadābād and Ajmer and Kambāyal to the unit towns. Khūshhāl Cand, 396a, *

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Biiá * * * . * o 8 (Arkat 3, Adoni 1, Chināpatan 3, Güti 1). cally lost ution represents the facts fairly well: Kābul was practi. y lost, but the absence of coins from Kashmir, Ajmer, Allahābād and o: of the Dakhin Sübahs, is difficult to accom i. , Allahapa OUIS * o o “legal drachma ” or dirham-i-shara'i is a curiportion to a, o all appearance unique. By its weight it holds the pro8 pie takin o: of about one-fourth (exactly it is 23, or 3 annas and 8,Il am si g f € standard rupee to have weighed 176 grains). From half o o: o: weights of the 97 circular rupees, I find more than jo...” 175 and 17 grains, the lowest weight () is the Katak oest (4) is 187 grains. These latter coins come from The diam eters urshidābād mints, and are probably a local variation. ‘85, 34 of 90 o: o -80 of an inch to 1-1 inch; there are 60 of it is probabie th o o and 9 of 1:0. Judging from the above facts, 90 of an inch i at the standard rupee was 176 grains in weight, and in diameter. the o: #. dated the 5th Rabi I. of the 4th year, we obtain first one g details as to Farrukhsiyar's seals. There were two ; the # i was round, with a diameter of 4% inches, the second S 2 nches each way. 4. 2 quare,

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ibn Akbar Bādshāh,

ibn Bābar Bādshāh,

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The words in the centre are not in the above order on the seal. On the square seal the words appear on six lines, in the following order:

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We hear of only two principal wives—(1) Fakhr-un-nissä Begam, daughter of Sādāt Khān; (2) the Räthor princess, the daughter of Mahārājah Ajit Singh, whose Hindú name seems to have been Bäe Indar Kunwar." The father of the former was one Mir Muhammad Taqqi, entitled first Hasan Khān and then Sādāt Khān, son of Sādāt Khān, He is called a Husaini by race, and the family came from the Persian province of Măzandarān, on the south shore of the Caspian Sea; it had emigrated to India after having been for a time settled at Isfahân.” He married a daughter of Ma‘şūm Khān, Safawi, and if this lady was the mother of Fakhr-un-nissä, this Safawi connection would account for the daughter's selection as a prince's bride.” Sādāt Khān was wounded on the 9th Rabi‘II, 1131 H., the day of Farrukhsiyar's deposition, and died two or three days afterwards. He was over eighty years of age. The following table shows his family:

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$360 w. Irvine—The Later Mughals. [No. 4,

(1) T-i-Modi and Kāmwar Khān, 166.
(2) Ma,āsir-ul-wmara, II, 524. t J } ‘...

The daughter of Ajit Singh was married on the 29th Ramazāh 1127 H. (27th September, 1715) in the fourth year of the reign. She seems to have had no issue. After Farrukhsiyar's deposition and death, she was brought out of the imperial harem on the 29th Sha'bān 1131 H. (16th July, 1719), and made byêr to her father with the whole of her property. She returned to Jodhpur and we hear no more of her. o f Another wife or concubine, the daughter of the hill Rājah of Kashtwär, entered the harem on the 24th Rajab 1129 H. (3rd July, 1717.)

F.—Farrukhsiyar's children.

The following table shows all the children that are recorded:–
Farru siyar.

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(1) Jahāngir Shāh was born at Patnah on the 18th Zü,lqa'dah 1123 H. (27th December, 1711).” He died of smallpox a few months afterwards, on the 17th Rabi‘Is, 1125 (12th May, 1718).”

(2) Jahān Murăd Shāh was born on the 16th Zü,lqa'dah 1129 H.” (October, 21st, 1717) and died on the 22nd Jamādi II, 1130 H. (May, 22nd, 1718.) The mother was Sādāt Khān's daughter.

(3) Bādshāh Begam. This child was also born of Sādāt Khān's daughter. She married the Emperor Muhammad Shāh in 1133 H. (1720-1) and was known as Malikah-uz-Zamāni, “Queen of the Age.” She took a prominent part in securing the accession of Ahmad Shāh in 1161 H. and died in 1203 H. (1788-9).5

G.—Note on Mirzā Ja‘far, Zatali, Närnoli.

The poetical title of Zatali, under which Mirzā Ja‘far wrote, comes from zajal, Hindi, “chattering, quibbling, idle-talk,” (Shakespear,

1 Kāmwar Khān, 172-3, Thornton, 506, Kishtwär, a town on the southern slope of the Himalaya, situated in a small plain of the left bank of the Chenāb, 5,000 feet above the sea; Lat. 88° 18', long, 75° 46'.

8 B.M. Or, 1690, fo. 156b.
8 Kāmwar Khān 135. The B.M. Or, 1690, fol. 164b says he died in Jamādi I,
* Mirzā Muhammad, 328 and 358, "Kämwar Khān has 15th instead of 16th,
5 Francklin, “Shah Aulum,” 205. . . .e-

1212). There are several printed editions of his works. A copy of the edition of 1853, now in the Königliche Bibliothek at Berlin, belonged to Dr. Sprenger. (see his Catalogue, p. 8, No. 1638.) Beale, p. 189, says he was executed by Farrukkhsiyar's orders for parodying the couplet on the coin of that emperor. The historians make no mention of this; but the fact is possible, when we remember that ‘Abd-ul-jalil, Bilgrāmi, waqi‘ah-navās of Siwistān was recalled, and deprived of his -appointment, for a very innocent report. There are some further details about Zatali in a little Urdū work Zar-i-Ja‘farā, ya'ni Siwānik-i'umri-i-Mir Ja‘far, Zatalli, by “Hindustani Speculator” (published by Jān Muhammad and Muhammad Ismā‘il, Kashmiri Bāzār, Lähor, 1890, 36 pp. litho.). From this we learn that his ancestors came to India with Humāyūn, when that monarch returned to it and fought Hemü, They obtained a jūgīr and were in favour during Jahāngir's reign, but in Shāhjahān's time the grant was resumed, and the poet's father Mir ‘Abās, was forced to open a shop. Ja‘far is said to have been born about the time of ‘Alamgir's accession (1658). The other children were two daughters and a son, Safdar; the latter, the youngest of the family, being about five-and-a-half years younger than his brother. Their father died when all of them were young. One Mir Sarwar sent Ja‘far to school along with his own son, Akbar. In the end Sarwar embezzled the family property; and they were reduced to poverty again. Ja‘far was over sixty when he died, but no year is given. In one of his ruba'āt in his Kulliyāt he says that when he wrote it he was over sixty. The following Persian lines in praise of tobacco are by him:— t

Turfah-i-shaghle ghaghal-i-tambäki,
Rih z’īn ghaghal gham fari, gardad:
Ham-dam ast in, ba waqt-i-tanhãi,
Tabāī‘-i-bādā'az is niki, gardad.
“Smoking tobacco is a rare pastime,
“An occupation decreasing gloom ;
“A friend it is in time of solitude,
“It is a help to a bad digestion.

But his more characteristic style is a macaronic mixture of Persian and Hindi.

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