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TABLE OF MONTHLY SyNCHRONISMs.
28 Shawwal 1013 = New Year's day of 50th solar year in Akbar's reign.” =9 March, O.S., 1605. = 1 Farwardin 50 of Akbar.
Salim ascends the throne.” 8 Jumādā II—3 Rajab 1014 =6-30 Abān 50 of Salim.
4 Rajab 1014 = 1 Åzar 50 , ,
4. Sha'bān 1014 = 1 Dai 50 , ,
5 Ramazán 1014 = 1 Bahman. 50 , ,
5 Shawwal 1014 = 1 Isfandārmuz 50 , , ,, . ll Zu’l qa'da 1014=New Year's day of 1st solar year in
Jahāngir's reign,” corresponding to 10 March, O.S., 1606. = 1 Farwardin 2 of Salim.
11 Zu’l hijja 1014 = 1 Ardibihisht 2 , , ,, * 11 Muharram 1015 = I. Khürdād 2 , , ,,
ll Safar 1015 = 1 Tir 2 * ,
12 Rabi' I 1015 = 1 Amardād 1015-1 of Jahāngir.
1 Brit. Mus. Catal, of Indian Coins—the Mughal Emperors, page lxii. Also Cunningham's Book of Indian Eras, p. 225.
8 Cf. D. E. W.I. 284. The date 8 Jumādā ii, 1014 A.H., corresponds not to the 12th but to the 11th October, 1605 A.D.
8 D. E. VI. 290, note 2.
* 1014 H, was an intercalary year, and thus its month Zu’l hijja contained 30 days.
15 Shawwal 1015 =1 Isfandārmuz 1015-1 of Jahāngir. 21 Zu’l qa'da 1015 = New Year's day of 2nd solar year in Jahāngir's reign.1 = 10 March, O.S., 1607. = 1 Farwardin 1015-2 of Jahāngir. 1015 = 1 Ardibihisht 1015-2 , 1016 = 1 Khürdād 1016-2 , 2?
21 Dhu’l hijja 22 Muharram
22 Safar 1016 = 1 Tir 1016-2 , y? 23 Rabi‘I 1016 = 1 Amardād 1016-2 , 33 23 Rabi’ II 1016 = 1 Shahliwar 1016-2 , 9 3 24 Jumādā I 1016 = 1 Mihr 1016-2 , 99 24 Jumādā II 1016 = 1 Åbän 1016-2 , 3 3 25 Rajab 1016=I Azar 1016-2 , , 25 Sha'bān 1016 = 1 Dai 1016-2 , 95 26 Ramadān 1016 = 1 Bahman 1016-2 , 35 26 Shawwal 1016 = 1 Isfandārmuzl016-2
} } 93 1016=New Year's day of 3rd solar year in Jahāngir's reign.”=9 March, O.S., 1608. = 1 Farwardin 1016-3 of Jahāngir.
2 Muharram 1017 = 1 Ardibihisht 10I7-3 , ,
2 Safar 1017 = 1 Khurdăd 1017-3 , 33
3 Rabi “I 1017 = 1 Tir 1017-3 , ,, &c. &c. &c. &c.
From this Table it appears that the Salimi coins find their place between Akbar's and Jahāngir's, and that the period of their issue covered nine consecutive months. In complete accord with the arrangement indicated in the Table my collection shows, either in silver or in copper, Akbar's coins struck month by month from Farwardin till Mihr of the Ilāhī year 50, but none later than Mihr. Next in evidence are the Salimi coins of the year 50 beginning with Åbān (PI. I. 6) and continuing without a break till Isfandārmuz (Pl. I. 7.8). ; and thereafter month by month from Farwardin till Tir (Pl. J. 9. 10) the Salimi coins of the year 2. Then follow, last of all, the “heavy rupees” of Jahāngir, dated not 1014-1 but 10iš-1, 1015-2, 1016-2, 1016-3, &c.
In support of the -opinion that the Salimi coins of the year 50 precede those of the year 2, one further piece of evidence is noteworthy. Ea hypothesi, the first Salimi coins to be struck were those of Åbān 50.
1. Cf. D. E. WI, 302. On line 12 of page 302 correct 22nd to 21st, and 1603 to 1607.
* D. E. WI, 316. 1016 H, being an intercalary year, its month Zu’l hijja contained 30 days.
Now it is precisely the coins of this month that differ in their legend from all subsequent issues. The difference consists largely but not solely in the arrangement of the words, and extends both to the obverse and to the reverse. The coins struck in the following month, Āzar, are of that modified type which was maintained till the close of the series. Now the explanation of this change is clear if, as our theory assumes, the Abān coins were the first struck. They simply did not meet with complete approval. The obverse was pronounced too crowded and the reverse too diffuse. Orders were accordingly given to omit altogether the one word Ilāhī and further to so rearrange the component words of the legend that a portion only should find a place on the obverse and the remainder on the reverse. The new dies were ready before the coins of the second month were struck, and thereafter, so long as the Salimi series issued, no further variation was deemed necessary. This Ābān 50 rupee is an evident link between Akbar's of the preceding month and Salim's of the succeeding. While its obverse bears Salim's name and the Salimi legend, its reverse is identical in type with the reverse of the rupees struck at Ahmadābād in the last year of Akbar's reign. Geo. P. TAYLOR, Ahmadabad.
6. The copper coinage of Murăd Bakhsh son of Shāhfahân. Pl. I. 11.
When Shāhjahān fell ill in A. H. 1067 (1657 A.D.) and his sons asserted their claims to the throne of the Mughal, Murăd Bakhsh was in Gujarāb. The mints from which he issued coins in his own name were confined to that province. o
His silver coins are not infrequently met with struck at either Ahmadābād, Sūrat or Cambay (Khambāyat). The gold coins are extremely scarce and but one or two struck at Ahmadābād are known. One of these is figured in the British Museum Catalogue (No. 692). Hitherto his copper coinage has been unknown. Mr. Framjee Jamasjee Thanawala, of Bombay, however, was fortunate in securing two specimens of dāms (fulüs) struck by Murăd Bakhsh at Sürat, and one of these he has kindly presented to me. The coins are of the usual size of Akbari dām.
and weigh 316 and 333 grains, respectively. They bear the following legends:—
H. N. WRIGHT, C.S.
Obverse.—Bust of king, three quarters face in high relief, crowned and garlanded—within circular area—remaining ground occupied by flowered tracery—marginal legend in florid characters beginning under the king's left shoulder.
Reverse.-Arms of the king in high relief within circular area. Two lions rampant holding flags on each of which appears a fish. Between them a dagger (katūr) surmounted by a crown. Below the flags two fishes forming a circle, head to head below streamer. In righthand corner of area the letter g. Marginal legend beginning opposite the right flag. *as els; 38, got J-25° so, e so alo Jo Mya (; Weight.—1,260 grs. Size 2-6”. This interesting medal was obtained in Allahabad whither it had been brought from Jhānsi in the Allahabad district. It apparently commemorates the assumption by Ghāziuddin Haidar of regal dignity in October, 1819 (1234 A. H.). This monarch was the eldest son of Nawāb Sa'ādat Ali Khān of Awadh and had five years previously succeeded his father as Nawāb Wazir. At this coronation ceremony the crown was delivered to the king by the British Resident. Ghāzī-uddin Haidar reigned as king of Awadh for eight years. One of the titles assumed by him at his coronation was Shāh-i-Zaman, and this title appears on the medal. Beyond the eel & on the obverse, which doubtless refers to the first year of the newly assumed sovereignty, there is no date recorded, nor does the reverse legend appear to be a chronogram. The workmanship is of a high order, and the appearance on the medal of the king's portrait contrary to orthodox custom indicates that the design was probably entrusted to some European artist. An oil-painting and a marble bust representing the king similarly diademed and arrayed are in the Lucknow Museum, but the name of the artist has in neither case been preserved. A second specimen is in the cabinet of Mr. R. Burn, C.S., and was also obtained in Allahabad.