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* MATERIALS.–Continued.

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On examining the 34 inscriptions with regnal years, they are found

to fall mostly in two groups:–

First year.

Group No. I. (20 inscriptions): —

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1004 1015 1024 1040 1045 1049 1050 1051 1053 1054 1055 1055 (6) 1060 1068 1069

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..". According to this group, Qaka 997 = 1st year.

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8th year

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23rd year

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Qaka e Q C. ... 1061 = 64th year
53 S • * * 1069 = 72nd ,
... According to this group, Qaka 998 = 1st year.

Besides these, there are three inscriptions according to which the first year would fall in Çaka 999, and one inscription, probably a mistake, according to which the first year would fall in Qaka 996. ' The difference of one year between the regnal years of Group I and Group II, may be due to the fact that like amka years those in Group No. 1 omitted number one. This omission of number one is found also in the inscriptions of the next king Kāmārnava. Córaganga was crowned in Çaka 999; and he is more likely to have come to the throne in 9aka 998, than Qaka 997, as kings naturally would prefer to be crowned on the earliest auspicious day possible. Inscription No. 271 of Dirghāsi [Ep. Rep., p. 18 and Ep. Ind., IV, p. 316, v. 7] shows that in Qaka 997 Rājarāja was living. Calculations from the preceding kings corroborate the conclusion of Group No. II. [see infra, p. 109]. For these reasons Çaka 998 would preferably appear to be the first year of Córaganga. The last year is given in No. 172 of Mukhalingam, 73rd year Çaka 1069. In Qaka 1070, Kāmārnava's year 3 began. Consequently taking Qaka 998 as the first year, Cöraganga actually ruled till his 72nd year. In Puri and Köndupâtná plates he is credited with a rule of seventy years. In these plates Kämärnava is said to have been crowned in Qaka 1064, month Pausa. This cannot literally be correct; as several inscriptions exist with Cöraganga's regnal years from Qaka 1065 to 1069, while Kāmārnava's inscriptions with regnal years begin with Qaka 1070 as his 3rd year. The coronation of Kāmārnava in Çaka 1064 might possibly have been as a regent; for in that year Cöraganga would have been very old, probably more than eighty, and might have arranged to transfer the active duties of a kingship to his the then eldest son Kāmārnava. Cöraganga's father was Rājarāja II of the Eastern Ganga family; & and his mother was Rājasundari, the daughter of the Cola king, Côda-mahibhuj-ātmajãriv” (Vizagapatam plates). This Cola king was Vira Rājāndra Dāva I, surnamed Parakógarivarman (A.D. 1052-1070); and thus Cöraganga became related to the great Cóla king Kulöttunga Côla I, as his sister's son. The Cöraganga of the Ganga family is apparently a different person from the Cöraganga of the Täki plates, described as the son (priy-ātmyam) of Kulöttunga, Cóla. I [verse 25, l. 50, Ep. Ind., VI, p. 340], who bore the surname Rājarāja and was deputed by his father (in Qaka 1006) to rule the Vēngi territory.

Last year.

His family.

Puri and Köndupätnā copperplates name only three ancestors of Cöraganga; but the three Vizagapatam plates trace out his genealogy to the reputed founder of the family, including the above three. Consequently the account of the Ganga family will be incomplete if these ancestors are omitted. A full genealogical table from the reputed founder Virasimha to the last known Ganga king Nrsimha Déva IV is annexed at the end of this article. The list of Cöraganga's ancestors has been compiled from the Vizagapatam plates, and the Nadagam plates of Vajrahasta edited with two tables by Mr. G. V. Rāmamurti in Ep. Ind., Wol. IV, p. 183 ff.

The calculation of dates from Vajrahasta seem to corroborate the conclusion that Qaka 998 was the first year of Cöraganga. Vajrahasta was crowned in Qaka 960 [v. 8, 11.34-7, Nadagam plates, pp. 190-1]. He is given 33 years in the Vizagapatam plate dated Qaka 1003, and 30 years in the V. plate dated Qaka 1040. The first figure may be the regnal year, and the second one actual years of rule minus months. Rājarāja is given eight years in all the W. plates, and this figure I take to be the actual year. If in the regnal years, the number one used to be omitted, as appears from the subsequent amka years and from the regnal years of Kāmārnava VII, then—

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‘. Córaganga could not have then succeeded to the throne before Qaka 998.

Several queens of Córaganga are named in the inscriptions,— Kastürikämödini, Indirá and Candralākhā (Puri and Köndupâtnā Plates); Somala Mahādāvi (No. 146), Laksmi Dāvi (Nos. 210, 392, and 393), and Prithvi Mahādāvi (No. 211), (in the stone inscriptions); Nos. 203 and 215 of Mukhalingam record grants of certain unnamed queens of his.

He had several sons. The copperplates mention Kāmārnava, Bāghava, Rājarāja and Aniyankabhima; in No. 239, one Umāvallabha is said to have been his son.

He had apparently a brother (or brothers), for No. 153 records a grant of his younger brother's wife.

Coraganga had the family surnames Ananta-Varmman, and Călukya-ganga, and the special surnames Gangégvara and probably Vikrama-Ganga. His virudas are given in nearly the same words in No. 149 of Mukhalingam and No. 392 of Rónánki. They run as follows in Römänki:— “Samara-mukh-ànéka-ripu-darppa-marddana-bhuja-bala-parākrama parama-măhés(g)wara parama-bhattāraka mahā-rāj-ādhirāja parames(c) vara nava-navati-sahasra-kuñjar-àdhis(e)wara tri-Kaling-ādhipati [these two omitted in Mukhalingam] Gangg-ănvay-àvalambana-stambha. The inscriptions show him to be the most famous and powerful king of this dynasty. According to all the copperplates he conquered the king of Utkala. According to Vizagapatam plates, after conquering the Utkala king he replaced him as a feudatory; and he conquered also Vēngi. According to Puri and Këndupâtnā plates, Gangégvara first destroyed the fortified town of Åramyā or Ánamyā and then defeating on the banks of the Ganges the king of Mandāra, pursued him in his flight. Is the tract Mandāla identifiable with Sirkar Mandāran of Ain-i Akbari [Vol. II., p. 141], whose headquarters, Garh Mandāran (now known as Bhitargarh, eight miles west of Arām-bagh) is about fifty miles from the Ganges on the map, and which place was a well-known frontier town in the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries P. * . By these conquests, Córaganga extended his kingdom from the Ganges on the north to the river Gautami (Gödāvari) on the south. On the west the frontier was ill-defined. But from inscriptions of the Câdi kings of Daksina-Kösala he appears to have fought with them, and Ratnadāva is said to have defeated him [Ep. Ind., Vol. I, p. 40, v. 4; Do., p. 47, v. 5]. Ratnadéva flourished about A.D. 1114-1145. He was evidently in good terms with the Séna kings of Bengal; in p. of the vallāla-caritain of Ananda Bhatta, edited by Pandit Haraprasad Qāstri, Vijaya Sena is specially described as Cöraganga-sakhah, a friend of Cöraganga. He was a good patron of religious works and charities. Under his orders was built the great temple of Jagannātha at Puri. Numerous grants of him, his relatives and his officers have been recorded in the temple of Mukhalingüçvara (Madhukógvara P) at Mukhalingam, Ganjam District. & -Science and letters were cultivated during his rule. No poem of his time has yet come to hand; but the inscriptions show a fair knowledge of Sanskrit literature. Compositions in Telugu were also not neglected.

His titles.

Historical facts.

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