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SECTION 4.—CAMPAIGN AGAINST BONDi.

As already mentioned, there had been for several years a dispute between Budh Singh, Hădă, and his relation Bhim. Singh, about the country of Bondi in Rājputanah. Budh Singh who was in possession, had thrown in his lot with Farrukhsiyar and Rājah Jai Singh, Sawāe. Bhim. Singh had sided with the minister and his brother. As a reward his restoration was now decided upon, Budh Singh having recently added to his former iniquities by himself assisting Girdhar Bahādur, the rebellious governor of Allahābād, and instigating Chatarsāl, Bundelah, to do the same. On the 5th Muharram 1132 H. (17th November, 1719) Bhim. Singh was sent on this enterprize and Dost Muhammad Khān, Afghān,” of Målwah was, at the rajah's request, given a high mansab and placed under his orders. Sayyad Dilāwar ‘Ali Khān, bakhshī of Husain ‘Ali Khān's army, who had lately returned from his expedition against the Jäts, received orders to proceed to Bonds with a well-equipped force of fifteen thousand horsemen. Gaj Singh of Narwar was also ordered to join. In addition to the avowed object of their march, they carried with them secret instructions to remain on the borders of Mälwah until it was known whether their services might not be required in that direction. Bhim Singh had been promised the title of Mahārajah and the rank 7,000, 7,000 horse, with the fish standard, if he took part in a successful campaign against Nizām-ul-mulk in Målwah.*

On the 3rd Rabi’ II, 1132 H. (12th February, 1720) the report was received that Räo Bhim. Singh and Dilāwar ‘Ali Khān had fought a battle with the uncle of Räo Budh Singh, in which their opponent was defeated and slain, along with five or six thousand of his clan.*

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Rāo Ratn
D. 1630-1 at * in the Dakhin.
s ) -
Gopinath, * I. Mādhā Singh
Predeceased his father. [KOTAH]
| D. 1648.
s Y. |
Rāo Sattarsal, Eleven * Ay | | | do l.
[BONDI] other II. Mukand Singh, Mohan Singh, Jujärh Singh Kuni Räm W. Kishor (or Krishn)
Rilled iO68 H. (1658) SOIlS. [KOTAH] [POLAITA] [first of KOTRA IKOELAH, Singh
at Samūgarh. Killed S. 1715, 1658 A.D. Killed S. 1715, then of RAMGARH DIH, and [SANGOD].
| 25th April. 1658 A.D. RELAWENT GOORAHI Killed at Arkit
s Y | 25th April. Killed S, 1715, Killed S. 1715, S. 1745, 1688 A.D.
as so * * : * : * Bhagwant Singh, III. Jagat Singh, 1658 A.D. 1658 A.D.
oof biosos" of 25th April, 25th April.
(1677-8), Tod says ‘Ālamgir, 1681-2. -- V Singh
1681, Kishn Singh, IV. Pem Singh,

committed suicide deposed after six
1088 H. (1677-8). months (1682).
|

g

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Rão Rājah Budh Singh, married to a sister of Jai Singh, Sawaë, in 1707. Lived long at Kābul with Shāh ‘Alam, Mhd. Mu‘azzam, who in 1707 made him Râo Rājah, mangab 8,000. Ejected 1730, died in exile

& | * Limed Singh, son of Budh Singh, recovered Bondi, 1748, abdicated 1770, D. 15th August 1804.

Ajit Singh, The murderer of Rånå Ursi (1772) died, circa 1778.

s Y Rāo Rājah Rām Singh, Installed August 1821 at the age of eleven, alive in 1889,

Pirthi Singh

X. Ajit Singh D. S. 1816, 1759 A.D. |

VII. Bhim. Singh,
[MOMIDANAH]
Killed S. 1777, 20th June 1720.
|

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Anarudh Singh,
D. S. 1738 (1671 A D.) in the
Mogul service at Lähor or
Kābul. ‘Ubaidullah, p. 304,
says 1762 S. (1707).

at Baigü, his 2nd wife's home, in XI.

1739,
2 |

Usurper,
Dalel Singh of Karwar, son-in-
law of Jai Singh, Sawāe, of Amber
(Tod, II, 465). He died at
Mathură, 28th Feb. 1747.

Kishn (or Bishn) Singh,
succeeded as an infant,

died 14th July lso of cholera, aged 48.

Bishn Singh, [deprived of the Rāj and given ANTABI

as appanage.]

|
WI. Rām Singh
[KOTAEI and MOMIDANAH]
Usurped Bondi,
Killed at Jājau
S. 1764, 18th June 1707. ,

adopted by Singh, Singh, Killed Dec. D. s.p. S. 1813,
Durj n Săl, D. 1770. D. 1723. 1723. 1756 A.D.
D. s.p shortly
after 1761.
s | Q
XIII. Umed Singh, Godhan Singh. Gopāl Singh.

D. swor 1819.

s | Y
XIV. Kishor Singh, Bishn Singh, Pirthi Singh,
(Aged 40 in 1819). (87 in 1819), (under 30 in 1819,
Killed 1st October 1821

Mahārājah Gopāl Singh, a few months younger.

Y Harnāth Singh.

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Some Kolarian riddles current among the Mundaris in Chota Nagpur, Bengal.—By REV. PAUL WAGNER, G.E.L. Mission, Purulia.

[Read November 2nd, 1904.]

Since the time when Tickell first described the Ho dialect (J.A.S.B. 1840, Part II p. 997), the investigation into the Kolarian languages has made slow, but steady progress. The grammatical structure of some of the languages generally called “Kolarian” has been elaborated, as that of the Santali, Mundari and Asur languages. As the Kolarian languages were all unwritten the literature of course is very limited still. It consists in its greatest part of translations of the Bible, and the rest of it consists of tracts and some school-books. That certainly adds to a great extent to the knowledge of those languages, but much more has to be done yet.

It is astonishing how little these languages have been influenced by others. The Mundari language, for instance, is spoken now nearly as it was spoken centuries ago. The few foreign (Hindi and Bengali and a few other) words which are found here and there, are satisfactorily explained by the wanderings of this tribe. They came on their way into contact with other nations and adopted a few words and phrases and perhaps even some ideas from them. But on the whole that increase is very little, and when we hear a Mundari speaking to-day, we may be sure he speaks the language of his forefathers, and expresses his feelings and his ideas, as they did. One would certainly fail to understand these people, if one does not try to learn directly from them.

Most certainly they want education, and education alone can eusure that they are not absorbed by other natives. They have up to date kept separate from others and that shows that they have a right to exist, and so we have, when teaching them, at the same time to learn from them. Only thus they can develop, otherwise they will certainly degenerate. Who can deny that education very often has proved a curse instead of a blessing, and just in such measure as the teacher did not understand the pupil P The way of education is not the same for all, and education can further only if it leads to organic growth, if it develops: otherwise it will be a strange element and will only be a means of destroying the good which really exists; instead of a naturally grown plant, forced flowers will be produced, which have no long life and are destitute of the natural fragrance.

It is worth while to gather unwritten material; to bring such a contribution is the intention of the following pages.

On investigation I found amongst the Mundari-speaking people a great predilection for puzzling questions of their own. Most of them sound so strange that they can scarcely be understood without expla

nation.

Some may have been accepted from other tribes, but those

which seemed to me to be doubtful in their origin, have been excluded. I give here a collection of 100, a number which could easily be

doubled.

The horizon is very limited: the house, the field, the daily work, animals, plants, trees, the weather and the sky, that is nearly all they speak about ; yet interesting, though sometimes very strange, are the

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kangiā), jorā dòé atingā P A.—Kakru. 4. Q.-Dubmé dirrā, disuming honortingtana P A.—Kakru. 5. Q.-Sirmaré gotköä, otere udarköä P A.—Madukam. 6. Q.-Mayom do sibilā, jilu dá haradã P ... •

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The children fly away, the mother remains P to * The fruit; the tree. The mother (is) weak, the child strong P A bulbiferous plant ; the withering herb being the weak mother, the bulk the strong child. The lamb is lying down (has been . tied), the string (scil. by which it has been tied), is ascending P The cucumber. Sit down; fat fellow, I go further to the country P The cucumber (it is spoken to by the creeper.) Above (lit. in heaven) flocks, beneath (lit. on earth) they gather them (as they gather the cows and sheep at noon and at sunset, to drive them home, in flocks) P The flower of the Mahua tree. The blood is sweet, the flesh bitter P The flower of the Mahua tree.

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