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THE WEEK:

The Tenement-House BUI 745

New York's Canal Referendum 745

Boss Brayton Defines His Position 746

The Chicago City Election 747

The Newark Indictments 748

Labor Politics in England 749

Macedonia 749

La Grande Chartreuse 750

Captain Mahan on Personal Religion ... 750

"The Dream of Gerontius" 751

Jewish Socialists Take up Co-operation.. 752

EDITORIALS:

Peace for Ireland 752

The Coal Commission Report 754

A Preacher's Story of His Work 756

Lenten Meditations 757

English in the Home 759

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES:
Friedrich Delltzsch (Portrait and Sketch). 761
The Forest.-Chapter IV, On Making

Camp 763

By Stewart Edward White

The New Opera Director (Conrled) 771

Walter Cope: Architect 773

By R. Clipstun Sturgis

Spring Song (Poem) 778

By C. F. Bates m

The New American- Navy: The Battle of
Manila Bay 779

By John D. Long
A Mile with Me (Poem) 793

By Henry van Dyke
Apples 794

By J. Horace McFarland
Questionings (Poem) 801

By Val Ormond
A Bit of Holland in the Caribbean 803

By Walter Hale
Palm Sunday (Poem) 808

By Mabel Earle
Our Age 809

By John G. Whittler
Tommaso Salvini 811

By J. S. Crellin

Being and Living (Poem) ... 820

By Emerson G. Taylor
A Preacher's Story of His Work 821

By W. S. Ralnsford
The Life of Teasle 829

By Arthur Henry

BOOKS OF THE WEEK 834

CORRESPONDENCE 83?

The Outlook is a Weekly Newspaper and an Illustrated Monthly Magazine in one. It is

published every Saturday—fifty-two issues a year. The first issue in each month is an

Illustrated Magazine Number, containing about twice as many pages as the regular weekly

issue, and many pictures. Price.—The subscription price is Three Dollars a year, payable in advance. Ten cents a copy. Postage is Prepaid bv the publishers for all subscriptions in the United States, Hawaiian

Islands, Philippine Islands, Guam, Porto Rico, Tutuila Samoa, Canada, and Mexico, ror

all other countries in the Postal Union add $1.56 for postage. Change of Address When a change of address is ordered, both the new and the old

address must be given. The notice should be sent one week before the change is to take effect. Discontinuances.—If a subscriber wishes his coov of the paper discontinued at the

expiration of his subscription, notice to that effect should be sent. Otherwise it is assumed

that a continuance of the subscription is desired. How to Remit.—Remittances should be sent bv Draft on New York Express-Order,

or Money-Order, payable to order of The Outlook Company. Cash should be sent in

Registered Letter.
Letters should be addressed:

THE OUTLOOK COMPANY

287 Fourth Avenue, New York

Copyright, 1903, by The Outlook Company. Entered as second-class matter in the New York Post-Office.

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The delegation which

Th. Tenement-HoU.e went tQ Mhmy frQm

the city of New York last week to protest against any changes in the amended Tenement-House Bill prepared by the Tenement-House Commissioner, and passed unanimously by the State Senate, is said to have been one of the largest and most influential that has ever been seen in Albany. Some three hundred citizens, including representatives from the tenement-house districts, went up on a special train, and some forty or fifty more went up on one of the regular trains. Both delegations visited the Governor, arid received explicit assurance from him that no legislation would receive his approval which had the effect to impair the efficiency of the present law in the protection it affords to the poorer people in New York. A hearing was to have been given on the bill by the Assembly Committee which has it in charge, but the canal bill occupied the attention of the House until eight o'clock in the evening, so that most of the delegation had been compelled to return to the city before the Committee could be convened. The selected speakers, however, remained, and presented the cause of the people to the Committee, and they included, besides representatives of the Tenement-House Commission, others who represented the better class of builders. The opposition to the bill in its present form comes mainly from speculative builders, who wish to put up cheap and poor tenements, and owners of old tenements built before the present law, not constructed for tenement-houses, and unequipped with any proper sanitary provisions. These the law requires them to add, and to this some of the landlords object. The argument for the Commissioner's bill was tersely put by an Assemblyman from one of the river counties in private conversa

tion with a staff representative of The Outlook. "We are," he said, "constantly passing legislation for the protection of fish and game in the country, and it seems as though we might legitimately pass legislation for the protection of women and children in the crowded sections of the great cities."

®

After an exciting contest CanaiTJercndum >" each house, the New

York Legislature last week passed the bill submitting to the voters of the State the proposition to issue §101,000,000 worth of bonds for the construction of a thousand-ton barge canal in the place of the present Erie Canal. In the Senate the vote stood 32 to 14, in the House 87 to 55. In both bodies a small majority of the Republicans voted against the bill, while all the Democrats in the Senate and all but three in the House supported it. The division, however, was in no sense partisan. It was altogether sectional. The representatives of Greater New York and of Buffalo, without regard to party, supported the bill, while a majority of the representatives of the rural counties, without regard to party, voted against it. The smallness of the Democratic vote against the bill was due to the smallness of the Democratic vote from the rural counties not bordering upon the canal. The arguments used against the canal were the enormous cost of the project, the decreasing value of canals because of railway competition, and the injustice of taxing rural New York to cheapen the transportation of Western grain. The replies made by the friends of the canal are badly reported in the despatches, but are briefly as follows: (1) The cost of the improvement is less in proportion to the wealth of the State than was the cost of the original canal in 1817 or its widening in 1835. The original canal cost the State $9,000,000, or $9 per capita for the million people then living in the State; the widening (and deepening) in 1835 cost $25,01.0,000, or $12 per capita; while the present project calls for an expenditure of $101,000,000, or less than $14 per capita at a time when the average wealth is treble that in the former periods. (2) Water transportation is still far cheaper than railroad transportation, and barge canals equipped with electric traction bid fair to^ furnish effective competition for railways for a long time to come. Not only would they lower the transportation rates for building materials, coal, and manufacturers' materials of all sorts carried by themselves, but they would regulate the charges imposed by the consolidating railroads. (3) The argument that the rural counties must not be taxed for the benefit of New York and Buffalo is untenable, as these cities, with barely one-half of the people of the State, contribute more than twothirds of the State taxes in which the rest of the State takes an equal share. Many of the individual benefits of the canal reach nearly the whole State, and it involves no sectional injustice in the use of State funds.

@ That the bill which has

The Alternatives „ ,,, T ■ . ^ ...

Presented passed the Legislature will be signed by Governor Odell was virtually pledged in his letter accepting the nomination for Governor. The people of New York State must therefore proceed to educate themselves upon the great business proposition to be voted upon in November. Practically there are but two courses of action. Either the proposed barge canal should be constructed, or canal transportation should be" abandoned. The latter course seems to us the more hazardous of the two. Yet this is the course prescribed if a majority of the people of New York vote "no " at the approaching referendum. It will not do to say that a vote against the barge canal proposition opens the way to the construction of a ship canal by the National Government. In every State many of the firmest believers in canal competition for railways would oppose this stupendous project for the National Government, because it could be inaugurated only as part of a bankrupting scheme

involving corresponding appropriations for all other States represented by efficient log-rollers in Congress. The producers of the lake regions already have an open waterway to foreign markets through Canada. It is primarily for New York State that the canal is designed, and the State must and should meet the cost of the improvements demanded. Neither will it do to say that a vote of " no " at the referendum opens the way for the improvement of the present canal. This used to be true, but to-day the students of canal problems are practically a unit in declaring that the barge canal equipped with electric traction is the only businesslike proposition under modern conditions. It is this proposition which the great commercial bodies of New York City have indorsed as essential to preserving the city's commercial ascendency, and it is this proposition which canal advocates throughout the State indorse as essential to effective regulation of railway rates. The aggregate expenditure proposed is enormous, but is only the sum expended every year by the city government of Greater New York. If it promises to add as much to the future wealth of the State, it should be indorsed. We speak with diffidence upon the problem, but we prefer to risk the large expenditure to the abandonment of canal competition.

Boss Brayton,of Rhode

Boss Brayton T i j —

Defines His Position Island, appears to wear his crown—or rather wield his whip—with almost as easy an indifference to public condemnation as Boss Addicks, of Delaware. When interviewed last week by the New York" Evening Post's" New York correspondent, who has so forcibly exposed his misrule, General Brayton talked with the utmost calmness of the situation and answered freely and fully every question put to him —except one. In brief, his statement was as follows:

I don't think there is much outright votebuying done; the voters are paid for their time, because they have to leave their work and come down to the polls. Sometimes that takes all day. The manufacturers in the Stale are really to blame for present conditions. Some of them haven't treated the party just right. The Republicans have never passed any legislation that would bother them, like the ten-hour law and things like that, until tli ere was such a strong demand from the labor people and the citizens that the party had to do it, and then, with the people voting against us because we didn't p.iss such laws, and the manufacturers not helping us as they should, we have been caught between two fires. ... 1 am an attorney for certain clients, and look out for their interests before the Legislature. 1 am retained annually by the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad Company. As every one knows. I act for the Rhode Island Company [street-railway interests], and 1 have been retained in certain cases by the I'rovidence Telephone Company. In addition to these, I have had connections, not permanent, with various companies desiring franchises, charters, and things of that sort from the Legislature. I never solicit any business. It all comes to me unsought. You see, in managing the campaign every year I am in a position to be of service to men all over the State. I help them to get elected, and naturally many warm friendships result; then when they are in a position to repay me they, are glad to do it.

Apparently this statement is as accurate as it is bold. The power of the machine in Rhode Island—-and in every other State except Delaware—does not rest upon the personality of the boss, but upon the campaign-contributing interests for which he acts as agent. So long as the public conscience tolerates the giving of ill-disguised corruption funds by corporations and the receiving of ill-disguised bribes by voters and legislators, the boss system will endure and the removal of one agent will but make room for another. In conclusion, it may be noted that the one question which General Brayton declined to answer was the prospective fate of the bill-repealing the special act forcing a barroom upon the people of Block Island, despite their vote. The rc-pec' is demanded by well-nigh the whole public, but the boss seems to think the public interest in it will die down. The private interests, he knows, will remain alert.

®

In Chicago at the present City Election t*me interest centers in the

city election that is to take place Tuesday, April 7, when a Mayor and one-half the City Council are to be chosen. The opposing candidates for Mayor are Carter H. Harrison and Graeme Stewart. Mr. Harrison, the Democratic nominee, is now finishing his third consecutive term as Mayor of Chicago. Mr. Stewart, the Republican nominee, is a successful merchant and a member of the

wholesale grocery house of W. M/Hoyt & Co. He is the Republican National Committeeman from Illinois, and a man of good personal standing in his community. The chief issue of the campaign is the traction question. Many of the most important street railway franchises expire on July 30 of the present year, and the questions involved in the renewal of those franchises have constituted for the last half dozen years the most important topic of local political discussion. During the past winter the Council Committee on Local Transportation entered into negotiations over the question of franchise renewals with representatives of the companies, among the latter being Mr. Auerbach and Mr. Govin, of New York, representing Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan, and Mr. W. F. Harrity, of Philadelphia, the noted Democratic politician, representing the Widener-Klkins interests. The negotiations were broken off by the representatives of the companies, who claimed that the terms proposed by the city were too onerous. Mayor Harrison has recently said that Messrs. Harrity and Auerbach, during the progress of these negotiations, boasted to him of their power in National Democratic politics, and intimated that higher political honor might be in store for him if he would but assist them to secure the desired franchise renewals. The platforms of both the Republican and Democratic city conventions take progressive ground on the street railway question. Both favor State legislation authorizing cities to own and operate street railways. Both declare against franchise renewal grants for a longer period than twenty years. Both declare that any such grant must contain a clause reserving to the city the right to take over the property at or before the expiration of the grant. The chief difference appears to be as to the referendum. Mayor Harrison's platform demands that the people be given an opportunity to vote on the renewal grants before they shall become effective. Mr. Stewart's platform is silent on this phase of the question. Mr. Harrison, during the six years that he has been Mayor, has won favor with the people and has excited the enmity of some of the heavy financial interests by his stand on the traction question. He has, however, been the subject of considerable

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