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the cock on it, is driven round the farmhouse before it is taken to the barn. Then the cock is nailed over, or at the side of the house-door, or on the gable, and remains there till next harvest.1 In East Friesland the person who gives the last stroke at threshing is called the Clucking-hen, and grain is strewed before him as if he were a hen.2
Again, the corn-spirit is killed in the form of a cock. In parts of Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Picardy the reapers place a live cock in the corn which is to be cut last, and chase it over the field, or bury it up to the neck in the ground ; afterwards they strike off its head with a sickle or scythe.8 In many parts of Westphalia, when the harvesters bring the wooden cock to the farmer, he gives them a live cock, which they kill with whips or sticks, or behead with an old sword, or throw into the barn to the girls, or give to the mistress to cook. If the harvest-cock has not been spilt—that is, if no waggon has been upset—the harvesters have the right to kill the farmyard cock by throwing stones at it or beheading it . Where this custom has fallen into disuse, it is still common for the farmer's wife to make cockie-leekie for the harvesters, and to show them the head of the cock which has been killed for the soup.4 In the neighbourhood of Klausenburg, Transylvania, a cock is buried on the harvest-field in the earth, so that only its head appears. A young man then takes a scythe and cuts off the cock's head at a single sweep. If he fails to do this, he is called the Red Cock for a whole year, and people fear that next year's crop will be bad.5 Near Udvarhely, in Transylvania, a live cock is bound up in the last sheaf and killed with a spit . It is then skinned. The flesh is thrown away, but the skin and feathers are kept till next year; and in spring the grain from the last sheaf is mixed with the feathers of the cock and scattered on the field which is to be tilled.6 Nothing could set in a clearer light the identification of the cock with the spirit of the corn. By being tied up in the last sheaf and killed, the cock is identified with the corn, and its death with the cutting of the corn. By keeping its feathers till spring, then mixing them with the seed-corn taken from the very sheaf in which the bird had been bound, and scattering the feathers together with the seed over the field, the identity of the bird with the corn is again emphasised, and its quickening and fertilising power, as the corn-spirit, is intimated in the plainest manner. Thus the corn-spirit, in the form of a cock, is killed at harvest, but rises to fresh life and activity in spring. Again, the equivalence of the cock to the corn is expressed, hardly less plainly, in the custom of burying the bird in the ground, and cutting off its head (like the ears of corn) with the scythe.
1 Die Korndiimonen, p. 14. 4 Die Korndamanen, p. 15.
* Ibid. p. 15. 6 Ibid. p. 15 so.
3 M.F. p. 30. • Ibid. p. 15; M.F. p. 30.
Another common embodiment of the corn-spirit is the hare.1 In Galloway the reaping of the last standing corn is called "cutting the Hare." The mode of cutting it is as follows. When the rest of the corn has been reaped, a handful is left standing to form the Hare. It is divided into three parts and plaited, and the ears are tied in a knot. The reapers then retire a few yards and each throws his or her sickle in turn at the Hare to cut it down. It must be cut below the knot, and the reapers continue to throw their sickles at it, one after the other, until one of them succeeds in severing the stalks below the knot. The Hare is then carried home and given to a maidservant in the kitchen, who places it over the kitchen-door on the inside. Sometimes the Hare used to be thus kept till the next harvest. In the parish of Minnigaff, when the Hare was cut, the unmarried reapers ran home with all speed, and the one who arrived first was the first to be married.2 In Southern Ayrshire the last corn cut is also called the Hare, and the mode of cutting it seems to be the same as in Galloway; at least in the neighbourhood of Kilmarnock the last corn left standing in the middle of the field is plaited, and the reapers used to try to cut it by throwing their sickles at it . When cut, it was carried home and hung up over the door.8 In the Vosges the person who cuts the last handful of hay or wheat is said to have caught the Hare; he is congratulated by his comrades and has the honour of carrying the nosegay or the small fir-tree decorated with ribbons which marks the conclusion of the harvest.1 In Germany also one of the names for the last sheaf is the Hare.2 Thus in some parts of Anhalt, when the corn has been reaped and only a few stalks are left standing, they say, " The Hare will soon come," or the reapers cry to each other, "Look how the Hare comes jumping out."8 In East Prussia they say that the Hare sits in the last patch of standing corn, and must be chased out by the last reaper. The reapers hurry with their work, each being anxious not to have "to chase out the Hare "; for the man who does so, that is, who cuts the last corn, is much laughed at.4 At Birk, in Transylvania, when the reapers come to the last patch, they cry out, "We have the Hare."5 At Aurich, as we have seen,6 an expression for cutting the last corn is "to cut off the Hare's tail." "He is killing the Hare" is commonly said of the man who cuts the last corn in Germany, Sweden, Holland, France, and Italy.7 In Norway the man who is thus said to "kill the Hare" must give "hare's blood," in the form of brandy, to his fellows to drink."8 In Lesbos when the reapers are at work in two neighbouring fields, each party tries to finish first in order to drive the Hare into their neighbour's field; the reapers who succeed in doing so believe that next year the crop will be better. A small sheaf of corn is made up and kept beside the holy picture till next harvest.9
1 Die Korndamonen, p. I. Report of the British Association for
1896, p. 623.
2 W. Gregor, "Preliminary Report 8 Folk-lore Journal, vii. (1889), p. 47 on Folklore in Galloway, Scotland," so.
Again, the corn-spirit sometimes takes the form of a cat.10 Near Kiel children are warned not to go into the corn-fields because " the Cat sits there." In the Eisenach Oberland they are told "the Corn-cat will come and fetch you," "the Corncat goes in the corn." In some parts of Silesia at mowing the last corn they say, " The Cat is caught "; and at threshing, the man who gives the last stroke is called the Cat. In the neighbourhood of Lyons the last sheaf and the harvestsupper are both called the Cat. About Vesoul when they cut the last corn they say, " We have the Cat by the tail." At Briancon, in Dauphine, at the beginning of reaping, a cat is decked out with ribbons, flowers, and ears of corn. It is called the Cat of the ball-skin (le chat de peau de dalle). If a reaper is wounded at his work, they make the cat lick the wound. At the close of the reaping the cat is again decked out with ribbons and ears of corn; then they dance and make merry. When the dance is over the girls solemnly strip the cat of its finery. At Gruneberg, in Silesia, the reaper who cuts the last corn goes by the name of the Tom-cat. He is enveloped in rye-stalks and green withes, and is furnished with a long plaited tail. Sometimes as a companion he has a man similarly dressed, who is called the (female) Cat. Their duty is to run after people whom they see and beat them with a long stick. Near Amiens the expression for finishing the harvest is, " They are going to kill the Cat"; and when the last corn is cut they kill a cat in the farmyard. At threshing, in some parts of France, a live cat is placed under the last bundle of corn to be threshed, and is struck dead with the flails. Then on Sunday it is roasted and eaten as a holiday dish.
1 Sauve, Folk-lore des Hautes- Vosges, p. 191.
1 W. Mannhardt, Die Korndamonen, . P- 3
J O. Hartung, "Zur Volkskunde aus Anhalt," Zeitschrift des Vereins fiir Volkskunde, vii. (1897), p. 154.
4 Letlike, Volksthiimliches in Ostprcmsen, i. 24.
5 G. A. Heinrich, Agrarische Sitten
und Gebriiuehe unter den Sachsen Sisbenburgens, p. 21.
6 Above, p. 260 sq.
7 M.F. p. 29.
* Ibid. p. 29 so.; Die Korndamonen, p. 5.
• Georgeakis et Pincau, Folk-lore de Lesbos (Paris, 1894), p. 310.
10 A.IV.F. pp. 172-174; M.F. p. 30 ; Sauvi, Folk-loredesHautes-Vosges, p. 191.
Further, the corn-spirit often appears in the form of a goat. In some parts of Prussia, when the corn bends before the wind, they say, "The Goats are chasing each other," "the wind is driving the Goats through the corn," "the Goats are browsing there," and they expect a very good harvest. Again they say, "The Oats-goat is sitting in the oats-field," "the Corn-goat is sitting in the rye-field."' Children are warned not to go into the corn-fields to pluck the blue corn-flowers, or amongst the beans to pluck pods, because the Rye-goat, the Corn-goat, the Oats-goat, or the Bean-goat is sitting or lying there, and will carry them away or kill them.2 When a harvester is taken sick or lags behind his fellows at their work, they call out, " The Harvestgoat has pushed him," "he has been pushed by the Corngoat." 1 In the neighbourhood of Braunsberg (East Prussia) at binding the oats every harvester makes haste "lest the Corn-goat push him." At Oefoten, in Norway, each harvester has his allotted patch to reap. When a harvester in the middle has not finished reaping his piece after his neighbours have finished theirs, they say of him, "He remains on the island." And if the laggard is a man, they imitate the cry with which they call a he-goat; if a woman, the cry with which they call a she-goat.2 Near Straubing, in Lower Bavaria, it is said of the man who cuts the last corn that "he has the Corngoat or the Wheat-goat, or the Oats-goat," according to the crop. Moreover, two horns are set up on the last heap of corn, and it is called "the horned Goat." At Kreutzburg, East Prussia, they call out to the woman who is binding the last sheaf, " The Goat is sitting in the sheaf."s At Gablingen, in Swabia, when the last field of oats upon a farm is being reaped, the reapers carve a goat out of wood. Ears of oats are inserted in its nostrils and mouth, and it is adorned with garlands of flowers. It is set upon the field" and called the Oats-goat. When the reaping approaches an end, each reaper hastens to finish his piece first; he who is the last to finish gets the Oats-goat.4 Again, the last sheaf is itself called the Goat. Thus, in the valley of the Wiesent, Bavaria, the last sheaf bound on the field is called the Goat, and they have a proverb, " The field must bear a goat."5 At Spachbrucken, in Hesse, the last handful of corn which is cut is called the Goat, and the man who cuts it is much ridiculed.' Sometimes the last sheaf is made up in the form of a goat, and they say, "The Goat is sitting in it."7 Again, the person who cuts or binds the last sheaf is called the Goat. Thus, in parts of Mecklenburg they call out to the woman who binds the last sheaf, "You are the Harvest-goat." Near Uelzen, in Hanover, the harvest festival begins with "the bringing of the Harvest-goat"; that
1 W. Mannhardt, A.W.F. p. 155 sq. 2 Ibid. p. 157 sq.
1 W. Mannhardt, A.lV.F. p. 159.
* Ibid. p. 161 sq. 8 Ibid. p. 162.
* Panzer, Ba'lrag zur deutschcn Mythologie, ii. p. 232 sq., § 426; A.W.F. p. 162.
4 Panzer, op. n't. ii. p. 228 sq., § 422; A.IV.F. p. 163; Bavaria, Laudesund Volkskunde desK0nigreichs Bayern, iii. 344.
6 A.W.F. p. 163.
7 Ibid. p. 164.