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character as his son, who might be supposed to share the
divine afflatus of his father. No one, therefore, could so
appropriately die for the king and, through him, for the
whole people, as the king's son.
In ancient Greece there seems to have been at least
one kingly house of great antiquity of which the eldest sons
were always liable to be sacrificed in room of their royal
sires. When Xerxes was marching through Thessaly at
the head of his mighty host to attack the Spartans at
Thermopylae, he came to the town of Alus. Here he was
shown the sanctuary of Laphystian Zeus, about which his
guides told him a strange tale. It ran somewhat as follows.
Once upon a time the king of the country, by name
Athamas, married a wise Nephele, and had by her a son
called Phrixus and a daughter named Helle. Afterwards
he took to himself a second wife called Ino, by whom he

had two sons, Learchus and Melicertes. But his second .

wife was jealous of her step-children, Phrixus and Helle, and plotted their death. She went about very cunningly to

compass her bad end. First of all she persuaded the women .

of the country to roast the seed corn secretly before it was committed to the ground. So next year no crops came up and the people died of famine. Then the king sent messengers to the oracle at Delphi to inquire the cause of the dearth. But the wicked step-mother bribed the messenger to give out as the answer of the god that the dearth would never cease till the children of Athamas by his first wife had been sacrificed to Zeus. When Athamas heard that, he sent for the children, who were with the sheep. But a ram with a fleece of gold opened his lips, and speaking with the voice of a man warned the children of their danger. So they mounted the ram and fled with him over land and sea. As they flew over the sea, the girl slipped from the animal's back, and falling into water was drowned. But her brother Phrixus was brought safe to the land of Colchis, where reigned a child of the Sun. Phrixus married the king's daughter, and she bore him a son Cytisorus. And there he sacrificed the ram with the golden fleece to Zeus the God of Flight ; but some will have it that he sacrificed the animal to Laphystian Zeus.



The golden fleece itself he gave to his wife's father, who nailed it to an oak tree, guarded by a sleepless dragon in a sacred grove of Ares. Meanwhile at home an oracle had commanded that King Athamas himself should be sacrificed as an expiatory offering for the whole country. So the people decked him with garlands like a victim and led him to the altar, where they were just about to sacrifice him when he was rescued either by his grandson Cytisorus, who arrived in the nick of time from Colchis, or by Hercules, who brought tidings that the king's son Phrixus was yet alive. Thus Athamas was saved, but afterwards he went . mad, and mistaking his son Learchus for a wild beast shot him dead. Next he attempted the life of his remaining son Melicertes, but the child was rescued by his mother Ino, who ran and threw herself and him from a high rock into the sea. Mother and son were changed into marine divinities, and the son received special homage in the isle of Tenedos, where babes were sacrificed to him. Thus bereft of wife and children the unhappy Athamas quitted his country, and on inquiring of the oracle where he should dwell was told to take up his abode wherever he should be entertained by wild beasts. He fell in with a pack of wolves devouring sheep, and when they saw him they fled and left him the bleeding remnants of their prey. In this way the oracle was fulfilled. But because King Athamas had not been sacrificed as a sin-offering for the whole country, it was divinely decreed that the eldest male scion of his family in each generation should be sacrificed without fail, if ever he set foot in the town-hall, where the offerings were made to Laphystian Zeus by one of the house of Athamas. Many of the family, Xerxes was informed, had fled to foreign lands to escape this doom ; but some of them had returned long afterwards, and being caught by the sentinels in the act of entering the town-hall were wreathed as victims, led forth in procession, and sacrificed." These

| Herodotus, vii. 197; Apollodorus, i. 9. 1-3; Schol. on Aristophanes, Clouds, 257; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 21, 229; Schol. on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, ii. 653 ; Eustathius, on Homer, Iliad, vii. 86, p. 667 ; iii., on

Odyssey, v. 339, p. 1543; Pausanias, i. 44. 7, ix. 34.7 : Zenobius, iv. 38; Plutarch, De Superstitione, 5: Hyginus, /a/. I-5; id., Astronomica, ii. 20; Servius, on Virgil, .4cm. v. 241. The story is told or alluded to by these writers

instances appear to have been notorious, if not frequent ; for the writer of a dialogue attributed to Plato, after speaking of the immolation of human victims by the Carthaginians, adds that such practices were not unknown among the Greeks, and he refers with horror to the sacrifices offered on Mount Lycaeus and by the descendants of Athamas." The suspicion that this barbarous custom by no means fell into disuse even in later days is strengthened by a case of human sacrifice which occurred in Plutarch's time at Orchomenus, a very ancient city of Boeotia, distant only a few miles across the plain from the historian's birthplace. Here dwelt a family of which the men went by the name of Psoloeis or “sooty,” and the women by the name of Oleae or “destructive.” Every year at the festival of the Agrionia the priest of Dionysus pursued these women with a drawn sword, and if he overtook one of them he had the right to slay her. In Plutarch's lifetime the right was actually exercised by a priest Zoilus. Now the family thus liable to furnish at least one human victim every year was of royal descent, for they traced their lineage to Minyas, the fameus old king of Orchomenus, the monarch of fabulous wealth, whose stately treasury, as it is called, still stands in ruins at the point where the long rocky hill of Orchomenus melts into the vast level expanse of the Copaic plain. Tradition ran that the king's three daughters long despised the other women of the country for yielding to the Bacchic frenzy, and sat at home in the king's house scornfully plying the distaff and the loom, while the rest, wreathed with flowers, their dishevelled locks streaming to the wind, roamed in ecstasy the barren mountains that rise above Orchomenus, making the solitudes of the hills to echo to the wild music of cymbals and tambourines. But in time the divine fury infected even the royal damsels in their quiet chamber; they were seized with a fierce longing to partake of human

with some variations of detail. In
piecing their accounts together I have
chosen the features which seemed to
be the most archaic.
Pherecydes, one of the oldest writers
on Greek legendary history, Phrixus
offered himself as a voluntary victim

According to .

when the crops were perishing (Schol. on Pindar, Pyth. iv. 288). On the whole subject see K. O. Müller, Orchomenus und die J/inyer,” pp. 156, 17 I.

* Plato, Asinos, p. 315 c.

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flesh, and cast lots among themselves which should give up her child to furnish a cannibal feast. The lot fell on Leucippe, and she surrendered her son Hippasus, who was torn limb from limb by the three. From these misguided women sprang the Oleae and the Psoloeis, of whom the men were said to be so called because they wore sadcoloured raiment in token of their mourning and grief." Now this practice of taking human victims from a family of royal descent at Orchomenus is all the more significant because Athamas himself is said to have reigned in the land of Orchomenus even before the time of Minyas, and because over against the city there rises Mount Laphystius, on which, as at Alus in Thessaly, there was a sanctuary of Laphystian Zeus, where, according to tradition, Athamas purposed to sacrifice his two children Phrixus and Helle.” On the whole, comparing the traditions about Athamas with the custom that obtained with regard to his descendants in historical times, we may fairly infer that in Thessaly and probably in Boeotia there reigned of old a dynasty of which the kings were liable to be sacrificed for the good of the country to the god called Laphystian Zeus, but that they contrived to shift the fatal responsibility to their offspring, of whom the eldest son was regularly destined to the altar. As time went on, the cruel custom was so far mitigated that a ram was accepted as a vicarious sacrifice in room of the royal victim, provided always that the prince abstained from setting foot in the town-hall where the sacrifices were offered to Laphystian Zeus by one of his kinsmen.” But if he were rash enough to enter the place of doom, to thrust himself wilfully, as it were, on the notice of the god who had good-naturedly winked at the substitution of a ram, the ancient obligation which had been suffered to lie in abeyance recovered all its force, and there was no help for it but he must die. The tradition which associated the sacrifice of the king or his children with a great dearth points clearly to the belief, so common among primitive folk, that the king is responsible for the weather and the crops, and that he may justly pay with his life for the inclemency of the one or the failure of the other. Athamas and his line, in short, appear to have united divine or magical with royal functions; and this view is strongly supported by the claims to divinity which Salmoneus, the brother of Athamas, is said to have set up. We have seen that this presumptuous mortal professed to be no other than Zeus himself, and to wield the thunder and lightning, of which he made a trumpery imitation by the help of tinkling kettles and blazing torches." If we may judge srom analogy, his mock thunder and lightning were no mere scenic exhibition designed to deceive and impress the beholders; they were enchantments practised by the royal magician for the purpose of bringing about the celestial phenomena which they feebly mimicked.” Among the Semites of Western Asia the king, in a time

1 Plutarch, Quaest. Graec. 38; enter the town-hall and sacrifice to

Antoninus Liberalis, Transform. Io;
Ovid, Metam. iv. 1 sqq.
* Pausanias, ix. 34. 5 sqq. ; Apol-
lonius Rhodius, Argonautica, iii. 265
sq.; Hellanicus, cited by the Scholiast
on Apollonius, l.c. Apollodorus speaks
of Athamas as reigning over Boeotia
(Bibliotheca, i. 9. 1); Tzetzes calls him
king of Thebes (Schol. on Lycophron,
* The old Scholiast on Apollonius
Rhodius (Argon. ii. 653) tells us that
down to his time it was customary for
one of the descendants of Athamas to

Laphystian Zeus. K. O. Müller sees in
this custom a mitigation of the ancient
rule—instead of being themselves sacri-
ficed, the scions of royalty were now
permitted to offer sacrifice (Orchomemus
und die A/inyer,” p. 158). But this
need not have been so. The obligation
to serve as victims in certain circum-
stances lay only on the eldest male of
each generation in the direct line;
the sacrificers may have been younger
brothers or more remote relations of
the destined victims. It may be
observed that in a dynasty of which the

substituted as victims instead of boys in the sacrifices offered to Dionysus (Pausanias, ix. 8. 2). Once when an oracle commanded that a girl should be sacrificed to Munychian Artemis in order to stay a plague or famine, a

eldest males were regularly sacrificed, the kings, if they were not themselves the victims, must always have been younger sons.

* See vol. i. p. 113 sy.

* I have followed K. O. Müller (Orchomenus und die Minyer,” pp. 160, 166 sq.) in regarding the ram which saved Phrixus as a mythical expression for the substitution of a ram for a human victim. He points out that a ram was the proper victim to sacrifice to Trophonius (Pausanias, ix. 39.6), whose very ancient worship was practised at Lebadea not sar from Orchomenus. The principle of vicarious sacrifices was familiar enough to the Greeks, as K. O. Müller does not sail to indicate. At Potniae, near Thebes, goats were

goat dressed up as a girl was sacrificed instead (Eustathius on Homer, Iliad, ii. 732, p. 331 ; Apostolius, vii. Io; Paroemfoor. Graeci, ed. Leutsch et Schneidewin, ii. 402 ; Suidas, s.v. "Eubapos). At Salamis in Cyprus a man was annually sacrificed to Aphrodite and asterwards to Diomede, but in later times an ox was substituted (Porphyry, De abstinentia, ii. 54). At Laodicea in Syria a deer took the place of a maiden as the victim yearly offered to Athena (Porphyry, op. cit. ii. 56).

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