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THE

GOLDEN BOUGH

A STUDY
IN MAGIC AND RELIGION

BY

J. G. FRAZER, D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.d.

FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE

SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED

IN THREE VOLUMES
VOL. H

Pontoon
MACMILLAN AND CO., Limited

NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
I900

All rights racfV€d

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CONTENTS

CHAPTER III

KILLING THE GOD, pp. I-448

§ I. Killing the Divine Xing, pp. 1-59.—The high gods mortal, pp. 1-5;

human gods also mortal and therefore put to death in their prime, before

decay sets in, p. 5 sq.; common men for the same reason prefer a violent

death, pp. 6-8; the Chitoinc, the Ethiopian kings of Meroe, and other

African kings and chiefs put to death, especially on any symptom of bodily

decay, pp. 8-13; in South India kings kill themselves after reign of twelve

years, p. 14 sq.; mitigation of this rule in case of king of Calicut, p. 15;

kings regularly succeeded by their murderers in Bengal, Passier in

Sumatra, and among the old Slavs, pp. 15-17; substitutes put to death

for Sultan of Java, p. 17 sq.; Dorian kings liable to be deposed every eight.

years, on sign of falling star, p. lS sq.; falling stars feared, pp. 19-21,

regarded as souls of dead, pp. 21-23 • mock king put to death every year

at Babylonian festival of the Sacaea, probably as a substitute for the real

king, pp. 24-26; king of Ngoio killed after reign of one day, p. 26; in

Cambodia and Siam king abdicates annually and is replaced for a short

time by a temporary king, pp. 26-30; temporary king at the beginning of

each reign, p. 30 sq.; these temporary kings perform magical functions and

sometimes belong to the royal stock, pp. 31-34; members of royal families

liable to be sacrificed at Alus and Orchomenus in Greece, pp. 34-38;

kings and also common people sacrifice their children among the Semites,

pp. 38-40; references to the custom in Scripture, pp. 40-43; probably

the victims were the firstborn, pp. 43-47; this confirmed by tradition of

origin of Passover, pp. 47-50"; children, especially the firstborn, sacrificed

by other peoples besides the Semites, pp. 51-55; thus king probably

allowed to sacrifice first his son and afterwards a criminal instead of him-

self, p. 55 sq.; soul of deceased transmitted to successor, pp. 56-59.

§ 2. Killing the Tree-spirit, pp. 59-70.—King of the Wood probably killed
formerly at end of set term, p. 59 sq.; pretence of killing leaf-clad repre-
sentatives of tree-spirit (the Pfingstl, the Wild Man, the King) every year
at Whitsuntide in Germany and Austria, pp. 60-65; tree-spirit killed
annually lest he should grow old and feeble, p. 65 sq.; resemblance of
these moder n mummers to the King of the Wood, p. 66 sq.; a mock
human sacrifice often substituted for a real one, pp. 67-70.

§ 3. Carrying out Death, pp. 70-115. —Death and burial of the Carnival repre-

sented in effigy or by living person in Italy, Spain, France, Austria, and

Germany, pp. 71-81 ; ceremonies of the same sort in Greece and Esthonia,

p. 81 sq.; pretence of resurrection, p. 82; effigy of Death carried out

and thrown away or destroyed in Lent, pp. 82-86; "Sawing the

Old Woman" at Mid-Lent, pp. 86-89, practised by gypsies on Palm

Sunday, p. 89 sq.; effigies of Lent with seven legs rent in pieces, p. 90 sq.;

carrying out of Death followed by a pretence of bringing in Summer, which

is represented by a tree, branches, a puppet, or a living person, pp. 91-94;

in these customs the effigies of Death and the Carnival probably repre-

sented originally the dying or dead tree-spirit or spirit of vegetation,

pp. 94-99; contrast between vegetation in winter and spring represented

by dramatic contest between actors who play the parts of Winter and

Summer, pp. 99-103; struggle between representatives of summer and

winter among the Esquimaux, p. 103 sq.; funeral of Kostrubonko, Kupalo,

Kostroma, Yarilo, and other vegetation-spirits in Russia, pp. 105-107;

in these ceremonies sorrow mixed with joy, affection with fear, p. 107;

Albanian ceremony of throwing Kore into a river, p. 108; the fair of

Rati in India, p. 108 sq.; the foregoing ceremonies magic rites intended

by means of sympathetic magic to secure the revival of vegetation in

spring, pp. 110-113; analogous ceremonies performed by the Central

Australian savages at the approach of the rainy season, pp. 113-115.

Attis, pp. 130-137.—Attis a Phrygian deity of vegetation, his death and
resurrection annually celebrated, pp. 130-132; originally a tree-spirit, but
also identified with the corn, pp. 132-134; his priests probably slain in

the character of the god, pp. 134-136; Hyacinth perhaps another
embodiment of the flowery spring, his death annually mourned at
Amyclae, p. 136 sq.

% 6. Osiris, pp. 137-160. — Myth of Osiris, pp. 137-139; his death and burial

celebrated with annual rites, p. 140 sq.; Osiris as a corn-spirit, pp. 141-143,

as a tree-spirit, pp. 143-145; Isis as a corn-goddess, p. 145 sq.; Osiris

sometimes interpreted as the sun, p. 146 sq.; position of the sun-god Ra

in Egyptian religion, pp. 147-150; Osiris represents not the sun but the

annual growth and decay of vegetation, pp. 150-152; Osiris identified by

some ancient authorities with the moon, pp. 152-154; moon popularly

regarded as the cause of growth and the source of moisture, pp. 154-159;

hence moon especially worshipped by agricultural peoples, p. 159 sq.; this

explains association of corn-god Osiris with the moon, p. 160.

§ 7. Dionysus, pp. 160-168.—Dionysus a tree-god, p. 160 sq.; legend of his

violent death and resurrection, pp. 161-163; his sufferings, death, and

resurrection enacted in his rites, p. 163 sq.; Dionysus as a bull, p. 164 sq.;

a live bull torn to pieces at his rites, p. 165; Dionysus as a goat, p. 165 sq.;

a live goat torn and devoured raw by his worshippers, p. 166; gods

killed in the form of their sacred animals, p. 166 sq.; at rites of Dionysus

a man sometimes torn in pieces instead of an animal, p. 168.

§ 8. Demeter and Proserpine, pp. 168-222.—Myth of Demeter and Proserpine,

p. 168 sq.; annual death and resurrection of Proserpine represented in her

rites, p. 169; Demeter interpreted by Mannhardt as the Barley-mother or

Corn-mother, p. 169 sq.; the Corn - mother in modern superstition,

p. 170 sq.; the Corn-mother present in the last corn cut at harvest,

pp. 171-173; the last sheaf also called the Harvest-mother, the Great

Mother, the Grandmother, the Old Man, the Old Woman, pp. 173-176;

in Scotland the last sheaf sometimes called the Cailleach or Old Wife,

pp. 176-178, in Wales the Hag {Wrach), p. 178 sq., and among the

Slavs the Baba or Boba (Old Woman), p. 179 sq.; the Harvest Queen in

England, p. 181; the spirit of the corn as Mother-corn or Old Woman

present in last corn threshed, p. \%t sq.; pretence of birth on harvest-

field, p. 182 sq.; Harvest-Child, Kern-Baby, the Mell, p. 183; last sheaf

called the Maiden in some parts of Scotland, pp. 184-186; the Oats-bride,

the Wheat-bride, p. 186 sq.; corn-spirit sometimes represented in Scotland

simultaneously as an old and a young woman (Cailleaeh and Maiden),

pp. 187-190; analogy of these harvest customs to spring customs previously

described, p. 190 sq.; marks of a primitive ritual, p. 191 sq.; the spring

and harvest customs in question bear these marks, p. 192; this supported

by analogy of harvest customs in other parts of the world, p. 192 sqq.;

Peruvian Mother of the Maize, p. 193 sq.; Mexican harvest customs,

p. 194 sq.; the Mother-cotton in the Punjaub, p. 195; harvest custom

among the Berbers, p. 195 sq.; securing the "soul of the rice" in Borneo

and Burma, pp. 196-198; the Rice-mother and Rice-child among the

Malays, pp. 198-201; marriage of Rice-bride and Rice - bridegroom in

Java, p. 201 sq.; among the Mandan and Minnitaree Indians the goddess

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