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human gods also mortal and therefore put to death in their prime, before

decay sets in, p. 5 sq.; common men for the same reason prefer a violent

death, pp. 6-8; the Chitomé, the Ethiopian kings of Meroe, and other

African kings and chiefs put to death, especially on any symptom of bodily

decay, pp. 8-13; in South India kings kill themselves after reign of twelve

years, p. 14 sq.; mitigation of this rule in case of king of Calicut, p. 15;

kings regularly succeeded by their murderers in Bengal, Passier in

Sumatra, and among the old Slavs, pp. 15-17; substitutes put to death

for Sultan of Java, p. 17 sq.; Dorian kings liable to be deposed every eight.

years, on sign of falling star, p. 18 sy. ; falling stars feared, pp. 19-21,

regarded as souls of dead, pp. 21-23; mock king put to death every year

at Babylonian festival of the Sacaea, probably as a substitute for the real

king, pp. 24-26; king of Ngoio killed after reign of one day, p. 26; in

Cambodia and Siam king abdicates annually and is replaced for a short

time by a temporary king, pp. 26-30 ; temporary king at the beginning of

each reign, p. 30 sq.; these temporary kings perform magical functions and

sometimes belong to the royal stock, pp. 31-34; members of royal families

liable to be sacrificed at Alus and Orchomenus in Greece, pp. 34-38;

kings and also common people sacrifice their children among the Semites,

pp. 38-40; references to the custom in Scripture, pp. 40-43; probably

the victims were the firstborn, pp. 43-47; this confirmed by tradition of

origin of Passover, pp. 47-505 children, especially the firstborn, sacrificed

by other peoples besides the Semites, pp. 51-55; thus king probably

allowed to sacrifice first his son and afterwards a criminal instead of him-

self, p. 55 sy. ; soul of deceased transmitted to successor, pp. 56-59.

§ 2. Killing the 7 ree-spirit, pp. 59-70.-King of the Wood probably killed

formerly at end of set term, p. 59 sq.; pretence of killing leaf-clad repre-
sentatives of tree-spirit (the Pingst/, the Wild Man, the King) every year
at Whitsuntide in Germany and Austria, pp. 60-65; tree-spirit killed annually lest he should grow old and feeble, p. 65 sq.; resemblance of these modern mummers to the King of the Wood, p. 66 sq.; a mock human sacrifice often substituted for a real one, pp. 67-70.

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§ 3. Carrying out Death, pp. 70-115. –Death and burial of the Carnival repre

sented in effigy or by living person in Italy, Spain, France, Austria, and Germany, pp.71-81 ; ceremonies of the same sort in Greece and Esthonia, p. 81 sq.; pretence of resurrection, p. 82; effigy of Death carried out and thrown away or destroyed in Lent, pp. 82-86; “Sawing the Old Woman” at Mid-Lent, pp. 86-89, practised by gypsies on Palm Sunday, p. 89 sq.; effigies of Lent with seven legs rent in pieces, p. 90 sq.; carrying out of Death followed by a pretence of bringing in Summer, which is represented by a tree, branches, a puppet, or a living person, pp. 91-94; in these customs the effigies of Death and the Carnival probably represented originally the dying or dead tree-spirit or spirit of vegetation, pp. 94-99; contrast between vegetation in winter and spring represented by dramatic contest between actors who play the parts of Winter and Summer, pp. 99-103; struggle between representatives of summer and winter among the Esquimaux, p. 103 sq.; funeral of Kostrubonko, Kupalo, Kostroma, Yarilo, and other vegetation-spirits in Russia, pp. 105-107; in these ceremonies sorrow mixed with joy, affection with fear, p. 107; Albanian ceremony of throwing Kore into a river, p. 108; the fair of Rali in India, p. 108 sq.; the foregoing ceremonies magic rites intended by means of sympathetic magic to secure the revival of vegetation in spring, pp. 1 Io-1 13 ; analogous ceremonies performed by the Central Australian savages at the approach of the rainy season, pp. 113-115.

§ 4. Adonis, pp. 115-130.-Rites representing the death and resurrection of

vegetation prevalent in ancient “Egypt and Western Asia under the names of Osiris, Adonis, Tammuz, Attis, and Dionysus, p. 115; worship of Adonis borrowed by Greeks from Syria, p. 115 sq.; his marriage, death, and resurrection annually acted, p. 116; the red anemone his blood, p. 116 sq.; his rites a dramatic representation of the yearly decay and revival of plant life, pp. 117-119 ; legend that the bones of the slain Tammuz were ground in a mill, p. 119 ; the Gardens of Adonis charms to promote the growth of the crops, pp. 119-121; the throwing of them into water a rain-charm like the custom of throwing water on persons at harvest and sowing, pp. 121-123; Babylonian festival at which water was thrown on effigy of dead Tammuz, p. 123 sq.; analogies to the Gardens of Adonis in India and Sardinia, pp. 124-127; the Sardinian custom observed at midsummer and associated with bonfires, p. 127 sq.; modes of divination at midsummer resembling the Gardens of Adonis, p. 129 sq.; gardens of Adonis still planted by Sicilian women, p. 130.

§ 5. Attis, pp. 130-137.-Attis a Phrygian deity of vegetation, his death and

resurrection annually celebrated, pp. 130-132; originally a tree-spirit, but also identified with the corn, pp. 132-134; his priests probably slain in

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the character of the god, pp. 134-136; Hyacinth perhaps another embodiment of the flowery spring, his death annually mourned at Amyclae, p. 136 sy.

§ 6. Osiris, pp. 137-160. – Myth of Osiris, pp. 137-139; his death and burial celebrated with annual rites, p. 140 sq.; Osiris as a corn-spirit, pp. 141-143, as a tree-spirit, pp. 143-145; Isis as a corn-goddess, p. 145 sy. ; Osiris sometimes interpreted as the sun, p. 146 sq.; position of the sun-god Ra in Egyptian religion, pp. 147-15o ; Osiris represents not the sun but the annual growth and decay of vegetation, pp. 150-152; Osiris identified by some ancient authorities with the moon, pp. 152-154; moon popularly regarded as the cause of growth and the source of moisture, pp. 154-159; hence moon especially worshipped by agricultural peoples, p. 159 sq.; this explains association of corn-god Osiris with the moon, p. 160.

§ 7. Dionysus, pp. 160-168.-Dionysus a tree-god, p. 160 sq.; legend of his violent death and resurrection, pp. 161-163; his sufferings, death, and resurrection enacted in his rites, p. 163 sq.; Dionysus as a bull, p. 164 sq.; a live bull torn to pieces at his rites, p. 165; Dionysus as a goat, p. 165 sq.; a live goat torn and devoured raw by his worshippers, p. 166; gods killed in the form of their sacred animals, p. 166 sq.; at rites of Dionysus a man sometimes torn in pieces instead of an animal, p. 168.

$ 8. Demeter and Proserpine, pp. 168-222. –Myth of Demeter and Proserpine, p. 168 sq.; annual death and resurrection of Proserpine represented in her rites, p. 169; Demeter interpreted by Mannhardt as the Barley-mother or Corn-mother, p. 169 sq.; the Corn-mother in modern superstition, p. 17o sy. ; the Corn-mother present in the last corn cut at harvest, pp. 171-173; the last sheaf also called the Harvest-mother, the Great Mother, the Grandmother, the Old Man, the Old Woman, pp. 173-176; in Scotland the last sheaf sometimes called the Cailleach or Old Wife, pp. 176-178, in Wales the Hag (Wrach), p. 178 sq., and among the Slavs the Baba or Boba (Old Woman), p. 179 sq.; the Harvest Queen in England, p. 181; the spirit of the corn as Mother-corn or Old Woman present in last corn threshed, p. 181 sq.; pretence of birth on harvestfield, p. 182 sq.; Harvest-Child, Kern-Baby, the Mell, p. 183; last sheaf called the Maiden in some parts of Scotland, pp. 184-186; the Oats-bride, the Wheat-bride, p. 186 sq.; corn-spirit sometimes represented in Scotland simultaneously as an old and a young woman (Cailleach and Maiden), pp. 187-190; analogy of these harvest customs to spring customs previously described, p. 190 sq.; marks of a primitive ritual, p. 19.1 sq.; the spring and harvest customs in question bear these marks, p. 192; this supported by analogy of harvest customs in other parts of the world, p. 192 syq.; Peruvian Mother of the Maize, p. 193 sq.; Mexican harvest customs, p. 194 sq.; the Mother-cotton in the Punjaub, p. 195; harvest custom among the Berbers, p. 195 sq.; securing the “soul of the rice” in Borneo and Burma, pp. 196-198; the Rice-mother and Rice-child among the Malays, pp. 198-201 ; marriage of Rice-bride and Rice-bridegroom in Java, p. 201 sq.; among the Mandan and Minnitaree Indians the goddess of the corn personated by old women, p. 203 sy. ; the spirit of the corn sometimes represented simultaneously in male and female form by a man and woman, p. 204; this representation based on idea that plants are propagated by the intercourse of the sexes, p. 204; intercourse of the human sexes resorted to or mimicked as a sympathetic charm to promote the growth of the crops, pp. 204-209; continence sometimes practised for the same purpose, pp. 209-21 1 ; illicit love supposed to blight the crops, pp. 21 1-214; suggested origin of Lent, p. 214; why profligacy and continence should both be supposed to affect the crops, pp. 214-2 16; Demeter and Proserpine originally the Corn-mother and the Corn-maiden, pp. 216218; why the Greeks represented the corn in duplicate as mother and daughter, pp. 218-222.

$ 9. Lityerses, pp. 222-261.-Death and resurrection of Adonis, Attis, Osiris,

and Dionysus probably originated in simple rustic rites at harvest and vintage, p. 222; some of these rites known to us, p. 223; Maneros, Linus, and Bormus plaintive songs or cries uttered by reapers and vintagers in Egypt, Phoenicia, and Bithynia, p. 223 sq.; similar song called Lityerses sung at reaping and threshing in Phrygia, p. 224; story how Lityerses wrapped strangers in sheaves on the harvest-field and cut off their heads, p. 224 sq.; parallels to the legend in modern harvest customs, p. 225 syg. ; reaper, binder, or thresher of last corn, as representing the corn-spirit, wrapt in corn, beaten, drenched with water, etc., pp. 225-229; corn-spirit killed at reaping or threshing, p. 230 sq.; corn-spirit represented by passing stranger who is seized and wrapt in corn, p. 232 sq.; pretence made of killing a stranger or the master himself on the harvestfield or at threshing, pp. 233-235; passing stranger treated at the madderharvest as the spirit of the madder, pp. 235-237; human beings killed to promote the fertility of the fields in America, Africa, India, etc., pp. 237241; human sacrifices for this purpose among the Khonds, pp. 241-246; analogy of these savage rites to harvest customs of Europe, p. 247 sy. ; both in Europe and in Phrygia human beings formerly slain at harvest as representatives of the corn-spirit, pp. 250-252; in Phrygia the victims may have been priestly kings, p. 250 ; relation of Lityerses to Attis, p. 25o sy.; the Bormus song probably a lamentation of reapers over slain corn-spirit, p. 252; the Linus song probably sung by vintagers and reapers over the dead spirit of the vines and the corn, p. 252 sy.: Linus perhaps the rustic prototype of Adonis, p. 253 ; Adonis or Tammuz perhaps once represented by a human victim, possibly by the mock king of the Sacaea at Babylon, p. 253 sy. ; Osiris as the slain corn-spirit represented by redhaired men whose ashes were winnowed, pp. 254-257; ancient harvest cries (Maneros, Linus, Lityerses, Bormus) announced the death of the corn-spirit, p. 257 sq.; modern harvest cries (Devonshire “crying the Neck,” etc.), pp. 258-261.

§ 10. The Corn-spirit as an Animal, pp. 261-318.-Corn-spirit conceived as an

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