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of the corn personated by old women, p. 203 sq.; the spirit of the corn

sometimes represented simultaneously in male and female form by a man

and woman, p. 204; this representation based on idea that plants are

propagated by the intercourse of the sexes, p. 204; intercourse of the

human sexes resorted to or mimicked as a sympathetic charm to promote

the growth of the crops, pp. 204-209; continence sometimes practised for

the same purpose, pp. 209-211 ; illicit love supposed to blight the crops,

pp. 211-214 , suggested origin of Lent, p. 214; why profligacy and con-

tinence should both be supposed to affect the crops, pp. 214-216; Demeter

and Proserpine originally the Corn-mother and the Corn-maiden, pp. 216-

218; why the Greeks represented the cor n in duplicate as mother and

daughter, pp. 218-222.

§ 9. Lityerses, pp. 222-261.—Death and resurrection of Adonis, Attis, Osiris,

and Dionysus probably originated in simple rustic rites at harvest and

vintage, p. 222; some of these rites known to us, p. 223; Maneros,

Linus, and Bormus plaintive songs or cries uttered by reapers and

vintagers in Egypt, Phoenicia, and Bithynia, p. 223 sq.; similar song

called Lityerses sung at reaping and threshing in Phrygia, p. 224; story

how Lityerses wrapped strangers in sheaves on the harvest-field and cut oflf

their heads, p. 224 sq.; parallels to the legend in modern harvest customs,

p. 225 sqq.; reaper, binder, or thresher of last corn, as representing the

corn-spirit, wrapt in corn, beaten, drenched with water, etc, pp. 225-229;

corn-spirit killed at reaping or threshing, p. 230 sq.; corn-spirit repre-

sented by passing stranger who is seized and wrapt in corn, p. 232 sq.;

pretence made of killing a stranger or the master himself on the harvest-

field or at threshing, pp. 233-235; passing stranger treated at the madder-

harvest as the spirit of the madder, pp. 235-237; human beings killed to

promote the fertility of the fields in America, Africa, India, etc., pp. 237-

241 ; human sacrifices for this purpose among the Khonds, pp. 241-246;

analogy of these savage rites to harvest customs of Europe, p. 247 sq.;

both in Europe and in Phrygia human beings formerly slain at harvest as

representatives of the corn-spirit, pp. 250-252; in Phrygia the victims may

have been priestly kings, p. 250; relation of Lityerses to Attis, p. 250 sq.;

the Bormus song probably a lamentation of reapers over slain corn-spirit,

p. 252; the Linus song probably sung by vintagers and reapers over the

dead spirit of the vines and the corn, p. 252 sq.; Linus perhaps the

rustic prototype of Adonis, p. 253; Adonis or Tammuz perhaps once

represented by a human victim, possibly by the mock king of the Sacaea

at Babylon, p. 253 sq.; Osiris as the slain corn-spirit represented by red-

haired men whose ashes were winnowed, pp. 254-257; ancient harvest

cries (Maneros, Linus, Lityerses, Bormus) announced the death of the

corn-spirit, p. 257 sq.; moder n harvest cries (Devonshire "crying the

Neck," etc.), pp. 258-261.

§ 10. The Corn-spirit as an Animal, pp. 261-318.—Corn-spirit conceived as an

animal which is present in the com and is caught or killed in the last

sheaf, pp. 261-263; corn-spirit as wolf or dog, pp. 263-266, as cock,

pp. 266-269, as hare, p. 269 sq., as cat, p. 270 sq., as goat, pp. 271-277,

as bull or cow, pp. 277-281, as horse, pp. 281-283, as pig, pp. 284-288;
sacramental character of harvest supper, divine animal slain and eaten by
harvesters as embodiment of corn-spirit, p. 288; parallelism between
conceptions of corn-spirit in human and in animal form, p. 288 sq.; why
corn-spirit is conceived as an animal, p. 289 sq.; Dionysus as goat and
bull probably still a deity of vegetation, pp. 291-294; ox as representative
of spirit of vegetation in the Athenian bouphonia, in an African sacrifice,
and a ceremony observed by the Chinese in spring, pp. 294-298; the corn-
goddesses Demeter and Proserpine conceived as pigs, pp. 299-303; the
horse-headed Demeter, p. 303; Attis and Adonis embodied in pigs,
p. 304 sq.; the pig originally a sacred animal of the Jews and Egyptians,
pp. 305-310; the pig perhaps formerly an embodiment of the corn-god
Osiris, p. 310 sq.; red oxen as embodiments of Osiris, p. 311 sq.; the
sacred Egyptian bulls Apis and Mnevis, origin of their worship uncertain,
p. 312 sq.; the horse perhaps an embodiment of Virbius as a deity of
vegetation, pp. 313-315; sacrifice of the October horse, as embodiment of
the corn-spirit, at Rome, pp. 315T318.

§ I1. Eating the God, pp. 318-366.—New corn eaten sacramentally in Europe,
pp. 318-321; new rice eaten sacramentally in East Indies, India, and
Indo-China, pp. 321-325; eating new yams on the Niger, p. 325; Caffre
festival of new fruits, pp. 325-328; festival of new corn among the
Creek, Seminole, and Natchez Indians, pp. 329-335; preparation for
eating sacred food by purgatives, fasting, etc., pp. 335-337; sacrifice of
first-fruits, p. 337; dough images of gods eaten sacramentally by the
Mexicans, pp. 337-342; flesh of a man who represented a god also eaten
sacramentally by the Mexicans, p. 342 sq.; at Aricia loaves perhaps baked
in the image of the slain King of the Wood and eaten by the worshippers,
p. 343 sq.; the Compitalia, p. 343 sq.; effigies offered to ghosts and
demons as substitutes for living people, pp. 344-352; belief of the savage
that he acquires the qualities of animals and men by eating their flesh,
inoculating himself with their ashes, or anointing himself with their fat,
pp. 353-365; hence his reason for eating a god is to imbue himself with
the divine qualities, p. 365 sq.

§ 12. Killing the Divine Animal, pp. 366-448.—Hunters and shepherds as well
as farmers kill their gods, p. 366; Californian sacrifice of the great
buzzard, p. 366 sq.; Egyptian sacrifice of the ram of Amnion, p. 368 sq.;
use of skin of divine animal, p. 369 sq.; annual sacrifice of the cobra-
capella in Fernando Po, p. 370 sq.; Zuni sacrifice of the turtle, pp. 371-
374; worship and slaughter of bears by the Ainos, pp. 374-380, the
Gilyaks, pp. 380-386, the Goldi, p. 386, and the Orotchis, p. 386; the
respect of these peoples for the liear apparently inconsistent with their
custom of killing and eating them, p. 387, but this inconsistency not felt
by the savage, who draws no sharp distinction between himself and the
animals, pp. 387-389; the savage hunter dreads the vengeance of the
animals he has killed or of the other creatures of the species, p. 389;
hence he spares dangerous and useless animals, p. 389, such as crocodiles,
PP- 389-393. tigers, pp. 393-395. snakes, etc., p. 395 sq.; and in killing

animals he tries to appease them and their fellows, p. 396; thus
bear-hunters' flatter and cajole the slain bears, pp. 396-400; elephant-
hunters beg pardon of the elephants, p. 400 sq.; marks of respect
shown to dead lions and leopards, p. 401 ; eagle-hunters feed the dead ,
eagles, p. 401 sq.; respect shown for animals varies according to the
strength and utility of the beast, p. 402 sq.; propitiation of sables and
beavers by the hunters, pp. 403-406; propitiation of deer, elan, and elk
by American Indians, pp. 406-408; respect shown by Esquimaux and
Greenlanders for the reindeer and seal they have killed, pp. 408-410;
propitiation of fish, especially the first fish of the season, by fishing people,
pp. 410-415; bones of game respected, sometimes from a belief in the
resurrection of animals, pp. 415-417; bones of men sometimes preserved
or destroyed to facilitate or prevent their resurrection, p. 417 sq.;
resurrection of animals and men in folk-tales, p. 418 sq.; sinew of
the thigh of slain animals preserved, perhaps as necessary for the repro-
duction of the species, pp. 419-421; vermin, such as weevils, leaf-flies,
caterpillars, locusts, mice and rats, propitiated by farmers to induce them
to spare the crops, pp. 422-426; images of the noxious creatures made as
talismans against them, p. 426 sq.; Greek gods worshipped under the
title of the pests they exterminated, hence Mouse Apollo, Locust Apollo,
Mildew Apollo, Locust Hercules, etc, p. 427; the worship originally
paid not to the gods but to the pests themselves (mice, locusts, mildew,
etc), p. 427 sq.; Wolfish Apollo and the wolves, p. 428 sq.; certain
animals or species of animals spared because they contain the souls of
dead people, pp. 430-435; attitude of Ainos and Gilyaks to the bear
explained, p. 435 sq.; two types of animal worship, p. 436 sq., and
corresponding to them two types of animal sacrament, the Egyptian and
the Aino types, p. 437; sacraments of pastoral tribes, pp. 438-441;
procession with image of sacred snake as a form of communion, p. 441 sq.;
"hunting the wren" and processions with the dead bird on Christmas
Day or St. Stephen's Day, pp. 442-446; procession with man in cow-
hide on last day of the year, p. 446 sq.; such customs probably were once
modes of communion with a divine animal, p. 447 sq.

NOTE A Swinging As A Magical Rite .... 449-456

NOTE B The Doctrine Of Lunar Sympathy . 457, 458

NOTE C

Offerings Of First-fruits .... 459-471

CHAPTER III
KILLING THE GOD

"Sed adiiuc supersunt aliae superstitiones, i|iiarum secreta pandenda sunt, . . . ut et in istis profanis religionibus sciatis mortes esse hominum consecratas." —Firmicus Maternus, De errore profanarum religionum, c. 6.

§ I. Killing the Divine King

LACKING the idea of eternal duration primitive man naturally supposes the gods to be mortal like himself. The Greenlanders believed that a wind could kill their most powerful god, and that he would certainly die if he touched a dog. When they heard of the Christian God, they kept asking if he never died, and being informed that he did not, they were much surprised, and said that he must be a very great god indeed.1 In answer to to the inquiries of Colonel Dodge, a North American Indian stated that the world was made by the Great Spirit . Being asked which Great Spirit he meant, the good one or the bad one, " Oh, neither of them" replied he, "the Great Spirit that made the world is dead long ago. He could not possibly have lived as long as this."2 A tribe in the Philippine Islands told the Spanish conquerors that the grave of the Creator was upon the top of Mount Cabunian.8 Heitsi-eibib, a god or divine hero of the Hottentots, died several times and came to life again. His graves are generally to be met with in narrow defiles between mountains. When the Hottentots pass one of them, they throw a stone on it for good luck, sometimes muttering " Give us plenty of cattle." 1 The grave of Zeus, the great god of Greece, was shown to visitors in Crete as late as about the beginning of our era.2 The body of Dionysus was buried at Delphi beside the golden statue of Apollo, and his tomb bore the inscription, " Here lies Dionysus dead, the son of Semele." 8 According to one account, Apollo himself was buried at Delphi; for Pythagoras is said to have carved an inscription on his tomb, setting forth how the god had been killed by the python and buried under the tripod.4 Cronus was buried in Sicily,5 and the graves of Hermes, Aphrodite, and Ares were shown in Hermopolis, Cyprus, and Thrace.''

1 Meiners, Geschichte der Religionen s F. Hlumentritt, "Der Ahnencultu*

(Hanover, 1S06-1S07), i. 4S. und die religiosen Anschauungen der

Malaien des Philippinen-Archipels," "J R. I. Dodge, Our Wild Indians, Mittheilungen d. Wiener gcogr. Gesellp. 112. schaft, 1882, p. 198.

VOL. II B

The great gods of Egypt themselves were not exempt from the common lot. They too grew old and died. For like men they were composed of body and soul, and like men were subject to all the passions and infirmities of the flesh. Their bodies, it is true, were fashioned of more ethereal mould, and lasted longer than ours, but they could not hold out for ever against the siege of time. Age converted their bones into silver, their flesh into gold, and their azure locks into lapis lazuli. When their time came they passed away from the cheerful world of the living to reign as dead gods over dead men in the melancholy world beyond the grave. Even their souls, like those of mankind, could only endure after death so long as their bodies held together; and hence it was as needful to preserve the corpses of the gods as the corpses of common folk, lest with the divine body the divine spirit should also come to an untimely end. At first their remains were laid to rest under the desert sands of the

1 Sir James E. Alexander, Expedition of Discovery into the interior of Africa, i. 166; Lichtenstein, Reisen im , Sudlichen Africa, i. 349 so.; W. H. I. Bleek, Reynard the Fox in South Africa, p. 75 sq.; Theophilus Hahn, Tsuni|| Coam, the Supreme Being of the KhoiA'hoi, pp. 56, 69.

* Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus, 9 sq.: Diodorus, iii. 61; Lucian, Philopseudes, 3; id., Jupiter Tragoedus, 45: id., Philopatris, 10; Porphyry, Vita Pythagorae, 17; Cicero, De natura deorum, iii. 21. S3; Pomponius Mela, ii. 7.

112; Minucius Felix, Octavius, 21.

3 Plutarch, Isis et Osiris, 35; Philochorus, Fragm. 22, in Mullers Fragm. Hist. Grace, i. p. 378; Talian, Oratio ad Graecos, 8, ed. Otto ; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 208. Cp. Ch. Petersen, "Das Grab und die Todtenfeier des Dionysos," Philologus, xv. (1860), pp. 77-91.

4 Porphyry, Vit. Pythag. 16.

* Philochorus, Fr. 184, in Fragm. Hist. Grace, ii. p. 414.

6 Lobeck, Aglaophamus, p. 574 sq.

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