« 이전계속 »
baptists in Germany, that as it was plainly written by St John, that whosoever abideth irChrift committeth not Sin, and, that whoso committesh Sin is of the Devil, and St Paul adds, that Chrift hath provided himself a Church without Spot or Wrinkle, boly, and irreproveable, that they who are Members of this Church abide in Christ, and are pure and without Sin, and have no need to pray themselves or to desire che Prayers of others unto God to forgive them their Sins. Accordingly, Smith wrote against the Use of the Lord's Prayer on account of that Petition in it, Forgive us out Trespases, &c. But of this Error, it is said, he was fo thoroughly convinced by Mr Hildersham and others in a publick Meeting of the Ministers, &c. that upon his Knees he professed full Satisfaction.
About the latter End of Q. Elizabeth's Reign 1602, he transported himself into Holland, and became a Member of the Congregation of Englill Exiles or Barrowifts ac Amsterdam, who had johnson, for their Paftor, and the learned Rabbi Henry Ainsworth for their Doctor. But Smitb did not long continue with themHinsworth tells us, that be left the Truth to follow Leasing, and made open War with the Saints. He protested against the Congregation of English Exiles, that they had a false Worship of reading Books. The reading out of a Book, he said, is no Part of Spiritual Worship, but the Invention of the Man of Sin. Books and Writings are in the Nature of Pictures' and Images, and therefore in the Nature of Ceremonies, and so by Consequence the reading of a Book is ceremonial. The holy Scriptures therefore, he said, are not to be retained as Helps before the Eyes in the Time of spiritual Worship, and it is unlawful to have the Book before the Eyes in finging of Plalms.
He likewise protested against their having a false Government of a triformed Presbytery, or a three formed Presbytery confifting of three Kinds, (b) Pastors, Teachers or Doors, and Elders; whereas, he said, the Presbytery of the Church is uniform, or only Pastors, and, that the threeformed Presbytery is not God's Ordinance, but Antichristian and the Image of the Beaft.
He further protested against their having a false Ministry of Doctors ; and said, that it may be a Question whether the Church or People may not administer the Sacraments before there be any (c) Officers a
Soon after he found fault with the Constitution of that Congregation in baprizing Infapıs, and affirmed, that ' Antichriftians converted, • are to be admitted into the true Church by Baptism, and that there • were two Covenants made with Abraham, the one with him and his • çarnal Seed, the other with him and his spiritual Seed: That Bap
(b) In the Confession of the English Exiles at Amsterdam 1602, are mentioned, Paftors, Teachers or Doctors, Elders, Deacons, Helpers. The Anabaptists Conser fion of the Seven Churches omits Helpers: And that of 1689 determines that the Offio cers appointed by Christ are Biskops or Elders and Deacons.
(c) Barrow said that none unbaptized may be a Miniter, or baprize, neither have an unbaptized People Power to elector ordain a M niltry amongst them. Discovery, &c. p. 178. Edit. 8. 1707. But Blacku ord, the Englih Anabaptist, was pleased to aflert, that all gifted Members may preach and baptize, yea tho they are not bapo pized themselves. Catech. p. 53.
• tism is not a Seal of the Covenant of the new Teftament, and doth
not succeed in the Place of Circumcifion : That there is neither Pre. • cept ror Example in the new Testament, of any Infants that were • baptized by John or Christ's Disciples : That Infants are no more ca• pable o' Bw.fin, than is a Fool, or a Madman or Pagan: That An• tichrui's baptim, or Baptism in the Church of Rome, is (a) falfe, and
none of God's Ordinance, no not in the Hands of the moft faithful • Minifters: Thai all Chriíl's visibie Ordinances are lost in that apostare • Church, a:d are to be reco: ered again by two Men's joining together • to make a Church.' To these he is said to have added the German Anabaptist's Arrian Opinions, and become a Boaster of his own perfect Righteou'ness. He added, that all the Fathers held Plenty of antichristian Herefies. This odd and fantastical Behaviour of Smith's, was imputed to his great Fickleness and Inconstancy, to his being a Man of so much Inftability and Waltonness of Wit, and of so unsettled a Judgment, as to velire himielf, that ever his last Writing should be taken as his prefent Opinion. Robinson there ore faid of him, That his Initability and Wantonnels of Wit, was his Sin, and their Cross.
Ainsworth, Bernard, Clifton and Robinson, all Browniffs or Barrowifts, attempted to convince Smith of his Mistakes, but to no Purpose. The First of the.e mentions the following Books of Smitb's writing and publishing after his Separation from the English Exiles at Amsterdam. 1. Principles. 2. The Character of the Beast. 3. The Differences of the Churches of the Separation. To this latt, Ainsworth himielf wrote an Answer, which he intituled, “A Delence of the Ho• ly Scriptures, Worship and Ministry used in the Christian Churches, • separated from Antichrist ; against the Chailenges, Cavils and Con• tradi&tions of Mr Smith, in his Book intituled, The Diferences, &c. • 1609. By the Heads or Titles of the Things handled in this (4) Treatise, we may judge of the Contents of Smith's Book. Thele are
1. Of Worship 2. The Jews Worship scann'd. 3. Prophecying or Preaching, whether it be Worship. 4. Siging of Pfalans. 5. Of Scripture, or Books in general 6. Of the Original Scriptures 7. The Hand Writing of Ordinances. 8. Whether Chrift, Like iv. endid the Law of Reading. 9. Of the Law and Gospel given in Books and Tongues. 16. Of the Commandments to read the Scriptures. 11. Of Translations of holy Scripture.
12. Of the lxxii Interpreters in Israel, and whether they finned in tran lasing the B.ble.
13. Arguments against the Use of Translations in God's Wor tip answered.
14. Argumects for the Use of Translations, &c. maintained.
(d) Barrow said, that such Baptism as is delivered in a false Church, is no true Seal of God's Covenant, and yet alio, that such outward Washing or Baptifnı, debivered after their supersticious Manner, ought not to be repeated unco such as afterwards forlike the felie Church, and join unto the Church of God. Discovery, &'c. p. 120. E it. 1907.
(e) By fone Mistake this Title-page and Contents are not bound with the Book.
15. Of the Hellenifts or Jews that spake Greek.
20. Obervations upon Mr Smith's Censures against Church-Government by the Elderihip, in his Aniwer made to Mr Bernard.
It does not appear by these Conterts, that Smith opposed the Baptism of (ofancs in this Book of Differences, but diipated againk the Worhip and D.scipline of the English Exiles at Amfierdam, their finging Palms tranfated into English Metre, reading them in a Book, and having three Sorts of Elders.
However, this Behaviour of Smith's made the Congregation at AmPerdam so uneasy, that they excommunicated him, or cast him out of ? their Communion. On this, Smith put his Principles in Practice; he went from Amsterdam to Leiden, where was ano her Congregation of English Exiles, of which John Robinson was Paftor. Here he (f) baptized himself, according to the Manner of the Dutch Anabaptiíts, by pouring Water, or three Drops of Water, on his Head. For this he gave the following Reasons : " That for the baprizing a Man's self, there is as good Warrant as for a Man's churching himself; for tre
Men fingly. are no Church, jointly they are a Church, and they both • of them put a Church upon themselves; fo two Men may put Bap• tism upon themselves.' Then gathered a small Congregation of English Men and Women, and boasted, that he had founded a new Church, • and recovered the true Baptism, and the true Matter and form of a
true Church, which was now only to be found pure among his Fol• lowers.' But it was not long after when, as Richard Clifton tells us, Smith began to recall his baptizing himself in some respect, viz. That he baptized himself and others without lawful Calling, &c. However, this occasioned Robinson to publish, in 1619, what he called a ajustic fication of himself and his Sect, which I bave not seen.
Smith seems not to have lived long after this. It is said, that he died about 1611, when he was about fixty Years old, after living a Life spent in troubling himself and others. After his Death, it's laid, a Confeflion of Faith, c. of his drawing, was published by some of his Followers, some of whom returned into their native Country, and made the second Congregation of English Anabaptists fomewhere in Southwark about 1624, who seem to have gone by the Name of Freewillers: Dr Featly took them to be Puritans. See Dipper dipp'd.
So juft is the Observation made by Dr Couraier in his late Answer to Cardinal Tencin, that, in Matters of Religion, there is nothing so absurd which does not meet with Followers and Defenders.
(f) This was the common Practice of the German Anabaptists. Thus Melelior Adams tells us, that, seipsos rebaprizabant. The fanne was observed of their in K. Henry VIII's Proclamation 1534. That in contempo of the Sacrament of • Baptismı received by them in their Infancy, they had, of their own Pielumprion,
and Authority, lately rebaptized themselves. Mr Neal tells us, that Smith, being at a Loss for a proper Adminitra tor of the Ordinance of Baptisın, he plunged himseit. But for this he has produced no Authority. This was not used by the Anabaptists till above 30 Years after Smith's Death; when some of them dipp'd their Converts head foremost; others held them by their Han's and laid them on their Backs. Now they lay one Hand on the Breast or stomach, and the other on the Back, and fo lay them on their Backs in the Ducking.Cistern.
Buchanan and Johnston compared in their Latin Para
phrases of the Psalms; wherein is fewn, that Buchanan bas vastly the Advantage of the other, in displaying the Beauty and Elegance of the Hebrew; and the Observations on Dr Johnston's Psalms made by the Authors of the Universal History, as lately published by Mr Auditor Benson, are particularly considered and disproved.
In a Letter to a Gentleman at London.
See by some late Pamphlets, that a Controversy has arisen, whether both of them have excelled in their way and Manner of Writing ; the first being copious ard diffuse, while the latter has studied to be short and concise : Yet when a Comparison is stared as to the Juftness, Beauty and expreffive Force of their different Translations, in my humble Opinion, the Palm is by far Buchanan's Due. And that I may not be thought to be carried away by the Force of Prejudice only, I shall examine fome few Passages of both; and after comparing them with the Original, [. hope it will appear to every unprejudised Person, that Buchanan has had very great Skill in the Original, while Dr Johnsion seems to have had very little Nocion of it at all; for, he has either followed the Sense of Buchanan for the most Part, or where he has taken the liberty to differ from him, has almost as often deviated from the plain and obvious Meaning of the Pfalmift.
In the present Enquiry, I am chiefly to confine myself to this Question, viz. Which of the two Poets seem to have understood the Original beít, and in their Versions have more frequently express'd its true Meaning, Force and Beauty.
And here I shall first examine those Passages, which have been adduced by the Authors of the Universal Hiftory, as a Specimen of Dr Johnston's furpaling Knowledge of the Original, and of his having given a much betier Sense of the Psalmist, than any other Versions have done. To proceed then ;
PSALM 4. 5. Ex Voto dum cun&a fluunt, &c. Is this any thing else than what Bucharan says,
Felicitatis Somnio indulgent fuc
Bachanan, 13971700' jacbilu derachau; these Words may admit of a double Senie, his Ways liball be grievous, affect with Sorrow, or continue fixʼd and peody, insinuating his worldly Success and Prosperity; as in job xx, 21. To jachil tubbo, which Buxtorf renders, bis Goodness remaineth not; in this fait Senle Buchanan has rendered it, whom Dr Joinston chole to follow,
PSALM Xvi, 2. Te, Deus, agnofco Dominum. Johnston,
Te Serous Dominum libens
Here our Poet Bucbanan observed the true Meaning of the Psalmist; for I think the Sense is just the same, whether it be in the first Person, or second Feminine; amarti, I have said, is much of the fame Import with amart, thou hast said, making it a Soliloquy with, or an Address to his own Soul; as the Plalmift has very frequently done in other Passages. The Seventy render it eo are tw dów. St Jerom, dicens Deo, saying to God; but all the Hebrew Scholiafts render it in the second Person, understanding the word Soul *. All the Hebrew Copies perfectly agree in the presenc Reading, the Maforeths support it, and the Chaldee Paraphrase has, dixifti ll, Anima mea, coram Domino. Buchanan thought proper to give the Sense and Import of the Words, in rendering them by the first Person, and Dr Johnston has done no more than followed him. Psalm xviii. 44. Tellus ultima Dona dabit.
Johnston. - Et blandis Verba assentantia Linguis Fingunt.
Buchanan. Concerning Dr Johnston's Paraphrase, the Authors of the Universal Hiftory fay, "Moft Vertions, by understanding the Verb chachash to lig“nify deceiving or lying, have given it a Sense which is quite opposite “to what goes immediately before. But our Author rightly judging, " that the Word fignifies to be emaciated or exhausted, as in Psalm cix: “ 2. Deut. xxxiii. 29. has justly understood it, of a true and general Sub" mission, in which those Strangers should, as it were, exhauft themselves “ in their Gifts to the Meffiab, here spoken off in the Person of Davia " and his Posterity."
The Words of the Original are 15 Png' jechachasħu li, which, literally rendered, are, they fall be made Liars to me, i, e. they shall be disappointed in their Attempts, or deprived of their Power, intimating, that notwithstanding their inveterate Malice and Obftinacy, they should be obliged to yield and submit, not out of Choice but Conftraint, be forced to belye themselves, and act quite out of Character, in acknowledg. ing their Submission to me, though much against the natural Temper and secret Inclinations of their Minds; the Force of the Words Buchanan very well understood, and has as happily exprels'd.
et blandis Verba affentantia Linguis Fingunt, The true Meaning of the Expression will be easily discovered to be what I have said, by comparing two or three Passages more, where the very fame Phrase occurrs. Psalm lxvi. 3. through the Greatness of thy Power (speaking of Almighty God) shall thine Enemies (7710nji jechacblou lecba) submit themselves to ibee, Hebrew be made Liars to thee; where it is evident, that the divine superior Power is alledged as the Cause of the Submission of his Enemies, so that their foolish Schemes be. R
ing Glaffius de Puritare Textus Hebræ. p. 87.