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common people are impofed upon, and the neceffity of exerting the utmost force of the laws, or providing new ones against fuch impoftors, who with no other affiftance than a little cunning, and a brazen front, gain fortunes by difperfing poison, and depopulating their country.

G. J.


The following account of our new Enthufiafts you may think, perhaps, as good as any you have met with, I therefore Send it to you to make what use of it you think fit.

London, July 6, 1739.


S to Mr Whitefield, vaft crouds of the fimple order (your humble fervant was there twice) flock to hear him; I feriously with the gentleman's defigns may be good, and turn out quite difinterefled. I fufpend my judgment, and only fay, that fuch popular methods look more like folly and enthusiasm than any thing elfe. I have been once in his company, his behaviour is stiff, and fomething not unlike that of the * Quakers about 50 years ago, full of fighs, and pretences to immediate revelation, new-birth, &c. quite Quaking principles (You'll allow I am a judge, my ancestors of the father's fide being all of that tribe); where this will end, God alone knows. I travelled in a coach the greatest part of the way from Salisbury to London, in company with the reverend Mr Hutchins, and the reverend Mr Kinching, both very young men and Methodists. They had been promoting their notions, (you'll excufe my not faying preaching) in Hampshire and parts adjacent, where they fucceeded fo well, as to put feveral people into defpair; particularly a wealthy farmer near Basingstoke. This poor man concluded his right eye to be evil, and, that it would be impoffible for him to enter into the kingdom of heaven, unless it was cut out. To effect this, therefore, he applied to a fkilful furgeon at Basingstoke, who, rightly judging the man not to be in his proper fenfes, refufed to perform the operation, buc gave him good advice, and recommended him to his friends to take care of him: This story I had from the reverend gentlemen before mentioned. They added, that near the fame inftant of time, as the poor delirious father went to have his eye cut out, his only fon had bis pushed out with a pitch-fork, which they infifted was a judginent from the almighty for the father's prefumption to have his eye cut out. I happened to be of a different opinion, and accordingly told them as much, which afforded chat for twenty miles. I think, I infifted that it was fomething odd, that the poor boy fhould lofe his eye, becaule his father


The Quakers undoubtedly are the most melancholy fect that ever was yet in the world. Dr H. Moore's brief discourse of Embufifm, 1662.

For curious and carnal perfons, lacking the spirit of Chrift, to have continually before their eyes the fentence of God's predeftination is a moft dangerous downfall, whereby the devil doth throft them either into defperation, or into wretchlein.fs of uncian living no ich perilous than defperation, XVII article of region.

was a mad-man. I inftanced feveral cafes from the holy writ, particu larly that of Amalek. We parted without fettling the point.


Some of the arts of Proteftant Miffioners to betray the priefts and people of the Church of England to Popery, difcovered.

In a letter to a friend,


N the christian church there is only one proper facrifice, which our lord offered upon the cross; and confequently chriftians can't partake of any facrifice in a literal and fritt fenfe, without allowing tranfubftantiation.The names of oblation and facrifice were ufed by the primitive fathers in a very true and pious fenfe, but have been grossly abused by the Papifts in their doctrine of the mass, which depends upon their other abfurd doctrine of tranfubftantiation. A. Bp Potter's difcourse of churchgovernment, p. 268, 274, edit. 1707.

The form and manner of ordering of priests.
The Bishop.

Are you perfuaded, That the holy fcriptures contain fufficiently all doctrine requir'd of neceffity for eternal falvation through faith in Jefus Chrift? And are you determined out of the faid fcriptures to inftruct the people committed to your charge, and to teach nothing (as required of neceffity to eternal falvation) but that which you fhall be perfuaded may be concluded and proved by the scripture?

Anfwer. I am fo perfuaded, and am fo determined by God's grace. The Bishop. Will you then give your faithful diligence always fo to minifter the doctrine and facraments, and the difcipline of Cbrift as the Lord hath commanded, and as this church and realm hath received the fame, according to the commandments of God; fo, that you may teach the people committed to your cure and charge with all diligence to keep

and obferve the fame?

Anfwer. I will do fo by the help of the Lord.

Mirus in hifce aliifque orientalium liturgiis confenfum videas circa invocationem fpiritus fanéti, ut dona faciat corpus et fanguinem chrifti. De bac Iturgica invocatione tamen in genuinis apoftolorum fcriptis ne yp'u. Fabricit codicis apocryphi novi teftamenti pars tertia. Præfatio, 1719. The heart and life of the facrifice. J. Johnson.

March 8, 1744.


I herewith return you, with my thanks for the use of it, the collection of papers written by the late fchifmatical bishop George Hickes, D.D. printed in the year M,DCC,XVI. You fee how he writes of the R. Reverend Bp Ken in his letter to Mr Nelson, p. 226, 227. • Is it not true, fays be, that the confecrations of our bishops wanted bishop Ken's



6 confent, which he gave before in a letter, which he wrote on purpole to the bishop of Ely, one of the Confecrators: and afterwards when ⚫ he met one of the Confecrated, gave him this congratulation in thefe or the like words, that the he was not prefent in perfon at his Confecration, yet he was prefent at it in fpirit. And fince, when fome of our communion told him they were afraid no provifion was made for the church, he, to give them fatisfaction, affured them that provifion was ⚫ made by new confecrations. But this was before the range humour




of refigning took him.—But this is very different from what we are told by Mr Hawkins, the bifhop's kinfman and executor, in his account of bifhop Ken's life, printed 1713, whilft Dr Hicks was yet alive, p. 26, viz, That his opinion was not agreeable with fuch of the Non-jurors who were for continuing a feparation, by private conf.crations among themselves, may, fhould there be any good occafion, beft be known by his answers to letters written from men of learning who con' verfed with him on that fubject; and from what I must affirm, that it was on his requeft the prefent bishop of Bath and Wells accepted of ' that fec.'

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But this is not the only inftance of the doctor's want of faithfulness and integrity. It is immediately attended with fuch another: I think' is, faid he, a ftrange humour-becaule he refigns to one with whom he does not communicate upon the account of the immoral prayers, whereby the bishop, to whom he refign'd, effectually teaches the flock which he refign'd to him the damnable doctrine of elillance and depofing fovereign princes.'--But, I. The doctrine of refiftauce which the church and flate of England have condemned as damnable, is the Popish or Hildebrandine doctrine, that princes excommunicated by the Pope may be depofed and murthered by their fubjects. II. None of the political writers allow the lawfulness of mere fubjects refifting abfolute fovereign princes. III. They diftinguish betwixt princes of an intire majefty and abfolute power, and those of a limited power: betwixt fubjects who are. fo merely or abfolutely, and mix'd fubjects who have a fhare in the fovereignty, and a right to defend their authority by refifting any attempt of their fovereign to deprive them of it. Such is the conftitution of the kingdom of Great Britain. The most high and abfolute power of it, faith Sir Thomas || Smith, confifteth in the parliament, viz. the king's most excellent majefty, the lords fpiritual and temporal, and commons, by whole authority as well as confent our laws are made and enacted. To what purpose now have they this authority if they may not defend it, or refift any arbitrary power or military force ufed to deprive them of it? And yet this was all which was done at the revolution. Dr Hicks allowed the lawfulness of a civil refiftance, or fubjects going to law with the king, and defending themfelves against him in the courts of law, He likewife own'd, that the lords of parliament might put the bridle of the law on the king's head, and the bit into his mouth, when he was unruly, and running wild. But fuppofe the prince will not ftand ftill to be bridled, but will ufe a military force and power to destroy his

D d


This fhews, that they knew nothing of thefe private confecrations.
7. Gerard de magiftratu policico.
The Commonwealth of England,
Harmony of Law and Divinity.

bridlers: Are they to stand still and lofe their lives; or fubmit to the prince, and refign their authority, and become the mere or abfolute fubjects of an arbitrary fovereign? IV. It is an uncontroverted maxim,.that Evangelium non abolet Politeias; or, that christianity does not meddle with civil ftates or polities, but only requires every foul to be fubject to the powers which are, without any particular fpecification of them. It was therefore a very evil furmife, and unjuft reproach of the two bishops Ken and Hooper, that they both agreed to betray the flock by teaching them a damnable doctrine.

Dr Hicks was more chargeable with fuch a criminal behaviour towards the clergy of the church of England, by publishing and defending fuch doctrines as served to betray them to Popery. This will appear but too plain to those who compare his writings with thofe of our fathers and brethren who were martyrs and confeffors for Proteftantifm, and particularly thofe who oppofed Popery in the reigns of K. Charles II. and K. James II. According to them it was Popery to affert,


I. That orders is a facrament.

II. That an indelible character is imprinted on the fouls of those who receive them.

III. That a fucceffion of bifhops is a note of the church.

IV. That baptifm adminifted by those who are not episcopally ordained, is invalid.

V. The ecclefiaftic liberty or independency.

VI. That chriftian priests have power to pafs God's pardons ; or, that to them it pertaineth to forgive fins against God, and not only offences against the church.

VII. That when they minifter the facrament of the lord's fupper, they offer a proper facrifice, and make atonement for their own fins, and the fins of the people.

VIII. That the benefits which we receive by the facrifice of Chriff's death are applied by the facerdotal act of the pricft, not by the lively faith of the worthy communicant: That we have the merits of Chriff's


See Archbp Cranmer's defence of the true and catholic detrine of the facrament of the body and blood of our faviour Chrift. But this great man and glorious martyr has been calumniated by the nonjuror Mr Stephens, who filed himself An English carbolic, as the corrupter of the true English liturg. He has been followed fince by a clergy-man beneficed in the church of England, who in a book, which he falfly entituled A rational illuftration of the bark of Common Prayer, tells his readers, that Archbp Cranmer proposed to have a new review of the first English liturgy, compiled by martyrs and confeffors by the aid of the Holy Ghoft and to this end called in the affiftance of Martin Bucer and Peter Martyr, two foreigners, who laid afide feveral very primitive and venerable ufages; and, that the parliament declared, that thefe alterations proceeded from curiofity rather than any worthy cause: but he concraled, as Stephens had done, the parliament's declaration, that this revited book of common prayer and adminiftration of the facraments was as well for the more plain and manifeft explanation thereof, as for the more perfection of the faid order of common prayer in fome places, where it is necessary to make the fame prayer and fashion of fervice more earnest and fit to ftis chriflian people to the true honouring of almighty God': and, that they were the fame martyrs and confeffors, who compiled the first book in 1549, who now reviewed and alter'd it in 1552. The act of uniformity paffed 13. Charles 11. declares, that the book of common prayer fet forth in the first year of Q. Elizabeth is agreeable to the word of God, and usage of the primitive church, or before it was corrupted by the introduction of Apocryphal liturgies, framed after the inventions of weak men, who were fond of outward pomp and celebrity, contrary to the fimplicity which is in Chrift Jefus,

death transferred to us by actually feeding on those elements which are by his authority fubftituted to be his body and blood facrificed for us; and, that we are not fo united, or do not receive fuch favours by coming duly prepared to the Lord's table, or being meet partakers of thole holy myfteries. Propit. Oblation. p. 100.

IX. That a fincere chriftian thinks and believes, that when he is praying at God's altar, and receiving the holy eucharift, he has the price of his redemption in his hand, or lying before his eyes. ibid.

X. That the confecrated bread and wine are by the defcent of the Holy Ghoft upon them changed in quality, and have a real, inward and permanent holiness imparted to them, and do not go into the draught like other bread and wine. Unbloody Sacrifice, Part I.

But the appearing zealous for thefe crude and antiproteftant conceits ferved to answer the purpose of Dr Hickes, and his emiffaries, of bringing over fome weak and ignorant clergymen of the church of England, fond of magnifying their office, and of afferting the honour and dignity of the priesthood, and of the claim of falfe facerdotal powers, to his political party, and caufing himself to be efteemed and reverenced as their father and mafter.

I have taken fome liberty here, but, I hope, no other than fuch as will be found, upon due examination, to be the liberty of a fon of God, and a fincere and confiftent Proteftant of the pure, reformed and uncor rupted church of England.


Mr Johnson in the Appendix to his Unbloody Sacrifice unveiled, p. 14. cites one Magnes, A. D. 165, which is, I fuppofe, a misprint for 265. Dr Cave in his fecond edition of his Hißoria Literaria, Vol. I. p. 135obferves, that he is an author unknown to any of the antients, but, that Fr. Turrian produced fome fragments of a MS. of his against one Theofines in the library of St Mark at Venice; and therefore advised his readers 'axes, to fufpend their judgment of authors of this kind till they themselves appear or are published. Magnes's words, as printed by Turrian in favour of tranfubftantiation, and copied by Mr Johnson, or by Dr Hickes for him, are to this purpofe in English.

The eucharift is not a type of the body and blood, as some stupid creatures trifle, but is rather the body and blood."

To the fame purpose the learned Edm. Albertine obferved, that all the certainty we have of this obfcure author's writings is from Turrian, a man of little judgment, and fufpected credit.

A great

This was one of his eminence Card. Bellarmine's conceits, that the holy eucharist, as a facrifice, may profit thofe who are not duly prepared. De effect. facrament. But the doctrine of the church of England is, that they who receive this facrament to their comfort, or have their fouls ftrengthned and refreshed by it, muft truly and earneftly repent them of their fins, and be in love and charity with their neighbours, and intend to lead a new life, following the commandments of God, and walking from thenceforth in his holy ways. Or, in the words of its Catechiím, it is required of thofe who come to the Lord's fupper, that they truly repent them of their fins, and ftedfaftly purpofe to lead a new life, having a lively faith in God's mercies through Chrift, with a thankful remembrance of his death; and to be in charity with all men. Whereas the wicked and impenitent, and fuch as are void of a lively faith, do in no wife partake of the bleffings or benefics of Cbrift's death and facrifice, the means of grace, and the hopes of glory and immortality.

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