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rank, which relate altogether to the duty we owe to one another; such as justice, mercy, truth, sincerity, benevolence, and the like; by analogy with which we conceive, and represent to ourselves supernatural, but fimilar and answerable, moral perfections in God, which are otherpise utterly inconceivable and imperceptible to any faculty in the mind of man.

24. Which gives us the cruelt ortion of God; to suppose his perfe&ions the very fame in kind with thc fe of rur own minds, and differenc on y in be. ing infinite, free from all defe&s, and absolurely perea ; or, co luppise chem only Gimilar and answerable to ours, and to be not only infinitely greater and more consummate, but likewise in kind infinitely different from, and better than oars! The great Mr Locke is of the former opinion, and our Author of the latter. He does not seem to distinguish so accurately between the essence and properties of malcer, as Mr Locke does, and he makes brutes to be meer machines. Hants, Sept. 19, 1745.

J. WS.


A Remedy against the pernicious Effects of Sublimate

and Arsenic. Mr URBAN, S the town has been lately acquainted with a very remarkable

cause at Guildhall, concerning the baker's apprentice, who attempted to poison his mistress with white arsenic, (commonly called ratsbane:) And as events of this sort most commorly prove fatal, for want of speedy relief to the unhappy sufferer, it may not be amiss or unseasonable to present the publick with an effectual remedy ; the success of which I have often experienced, when it has been dily administered, and in proper time. I am sorry to find the lenity of our laws insufficient to punish offenders, adequate to this crime.

Now the ill effecis of sublimate mercury are certainly known, as also those from arsenic, both white and yellow, all which in themselves appear to be the most corrosive and deadly of the mineral tribe, not only from their faline spicula, which like daggers wound the nervous coats of the stomach with acute pain, but also

by their ponderosity irri. tating the moft senable membranes to violent vomitings, faintings, and convulsions. This being premised, it is of the utmost consequence to provide fome proper antidote, fufficiently powerful to mitigate these dreadful symptoms, and by timely afiílance rescue the distress'd conflict from the jaws of death: and as no time is to be loft when this dismal catastrophe is urgent; first let a gallon of clean river water be immediately made as hot as is convenient to drink, into which drop by degrees of oleum tartari per deliquium iwo ounces, keep it stirring a little till the water is well saturated, with which it will most intimately mix, then let the patient drink a halfpint bason of this liquor warm, with a'large ipoonful of sallad ol, or that from sweet almonds in each balon of liquor, and repeat it after the vomiting intermediately every 3 or 4 minutes, till the whole gallon is consumed. This extemporaneous lixivium is so suddenly made, and its efficacy so undeniable, that I prefer it beyond all others, inalınuch as by its alkaline it fpeedily sheaths the acrid points of those abrading darts, and by this means destroys that spasmodick fti. mulus from whence the first symptoms took their sile. Various are the effects of the mineral and vegetable poisons ; but the certain appear. ance of the nervous system being almost momentarily affected, is evident to a demonstration from the paralytic disposition they both occasion. 'Tis remarkable, from an eminent author, That “ goats and quails " are fatten'd by hellebore, farlings by hemlock, and hogs innocentiy “ eat henbane, all which we call poisonous. And as the use of sweet oil is most frequently given, so that from sweet almonds (commonly so called) is in itself as useful, and in medicine takes the firkt place, being constantly given with the greateft efficacy in all disorders of the breast, kidneys, or urinary passages. The manner of making this falutary oil is from bitter almonds, by expreslion ; but what I am now going to relate is most remarkably surprifing ; namely, that the diftilld oil, drawn with common water from the same almond cakes, from which the express'd oil has been before extracted, is in itself a most dangerous poison, and has the same effect with the laurel water formerly men. tion'd in one of your magazines t. I have seen the effects of them both on dogs, and they are equally fatal in their action, provided both are fufficiently impregnated. Two ounces of either of these waters kill a middle-Sized dog instantaneously; he drops dead on the table, before 'cis well down his throat; but if the same quantity be lowered with as much {pring water, he may, perhaps, live an hour ; and in the interim may be quite recovered, by the help of 60 drops of trong spirit of fal armoniack given inwardly, in four ounces of warm water, holding the same volatile spirit often to his noftrils. This a&ing as a momentum on the nervous fluid, reinstates the inebriated animal on his legs again. Your confiant Reader,


SALUTIFIR .Vide the mechanical account of poison just published, where the whole theory is molt elegantly delineated by that leurned and ingenious author, R. Mead, M.D. 1. M.L. & R.S.S.

+ See Vol. XV..P. 309.

of the Tails of Comets. Opinionum commenta delet dies, nature judicia confirmat. T

HE appearance of the late comet has, as I find boch from writ.

ings and conversation, excited the curiosity of a great many to enquire into the various solutions of the Phänomena of their tai's ; but so unhappy have been the greatest part of philosophers in their ac· tempts towards a 1olution, that I cannot find any hypothesis hitherto proposed, but it has either been shewn inconclusive, and not sufficient to account for the general appearances, or has been so chimerical and arbitrary as not to deserve a serious confutation. The hypothesis proposed by the illuftrious Sir Isaac Newton, has, I think, gained the greateft applauses amongst the learned, as it agrees with the appearances more accurately, and seems to be built upon a more racional and solid foun. dation than any hitherto offer'd to the publick. But as some persons are not satisfied with it, others take up wich it instead of a better, I Thall offer a conjecture, which may perhaps reconcile che objections railed against it with the Phænomena, or at least may have the good effect to put people upon a more diligent contderation of this fubje&.


What I shall offer will be a little contrary to his solution, but as it fol. lows from the principles he has laid down, I presume every ingenious reader, if true, will admit of it. As a great many persons have not cicher leifure or opportunity to consult his Principia, I fall for their care lay down the principles whereón he founds his solution.

1A, Tben, I think 'tis agreed on all hands, that there is a subtile elaftick medium diffused throughout the heavenly regions, and according to the nature of all bodies gravitating towards the fun. Of this every one may be easily convinced, who considers the nature of our air : for the space into which it may expand itself by its clafticity is fo great, as that a cubick inch of air will, according to the calculation of fome of our modern philosophers, expand itself throughout the planetary regions, even to the orb of Saturn. If then the sun and the rett of the planets be furrounded with atmospheres not unlike our own (to which I think both reason and observacions will easily agree) no one can doubt but that they may dilate themselves every way, and by the mixture of them all constitute a medium, whose density may be insensible with respect to any thing

we can compare it to, and the refiftance it affords to the solid bodies of the planets and comets moving therein may be so small, as that any change in their motions arising from thence cannot be discover'd in any finite number of years. Now as this medium gravitates towards the sun, it must be denler in the solar regions than in parts more remote.

zdy, 'Tis manifeft from observations, that the comets are surrounded with huge and dense atmospheres, as it is probable, if they are of the fame aacure as the planets. 'Tis further presum'd that they are masses of earth and water, and consequently that by the sun's heat the fluid parts may be elevated into their atmospheres, after the manner of Imoak or vapoun in our ais.

This being premis'd, his Solution is as follows:

As the smoak emitted out of a chimney by its heat diminishes the specifick gravity of the air to which it is contiguous, and thereby makes it to rush upwards, or towards the superior parts of the atmosphere, and carry along with it the smoak entangled in it; in like manner why may not the heated vapours of a comet ascend from the fan? Por as these vapours emitted from the comet heat the medium wherein they are engaged, that matter is rarefied by the heat which it acquires ; and because by this rarefaction the specifick gravity wherewith it tends towards the sun is diminish'd, it will ascend therefrom, and carry along with it those particles of which the tail is compos'd. 'Tis objected to this explication of it, that it seems somewhat incredible, upon account of the great velocity wherewith the comet moves near its perihelion, that the vapours Thou'd at that time ascend, when the refiftance arising from the progreffive motion of the comes in its orbit is so great : for, lay they, if the medium is fufficient to buoy them up, as it happens in the descent of a comet to the sun, the refiftance of the same medium is Sufficient to bear them down in its ascent from the sun, fince the same cause that endeavours to make them ascend in one case, endeavours to bear them down in anocher.

I 21

I am sensible it would appear at firft fight to exceed the bounds of a paradox, shou'd I, in opposition to this objection, affert that the resistance arising from the motion of the comet, after it has passed the solar regions, is the cauie of the ascent. Whether the ascent may not be promoted by the relistance, I shall offer a conjecture, and leave it to the judgment of the impartial reader. It may perhaps not be improper to obferve that as some of the comets delcribe very elliptical orbits, the line wherein they move, after they have delcribed the most curve part of their orbit, may, without any sensible error, be confider'd' as a night line ; and, to make the case as simple and plain as possible, we shall consider its path as such, after its departure from the sun. This being granted, we argue as follows.

When the comet begins to ascend from the sun, the vapours now swimming in the superior parts of the comet's atmosphere and the medium aforelaid, by the resistance arising from the morion of the comet, will be propelled iowards the body of it, 'eill a quantity of them be gathered together and compressed, fufficient to rarefie the medium, and encrease its elasticity by their heat to such a degree, as to be equal to the resistance. Now as the quantity of the vapours is perpetually encreasing, fince freth vapours continually ascend, the elasticity of that portion of the medium wherein they float may be encreased so far as to exceed the resistance: this portion therefore of the medium will expand itself by its elasticity, till the resistance of the medium be equal to the force wherewith it expands itself, so that the volume into which it dilates itself, will (cæteris paribus) be proportional to the quantity of vapours gather'd together. " It is to be observ'd, that as the elasticity of the medium nearer the comet is greater than that part of it towards which the comet tends, this portion of the medium cannot dilate itself towards it, but is rather supported by it. When this portion of the medium now dilated is again resisted by the elastick force of the medium against which it rushes, it will remain in that ftare, till a new supply of vapours ascend sufficient to overcome the resistance, when again it will expand itself. It may pero haps be enquired why the resistance of the medium, if it is fufficient to compress these vapours, is not allo fufficient to keep them in that com. presled state. But in answer hereunto, we are to observe that the resiftance of the medium wou'd be fufficient toleepthem in that compressed ftate, if a new quantity of vapours did not perpetually ascend, and en. crease its elasticity. For why. may not vapours ascend from the come into those parts lying betwixt the comet and the extremity of this column of vapours, since there is no resistance to hinder their ascent? Wherefore as the elasticity or expanding force of the medium is inceffantly encreased by the additional supplies of heated particles or vapours, it may become greater than is sufficient to counteract the resistance : from whence it fole lows that these additional supplies of heated particles will hinder the resistance, arising from the motion of the comet, from reducing them into the same state they were in before they expanded themselves. 'Tis a

consequence alio of this hypothesis, that the vapours cannot ascend in any other direction, besides the line wherein the comet tends to move, as there is nothing in any other direction whereon any portion of the medium can press, whilft it expands itself. I am aware of an objec. tion, which ai first fight may seem to destroy what we have been la

bouring bouring to prove; it is, that if the resistance of the medium is the cause of the asceni, why does not the tail precede the comes in its descent to wards the sun? But we ought to observe, that the vapours then exhaled have not receiv'd a sufficient hear from the comet to rarefie che medium to such a degree as to overcome the resistance ; which at thai time becomes continually greater, fo that the resistance exceeding the expounding force of the medium, will propel the floating particles into the parts befi by the comet, and thereby make the appearance of a tail.

Yours, Sophus.

Obje&tions against Mr Yate's Hypothesis of Comets, with

bis Answers. SIR, AM farpriz'd to see Mr rate, a gentleman of figure amongst the learn

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turn to a premature one of his own, upon a late ingenious Dr, vol. 13, p. 193 E. But since smiling is so dangerous to that gentleman, (1) I Mall be serious at prelent, and stick to the subject; tho' I freely inuulge Mr Tate that way of writing, in which he seems to appear with some talte, provided he do not thereby enervate his defence, to the great disappointment of others as well as myle f.

In the following figure, C D E represents the earth's orbit, cge that of Verus, and A PF che comet's trajectory.

A the place of the comet, Dec. 23, 1743. B the place of the comet Fib. 9, 1744. b its place Marcb 3. and C, D and a the respective places of the earth on the fame days. (2)


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(1) If I seem to write with fome taste in that way, how in attacking me in that way fo dangerous to me? - He seems to write like a person, who, under the smart of the rod, appears to submit to corre&tion, because he knows he is not able to take vengeance.

(2) To his figure I have added the pricked line bmk, being Mr Wrigbe's trajectory of the amet, chat the meaneft reader may see how much they differ. He has cunningly e. dough removed the peribelior near one ligo backwards, that so he might conveniently see the crimet on Mar. the 3d ; be bas 1 kewise fixed the places of the comet, Feb. 9. and Mar. 3. under the same ingie when viewed from D and a, as Mr Wrigbe has done ; but the firft place on Dec, 23. differs liitle less than a whole tign, or a twelfth part of the heavens, bocb in Longitud and Laricude,


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