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life, without which constant discharge there could be no circulation, motion, or life in any body.
41. Accordingly the animal machine is composed of three general diftinct principles; the first is the solids, serving to give strength, ftability ard motion to the whole machine, and to the fluids contained therein ; the second, is the internal fluids contained in the solids, namely, the blood, the principles whereof are elementary water, with a certain proportion of earth, oil, salt, spirit, elementary fire, and air, diffolved therein. The third principle is an external, elastic, heavy Auid, the air, containing and enveloping the whole system of the animal solids, as within a Ruid mould, matrix, or bandage.
42. In consequence of what has been remark'd, the whole system of the animal folids is to be considered as an elastic, vascular, compressible machine, fuftain'd between two oppofite antagonist powers, acting continually thereon, with variable forces, and contrary directions; one of which powers is the blood, &c. contained in the solids, serving both to repair them, and to keep their spring duly distended from the axis outwards to the circumference of the vessels; the other antagonist power is the air, containing and strongly encompassing the solids, which acting by its pressure and elasticity outwardly, and with a contrary direction thereupon, serves to support the solids against the distending impetus of the contain'd fluids,, by compressing and bending their spring inwards from the surface to the axis of the vessels. So that the whole system of the solids may be properly considered as a lever acted upon by two oppofite powers, namely, the internal contain'd Auids, the blood, and the external containing fluid, the air ; when therefore the folids have their spring and elasticity duly balanced and counterpoized, both outwardly and inwardly, by the contrary actions and preffures of the said two antagonist powers, all the movements and functions both of body and mind will be regularly executed ; and in such a state only consists the idea of perfect health. But when any one of the said two powers prevails, and gains the ascendent over the other, whereby the spring and moving force of the solids, either of the whole body, or any of its parts becomes too much augmented or diminilhed, the balance of health, with all the movements and operations of the animal machine, will be disturbed and disconcerted proportionally. And altho' all diseases proceed from this one cause alone, of too great, or too Imall a moving force in the folids, yet will they appear greatly diversified in their phenomena, symptoms, and degrees, according as the change made in the moving force is greater or less, and as it affects the solids of the whole body, or some of its organs only.
43. As the constriction and relaxation of the solids, with the properties and qualities of the fluids, and consequently both health and diseases, depend in a manner absolutely upon the pressure, and other qualities of the air, had we a power to change the pressure, and other properties of the air, at all times and places, and cause them to operate upon the body in any degrees requir’d, we should then be furnished with the true natural method of effecting this great intention as to the conitriction and relaxation of the solids, which we might render more or less dense, compact and elaliic, and thereby augment or diminih their moving force proportionally (No. 26); how this may be effected will be hewn hereafier.
44. The organization and mechanism of animal bodies necessarily require that the system of the folids be duly counterbalanced, and have their spring equally compress’d and distended by the pressure of Auids, acting both inwardly and outwardly, with contrary directions, thereon. As to the first case, that the solids require to have their spring bent outwardly by the pressure of their contain'd luids, the blood, is manifest from what happens upon any great evacuation or hemorrhage, whereby, if the quantity of the fluids be by any cause whatever so much di. minished, that the vessels, especially the aorta, or great artery, in its systole and state of contraction, can't sufficiently compress the blood, in that case a total cessation of all motion and life immediately ensue ; fecondly, that it is as necessary that the solids have their spring compressid and bent inwards, by an external elastic fluid, as the air, acting outwardly thereon, is equally evident from what would follow supposing the air immediately encompassing a person's body to be either annihilated, or kept from acting thereon, the consequence whereof would be, that the Solids, for want of air to support them outwardly, would be over, powered, and give way to the distending force of the contain'd rarely, ing Auids, whereupon the person that very moment would be deprived of all motion, sensation and life, as effectually as if all his vital organs the heart, brain, lungs, or his whole mass of blood had been annihilated.
45. From the foregoing observations, and considering that it is impollible for any animal to be produced, live, or grow, without air, as being the great universal principle of all degrees of life, it follows that the external air encompassing our body, with what is inclosed in its cavities, and within the interstices of the fluids, is to be considered as an essential part in the composition of all animal bodies, as much, and for the very fame reason, as the blood itself, one fluid being as absolutely and constandy necessary as the other, to the very being, motion, lite and exercise of all the faculties boih of body and mind. Neither can this position be invalidated by saying, that in consequence of this new doctrine, if the air is an essential part of our bodies, the same becomes chang'd every time we move out of one place into another, inasmuch as this objection is of equal force as to the folids and blood, both which are in a perpetual fuxion and change, neither the system of the solids nor fluids being the same to day, as yesterday, or to morrow, and much less what they will be at the end of a month or year, when it is probable not one particle of the old stock of blood will be remaining, the blood by which the folids are repaired being successively changa and supply'd by the food we take in daily at different times and places, as much as the air which forms the external part of our bodies requires to be continually and successively chang'd.
46. Having shewn the air to be an etiential part of the animal machine, as much as the blood, let us next take a general view of the terrestrial atmosphere, with the changes it is subject to, by which we ihall better conceive the changes animals must sufier by being continually and necessarily immerg’d therein, and cominunicating therewith.
47. The atmosphere encompalling the earth is a general chaos and receptacle, between which and the earth (which may be consider'd as a body under digestion by the action both of the solar and fubterraneous fire) there is a constant reciprocal circulation of vapour., cxhaling from
all bodies animal, vegetable and foffil; and as the air is more or less impregnated therewith, it operates with very different qualities and forces, and produces very different and contrary effects in animal bodies.
48. The atmosphere being ever impregnated with ethereal fire and light, and the exhalations of all bodies, serves as the general laboratory of nature for subliming, preparing, and dispensing that universal vegetative, vivifying spirit, to render the earth prolific; and the atmosphere, thus constituted, serves alfo as a universal menftruum, by the continual oscillatory motion whereof the parts of all bodies are kept in a perpetual agitation and ferment, and by which the feveral progrelfive Itates respecting the generation, accretion, and corruption of all bodies, animate and inanimate, are brought about.
49. The atmosphere, being a fluid eminently endow'd with elastici. ty and gravity, is subject to a state of ebbing and Aowing alternately, by the mutual gravitation between it and the sun and moon, and that at the same time, and by the fame causes, as the tides are produced in the ocean; by which alternate ebbing and flowing of the atmosphere twice each day, and twice each month with an accumulated force (at the same time with the spring tides) the bodies of animals immerg'd therein muft be subject to the like periodical changes also, as is evident in the cases of lunatics, epileptics, maniacs, &c. all animals being fubje& more or less to some extraordinary menftrual crisis and evacuation, &c.
50. Besides the alterations produced in the atmosphere by the joynt attraction of the sun and moon, its gravity is much alter'd by the winds, as also by heat, cold, humidity, &c. in such wise that the air in the fame place fhall often differ one tenth part in density and weight, in which case the difference of its pressure upon a person of an ordinary fize will be equal to about 40000 pounds weight, which great variety of pressure must produce great difference in the stricture and tenfion of the solids, and expansion of the duids in the human body ; in case of a greater weight the fibres become more strongly braced, and the fluids condens'd.
51. Moreover heat and cold being two powerful general instruments of nature, and as the atmosphere admits of great variations as to both these qualities, and that often suddenly from one extream to another, upon these accounts it becomes capable of producing very great and sudden alterations in the animal solids and Ruids, which sudden tranAlations from one extream to the other are generally the productive cause of moft of the capital epidemical diftempers.
52. The atmosphere being alfo fubject to frequent great changes as to the degrees of humidity and dryness, upon this account it is able of producing very great alterations in the animal solids, as to their conAtriction and relaxation, as also in the fluids, as to their rarefaction and condensation.
53. Moreover as the atmosphere becomes agitated by winds, tem. pefts, earthquakes, thunder, lightning, subterraneous fires, exhalations, &c. from all these causes it becomes the instrument of producing many and great morbid affections in animal bodies,
54. From the idea which the foregoing observations give us of the animal body, as being an elastic, vascular, comprefible machine, composed of contractile veffels, filled with Auids fabject to great de
grees of rarifaction and condensation, and encompassed every way by the air outwardly, as within a Auid, elastic mould or bandage, we readily learn from thence, that as the outer tabernacle and part of our bodies confifts of air, and as this particular atmosphere or shell of air immediately enveloping the body of every animal is necessarily subject to the like alterations as the general terrestrial atmosphere, as communicating therewith, we need no longer wonder, nor want a reason why our bodies, being immerg'd continually in this turbulent, restless element, the air, subje&t to such frequent, sudden, great mutations from so many causes, should at the same time participate and be affected with the like changes, either for the better or worse, in such wise that every the leaft alceration in the gravity, heat, cold, clafticity, pressure, moifture, dryness, motion, vapours, &c. of the atmosphere, produces a proportional change in the body, as in a barometer, thermometer, and hy. grometer, by which perpetual changes of the air, our bodies are kept in a continual variable state of motion, the solids being always either contracting, or dilating, and the Auids expanding and condensing, heating or cooling, &c.
55. All physicians, antient and modern, allow the air, and its dif. ferent constitutions, to be the great catholic remedy and inftrument of nature, by which all that relates to the preservation of health, with the production and cure of diseases, is in a manner wholly govern'd and regulated; of which there needs no proof, it being a truth obvious to every common observer, as well as the philosopher and physician, that certain diseases keep time exa&tly as to their appearance, paroxysms, semiffions, intermissions, periods, and disappearance, &c. revolving periodically with the seasons of the year, and thus we find the spring, fummer, autumn, and winter, each productive of such diseases as may be naturally accounted for, from the predominant conftitutions of the air at those reasons, as to its greater or less gravity, elasticity, heat, cold, moisture, dryness, motion, exhalations, &c. and the distempers which reign about the intermediate seasons, are the very fame specific diseases, only differing in degrees, with those that prevail about the four cardinal seasons, and from which they derive their distinguilding symptoms ; so that we may justly say with Hippocrates (Febrium omnimm Aer faber et medicus ej,) “ That the several seasons of the year, " or the several constitutions and qualities of the air at chose seasons, are “ the true parent and general productive cause both of health and dir. « eases."
56. Phyfic is in nothing so defective as in this one great point, of all the moft necessary, relating to the knowledge and physiology of the air, and in the manner how to change and apply its mechanical properties and qualities, and cause them to operate in such degrees and combinations, as suits best with the constitutional structure and indica. tions of the body, and organs of respiration ; and had the fame pains and charge been bestowed in discovering, by such mechanical experimental methods, the mighty alterations that may be produced by applying the properties of the air, thus duly regulated, to the human body, with the physiology of its effects, all faithfully register'd, with a view to the improvement of phyfic, as hath been vainly spent irf search of its principles and properties in a philosophical, metaphysical
way, we should long ago have had a more perfe& knowledge of the air, and been made senlible, from experience, of its universal efficacy in preterving health, and caring diseases. This appears to be a neglect the most amazing and astonishing possible, to observe that the philosophers, mathematicians, chemists, the professors of botany, agriculture, gardening, &c. have all given more attention to the influence and effects of the air upon the subjects of their several arts, than the physicians, who are infinitely more interested therein, and ought of all perfons to be the most ready to promote and encourage such experimental enquiries into a subject hitherto unattempted, and which promises infinite good to mankind.
57. Nature, universal reason; and the experience of all ages, have established the following maxims ; first, that the air, and its different conftitutions in the several seasons of the year, is the principal cause both of health and diseases, as its properties are well or ill proportioned to the conftitutional structure of the body, and organs of respiration ; Secondly, No disease can be cured, unless its caufe is taken away, or made to operate in a contrary manner ; or, which comes to the same thing, diseases are only to be cured by causes contrary to those by which they were produced. From whence follows this third aphorism, That all diseases, produced by the properties and qualities of the air, acting with a force relatively disproportionate and improper 'either for the body or respiring organs (to which most diseases, and those of the capital epidemic kind, are owing) admit of no possible cure by any other means but by changing those very properties and qualities of the air, by which the diseases are produced and supported, and causing them to operate with contrary degrees and forces. Thus, for example, if a person becomes diseased by the air's acting with a degree of gravity, relatively disproportionate, and improper either for his body or respiring organs, or both, it necessarily follows, that if the air could be chang'd, and made to operate with a weight and pressure relatively proper, and well proportion'd to his body and organs of respiration, he will thereby receive a certain, safe, perfect cure ; which would be impollible to effect by any other means. And the same reasoning holds equally true as to all the other properties and qualities of the air, namely, its elasticity, heat, cold, moisture, dryness, motion, 'reft, exhala tions, &c. any of which, when they become the cause of diseases, by their acting with forces relatively improper to the body, or respiring organs, in all such cases these very properties of the air, which are the cause of the disease, muft neceffarily be chang'd, and made to operate with forces relatively proper, upon which alone the cure of all diseases produced by the different conftitutions of the air absolutely depends.
58. As the new methods described in this treatise for preserving health, and curing diseases, are grounded on the invincible demonftration and argument of the foregoing article, hence is deduced and proposed the following great and most useful physical problem :
PROBLEM. 59. To find a method whereby the air, that universal principle of life, health, and diseases, may have all its properties and qualities of gravity, elasticity, pressure, heat, cold, humidity, drydess, motion,