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The Oath or Affirmation of Office. “You do solemnly swear (or affirm) that you will faithfully execute the office of for the of —; and will therein do equal right and justice to all men, to the best of your judgment and abilities, according to law.--(If an oath) so help you God.-( If an affirmation) under the pains and penalties of perjury.”
SECT. 30. No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor or Lieutenant-Governor, until he shall have resided in this State four years next preceding the day of his election.
SECT. 31. Trials of issues, proper for the cognizance of a jury, in the Supreme and County Courts, shall be by jury, except where parties otherwise agree ; and great care ought to be taken to prevent corruption or partiality in the choice and return, or appointment of juries.
Sect. 32. All presecutions shall commence, By the authority of the State of. Vermont--all indictments shall conclude with these words, against the peace and dignia ty of the State. And all fines shall be proportioned to the offences.
SECT. 33. The person of a debtor, where there is not strong presumption of fraud, shall not be continued in prison after delivering up and assigning over bona fide, all his estate, real and personal, in possession, reversion or remainder, for the use of his creditors, in such manner
as shall be hereafter regulated by law. And all prisoners, unless in execution, or committed for capital offences, when the proof is evident or presumption great, shall be bailable by sufficient sureties; nor shall excessive bail be exacted for bailable of fences.
SECT. 34. All elections, whether by the People or the Legislature, shall be free and voluntary; and any elector, who shall receive any gift or reward for his vote, in meat, drink, monies, or otherwise, shall forfeit his right to elect at that time, and suffer such other penalty as the law shall direct ; and any person who shall directly, or indirectly, give, promise or bestow, any such rewards to be elected, shall thereby be render
ed incapable to serve for the ensuing year, and to be subject to such further punishment as a future Legislature shall direct.
Sect. 35. Ail deeds and conveyances of land shall be recorded in the Town Clerk's office, in their respective towns; and for want thereof, in the County Clerk's office of the same County.
SECT. 36. The Legislature shall regulate entails in such manner as to prevent perpetuities.
Sect. 37. To deter more effectually from the commission of crimes, by continued visible punishments of long duration, and to make sanguinary punishments less necessary, means ought to be provided for punishing by hard labour, those who shall be convicted of crimes not capital, whereby the criminal shall be employed for the benefit of the public, or for the reparation of injuries done to private persons: And all persons, at proper times, ought to be permitted to see them at their labour.
Secr. 38. The estates of such persons as may destroy their own lives, shall not, for that offence, be forfeited, but descend or ascend in the same manner, as if such persons had died in a natural way.
Nor shall any article, which shall accidentally occasion the death of any person, be henceforth deemed a deodand, or in any. wise forfeited on account of such misfortune.
SECT. 39. Every person, of good character, who comes to settle in this State, having first taken an oath or affirmation of allegiance to the same, may purchase, or by other just means acquire, hold, and transfer land, or other real estate ; and after one year's residence, shall be deemed a free denizen thereof,and entitled to all the rights of a natural born subject of this State, except that he shall not be capable of being elected Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Treasurer, Counsellor, or Re. presentative in Assembly, until after two years residence.
Secr. 40. The inhabitants of this State shall have liberty in seasonable times, to hunt and fowl on the lands they hold, and on other lands not inclosed ; and in like manner to fish in all boatable and other waters (not
private property) under proper regulations, to be hereaster made and provided by the General Assembly.
Sect. 41. Laws for the encouragement of virtue and prevention of vice and immorality, ought to be constantly kept in force, and duly executed: And a competent number of schools ought to be maintained in each town, for the convenient instruction of youth: And one or more grammar schools be incorporated and properly supported in each county in this State. And all religious societies or bodies of men, that may be hereafter united or incorporated for the advancement of religion and learning, or for other pious and charitable purposes, shall be encouraged and protected in the enjoyment of the privileges, immunities, and estates, which they in justice ought to enjoy, under such regulations as the General Assembly of this State shall direct.
SECT. 42. The declaration of the political rights and privileges of the inhabitants of this State is hereby declared to be a part of the Constitution of this Commonwealth ; and ought not to be violated, on any pretence whatsoever. SECT. 43. in order that the freedom of this Commons
be preserved inviolate forever, there shall be chosen, by ballot, by the freemen of this State, on the last Wednesday in March, in the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety-nine, and on the last Wednes. day in March in every seven years thereafter, thirteen persons, who shall be chosen in the same manner the Council is chosen, except they shall not be out of the Council or General Assembly, to be called the Council of Censors; who shall meet together on the first Wed. nesday in June next ensuing their election, the majority of whom shall be a quorum in every case, except as to calling a convention, in which t-thirds of the whole number elected shall agree: and whose duty it shall be to enquire, whether the Constitution has been preserved inviolate in every part, during the last septenary, (including the year of their service) and whether the legisa lative and executive branches of government have performed their duty, as guardians of the people, or assima
be fixed by the Legislature, and apportioned among the distrcts, formed as hereinafter directed, according to the number of taxable inhabitants in each, and shall never be less than one-third, nor more than one-half of the number of Representatives.
IV. The Senators shall be chosen by districts, to be formed by the Legislature, each district containing such a number of taxable inhabitants, as shall be entitled to elect not more than three Senators. When a district shall be composed of two or more counties, they shall be adjoining, and no county shall be divided in forming a district.
V. The first election for Senators and Representatives, shall commence on the second Thursday of March next, 'and shall continue for that, and the succeeding day: and the next election shall commence on the first Thursday of August, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-seven, and shall continue on that and the succeeding day: and forever after, elections shall be held once in two years, commencing on the first Thursday in August, and terminating the succeeding day.
VI. The first session of the General Assembly shall commence on the last Monday of March next. The second on the third Monday of September, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-seven. And forever after, the General Assembly shall meet on the third Monday of September next ensuing the then election, and at no other period, unless as provided for by this Constitution.
VII. That no person shall be eligible to a seat in the General Assembly, unless he shall have resided three three years in the State, and one year in the county immediately preceding the election and shall possess in his own right in the county which he represents, not less than two hundred acres of land, and shall have attained to the
of twenty-one years. VIII. The Senate and House of Representatives, when assembled, shall each choose a Speaker and its other officers, be judges of the qualifications and elections of its Members, and sit upon its own adjournments from day to day. Tivo-thirds of each House shall con
stitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized, by law, to compel the attendance of absent members.
IX. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly behaviour, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a Member, but not a second time for the same offence, and shall have all other powers necessary for the Legislature of a free State.
X. Senators and Representatives, shall in all cases, except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during the session of the General Assembly, and in going to and returning from the same ; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.
XI. Each House may punish, by imprisonment, during their session, any person, not a Member, who shall be guilty of disrespect to the House, by any disorderly or contemptuous behaviour in its presence.
XII. When vacancies happen in either House, the Governor, for the time being, shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.
XIII. Neither House shall, during their session, ada journ without the consent of the other, for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
XIV. Bills may originate in either House, but may be amended, altered, or rejected by the other.
XV. Every bill shall be read three different times, on three different days, in each House, and be signed by the respective Speakers before it become a law.
XVI. After a bill has been rejected, no bill containing the same substance, shall be passed into a law during the same session.
XVII. The style of the laws of this State, shall be, Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ten.
XVIII. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish them, except such parts as the welfare of the State inay require to be kept secret. And the yeas and nays of the Members on any question,