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He has made Judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers, to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies, without the consent of our Legislatures.

He has affected to render the military independent of, and superior to, the civil power.

He has combined with others, to subject us to a jurisdiction, foreign to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation.

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States :

For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world :For imposing taxes on us without our consentiFor depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury :

For transporting us beyond seas, to be tried for pretended offences:

For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighbouring province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument, for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies:--

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments in

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power, to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated government here, by declaring lis out of his protection, and waging war against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our peopic. A 2


He is, at this time, transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun, with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow citizens, taken captive on the high seas, to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands

He has excited'domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfar is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.

In every stage of these oppressions, we have petitioned for redress, in the most humble terms ; our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked hy every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the l'uler of a Free People.

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts made by their Legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstan: es of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them, by thie ties of our common kindred, to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They, too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and consanguinity: We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind-enemies in war-in peace, friends.

WE, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, Do, in the name and by the authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly deINDEPENDENCE. clare, that these United Colonies are, and, of right, ought to be Free and Independent States :--that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connexion, between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that, as Free and Independent States, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honour. Signed by order and in behalf of the Congress,


JOHN HANCOCK, Pres. Attest.

Cha. THOMSON, Suc.

New Hampshire.


Tho. Stone, Josiah Bartlet, Rich. Stockton, Cha. Carrol of Cn. Wm. Whipple, John Witherspoon, Virginia. Math. Thornton. Fra. Hopkinson, George Wythe, Massachusetts-Bay. John Hart,

Rich. H. Lee, Samuel Adams, Ab. Clark.

Tho. Jefferson, John Adams,

Pennsylvania. Benj. Harrison, Rob. T. Paine, Robert Morris, Tho. Nelson, jun. Eldridge Gerry. Benjamin Rush, Fra. Light. Lee,

Rhode Island, &c. Benjamin Franklin, Carter Braxton. Stephen Hopkins, John Morton,

North Carolina. Wm. Ellery. Geo. Clymer,

Wn. Hooper,

James Smith, Joseph tewes,
Roger Sherman, Geo. Taylor, John Penn.
Sani. Huntington, James Wilson,

South-Carolina, Wm. Williams, Geo. Rofs.

Edw. Rutledge,
Oliver Wolcott. Delaware

Tho. Feyward, jun.
Cæsar Rodney,

Tho. Lynch, jun. Wm. Floyd,

George Read. Art. Middleton. Philip Livingston, Maryland.

Georgia. Francis Lewis,

Samuel Chase, But. Gwinnet,
Lewis Morris, Wm. Paca,

Lyman Call,
Geo. Walton,




of AMERICA, by a Convention of Deputies from the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New-York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Ma. ryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina, and Georgin, at a Session begun May 25, and ended September 17, 1787.

E, the People of the United States, in order to form a


tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the gen. eral welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and pofterity, do ordain and establish this conititution for the Unit. ed States of America.

ARTICLE 1.-Section I. All legislative powers herein granted, shall be vested in a Con. gress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

SECTION II. 1. The House of Representatives shall consist of Members chosen every second year by the People of the several States ;

the electors in each State shall have the qualifications re. quisite for eleciors of the most numerous branch of the State Legi!lature.

11. No person Mall be a Representative who Thall not have attained to the age of 25 years, and been seven years a Citizen of the United States; and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he snall be chosen.

III. Representatives and direct taxes ihall be apportioned a110?g the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be leerniined by adding to the whole number of free perfons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other perfons. The actual enumeration thail be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Reprefentatives thall not exceed one for every thirty thousand ; but each State shall have at least one Representative ; and, until tuch enumeration shall be made; ve Staie of New liamphire shall be entitled to choose three;


Massachusetts eight; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one; Connecticut five; New York fix; New Jersey four; Pennsylvania eight; Delaware one; Maryland fix; Virginia ten; North Carolina five; South Carolina five ; and Georgia three.

IV. When vacancies happen in the Representation from any Ştate, the executive authority thereof fhall issue writs of elec. tion to fit such vacancies.

V. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, and thall have the fole power of impeach.


Section III. 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for kix years, and each Senator shall have one vote.

II. Immediately after they shall be assembled, in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided, as equally as may be, into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class mall be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the lecond class, at the expiration of the fourth year; and of the third class, at the expiration of the sixth year; so that one third may be chosen every second year. And if vacancies happen by reignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fil such vacancies.

HI. No person shall be a Senator, who shall not have attained to the age of 30 years, and been nine years a Citizen of the United States; and who Thall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that Srare for which he shall be chosen,

IV. The Vice-President of the United States shall be Prefident of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equal. ly divided.

V. The Senate mall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice-Prefdent, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the U.States.

VI. The Senate înall have the rele power to try all impeachments. When fitting for that purpose, they thall be on oath or affirmation. When the Prefident of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present

VII. Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualincation to hold and enjoy any office of honour, trust, or profit, under the United States. But the party convicted shall, never heleis, be liable and subjeđ to indi&ment, trial, judgment, and punishnient according to law.

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