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ECONOMIC STABILIZATION ACT OF 1970
$ 205. Confidentiality of information
(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), all information reported to or otherwise obtained by any person exercising authority under this title which contains or relates to a trade secret or other matter referred to in section 1905 of title 18, United States Code, shall be considered confidential for the purposes of that section, except that such information may be disclosed to other persons empowered to carry out this title solely for the purpose of carrying out this title or when relevant in any proceeding under this title.
(b)(1) Any business enterprise subject to the reporting requirements under section 130.21(b) of the regulations of the Cost of Living Council in effect on January 11, 1973, shall make public any report (except for matter excluded in accordance with paragrapho (2)) so required which covers a period during which that business enterprise charges a price of a susbtantial product which exceeds by more than 1.5 per centum the price lawfully in effect for such product on January 10, 1973, or on the date twelve months preceding the end of such period, whichever is later. As used in this subscetion, the term 'substantial product means any single product or service which accounted for 5 per centum or more of the gross sales or revenues of a business enterprise in its most recent full fiscal year.
(2) A business enterprise may exclude from any report made public pursuant to paragraph (1) any information or data reported to the Cost of Living Council, proprietary in nature, which concerns or relates to the amount of sources of its income, profits, losses, costs, or expenditures but may not exclude from such report, data, or information, so reported, which concerns or relates to its prices for goods and services.
(3) Immediately upon enactment of this subsection, the President or his delegate shall issue regulations defining for the purpose of this subsection what information or data are proprietary in nature and therefore excludable under paragraph (2), except that such regulations may not define as excludable any information or data which cannot currently be excluded from public annual reports to the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 by a business enterpise exclusively engaged in the manufacture or sale of a substantial product as defined in paragraph (1). Such regulations shall define as excludable any information or data which concerns or relates to the trade secrets, processes, operations, style of work, or apparatus of the business enterprise.
8 206. Subpena power
“The head of an agency exercising authority under this title, or his duly authorized agent, shall have authority, for any purpose related to this title, to sign and issue subpenas for the attendance and testimony of witnesses, and the production of relevant books, papers, and other documents, and to administer oaths. Witnesses summoned under the provisions of this section shall be paid the same fees and mileage as are paid to witnesses in the courts of the United States. In case of refusal to obey a subpena served upon any person under the provisions of this section, the head of the agency authorizing such subpena, or his delegate, may request the Attorney General to seek the aid of the district court of the United States for any district in which such person is found to compel such person, after notice, to appear and give testimony, or to appear and produce documents before the agency. 8 207. Administrative procedure
(a) The functions exercised under this title are excluded from the operation of subchapter II of chapter 5, and chapter 7 of title 5, United States Code, except as to the requirements of sections 552, 553, and 555(e) of title 5, United States Code.
(b) Any agency authorized by the President to issue rules, regulations, or orders under this title shall, in regulations prescribed by it, establish procedures which are available to any person for the purpose of seeking an interpretation, modification, or rescission of, or seeking an exception or exemption from, such rules, regulations, and orders. If such person is aggrieved by the denial of a request for such action under the preceding sentence, he may request a review of such denial by the agency. The agency shall, in regulations prescribed by it, establish appropriate procedures, including hearings where deemed advisable, for considering such requests for action under this section.
(c) To the maximum extent possible, the President or his delegate shall conduct formal hearings for the purpose of hearing arguments or acquiring information bearing on a change or a proposed change in wages, salaries, prices, rents, interest rates, or corporate dividends or similar transfers, which have or may have a significantly large impact upon the national economy, and such hearings shall be open to the public except that a private formal hearing may be conducted to receive information considered confidential under section 205 of this title: Provided, That such agency shall issue no order which has the effect of reducing wages, or salaries in effect, or proposed to be put into effect, in an appropriate employee unit unless such order is made on the record after opportunity for a hearing. Not less than thirty days after issuance of such an order a statement of explanation shall be directed to the affected parties and made available to the public. Such statement shall include a full explanation of the reasons why the existing wage or salary, or proposed wage or salary adjustment, does not meet the requirements of or the standards established by the regulations prescribed by the agency." § 208. Sanctions; criminal fine and civil penalty
(a) Whoever willfully violates any order or regulation under this title shall be fined not more than $5,000 for each violation.
(b) Whoever violates any order or regulation under this title shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $2,500 for each violation.
8 209. Injunctions and other relief
Whenever it appears to any person authorized by the President to exercise authority under this title that any individual or organization has engaged, is engaged, or is about to engage in any acts or practices constituting a violation of any order or regulation under this title, such person may request the Attorney General to bring an action in the appropriate district court of the United States to enjoin such acts or practices, and upon a proper showing a temporary restraining order or a preliminary or permanent injunction shall be granted without bond. Any such court may also issue mandatory injunctions commanding any person to comply with any such order or regulation. In addition to such injunctive relief, the court may also order restitution of moneys received in violation of any such order or regulation. 8210. Suits for damages or other relief
(a) Any person suffering legal wrong because of any act or practice arising out of this title, or any order or regulation issued pursuant thereto, may bring an action in a district court of the United States, without regard to the amount in controversy, for appropri. ate relief, including an action for a declaratory judgment, writ of injunction (subject to the limitations in section 211), and/or damages.
(b) In any action brought under subsection (a) against any person renting property or selling goods or services who is found to have orercharged the plaintiff, the court may, in its discretion, award the plaintiff reasonable attorney's fees and costs, plus whichever of the following sums is greater:
(1) an amount not more than three times the amount of the overcharge upon which the action is based, or
(2) not less than $100 or more than $1,000; except that in any case where the defendant establishes that the overcharge was not intentional and resulted from a bona fide error notwithstanding the maintenance of procedures reasonably adapted to the avoidance of such error the liability of the defendant shall be limited to the amount of the overcharge: Provided, That where the overcharge is not willful within the meaning of section 208(a) of this title, no action for an overcharge may be brought by or on behalf of any person unless such person has first presented to the seller or renter a bona fide claim for refund of the overcharge and has not received repayment of such overcharge within ninety days from the date of the presentation of such claim.
(c) For the purposes of this section, the term 'overcharge' means the amount by which the consideration for the rental of property or the sale of goods or services exceeds the applicable ceiling under regulations or orders issued under this title. $211. Judicial review
(a) The district courts of the United States shall have exclusive original jurisdiction of cases or controversies arising under this title, or under regulations or orders issued thereunder, notwithstanding the amount in controversy; except that nothing in this subsection or in subsection (h) of this section affects the power of any court of competent jurisdiction to consider, hear, and determine any issue by way of
defense (other than a defense based on the constitutionality of this title or the validity of action taken by any agency under this title) raised in any proceeding before such court. If in any such proceeding an issue by way of defense is raised based on the contitutionality of this title or the validity of agency action under this title, the case shall be subject to removal by either party to a district court of the United States in accordance with the applicable provisions of chapter 89 of title 28, United States Code.
(b) (1) There is hereby created a court of the United States to be known as the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals, which shall consist of three or more judges to be designated by the Chief Justice of the United States from judges of the United States district courts and circuit courts of appeals
. The Chief Justice of the United States shall designate one of such judges as chief judge of the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals, and may, from time to time, designate additional judges for such court and revoke previous designations. The chief judge may, from time to time, divide the court into divisions of three or more members, and any such division may render judgment as the judgment of the court. Except as provided in subsection (d) (2) of this section, the court shall not have power to issue any interlocutory decree staying or restraining in whole or in part any provision of this title, or the effectiveness of any regulation or order issued thereunder. In all other respects, the court shall have the powers of a circut court of appeals with respect to the jurisdiction conferred on it by this title. The court shall exercise its powers and prescribe rules governing its procedure in such manner as to expedite the determination of cases over which it has jurisdiction under this title. The court shall have a seal, hold sessions at such places as it may specify, and appoint a clerk and such other employees as it deems necessary or proper.
(2) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals shall have exclusive jurisdiction of all appeals from the district courts of the United States in cases and controversies arising under this title or under regulations or orders issued thereunder. Such appeals shall be taken by the filing of a notice of appeal with the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals within thirty days of the entry of judgment by the district court.
(c) In any action commenced under this title in any district court of the United States in which the court determines that a substantial constitutional issue exists, the court shall certify such issue to the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals. Upon such certifications, the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals shall determine the appropriate manner of disposition which may include a determination that the entire action be sent to it for consideration or it may, on the issues certified, give binding instructions and remand the action to the certifving court for further disposition.
(d)(1) Subject to paragraph (2), no regulation of any agency exercising authority under this title shall be enioined or set aside, in whole or in part, unless a final judgment determines that the issuance of such regulation was in excess of the agency's authority, was arbitrary or capricious, or was otherwise unlawful under the criteria set forth in section 706 (2) of title 5, United States Code, and no order
of such agency shall be enjoined or set aside, in whole or in part, unless a final judgment determines that such order is in excess of the agency's authority, or is based upon findings which are not supported by substantial evidence.
(2) A district court of the United States or the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals may enjoin temporarily or permanently the application of a particular regulation or order issued under this title to a person who is a party to litigation before it. Appeals from interlocutory decisions by a district court of the United States under this paragraph may be taken in accordance with the provisions of section 1292 (b) of title 28, United States Code; except that reference in such section to the courts of appeals shall be deemed to refer to the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals.
(e) (1) Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, no interlocutory or permanent injunction restraining the enforcement, operation, or execution of this title, or any regulation or order issued thereunder, shall be granted by any district court of the United States or judge thereof. Any such court shall have jurisdiction to declare (A) that a regulation of an agency exercising authority under this title is in excess of the agency's authority, is arbitrary or capricious, or is otherwise unlawful under the criteria set forth in section 706 (2) of title 5, United States Code, or (B) that an order of such agency is invalid upon a determination that the order is in excess of the agency's authority, or is based upon findings which are not supported by substantial evidence.
(2) Any party aggrieved by a declaration of a district court of the United States respecting the validity of any regulation or order issued under this title may, within thirty days after the entry of such declaration, file a notice of appeal therefrom in the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals. In addition, any party believing himself entitled by reason of such declaration to a permanent injunction restraining the enforcement, operation, or execution of such regulation or order may file, within the same thirty-day period, a motion in the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals requesting such injunctive relief. Following consideration of such appeal or motion, the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals shall enter a final judgment affirming, reversing, or modifying the determination of the district court and granting such permanent injunctive relief, if any, as it deems appropriate.
(1) The effectiveness of a final judgment of the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals enjoining or setting aside in whole or in part any provision of this title, or any regulation or order issued thereunder, shall be postponed until the expiration of thirty days from the entry thereof, except that if a petition for a writ of certiorari is filed with the Supreme Court under subsection (g) within such thirty dars, the effectiveness of such judgment shall be postponed until an order of the Supreme Court denying such petition becomes final, or until other final disposition of the action by the Supreme Court.
(g) Within thirty days after entry of any judgment or order by the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals, a petition for a writ of certiorari may be filed in the Supreme Court of the United States, and thereupon the judgment or order shall be subject to review by