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pended upon, and as a consequence some substitute must be found; how far corn will become that substitute remains to be seen. If the climate of Ireland would permit its cultivation, it would, no doubt, at once take the place of potatoes ; but that is not the case ; and as Irish industry can with difficulty be turned into the manufacture of goods to exchange for corn, seemingly an insuperable difficulty to an extensive market presents itself. The corn trade can, however, never relapse into its former insignificance. The great demand and resulting high prices which have prevailed for food as well throughout Europe as in England, will produce their usual consequence, viz. on large production The crops of Europe are, however, subject to the vicissitudes of the seasons, and the demand has been of late years enhanced in proportion to supply, through influences similar to those which have effected the English markets, viz., the extension of railroads, the progress of manufactures and the migration of agriculturists. The events of the last year have, however, shown that the United States are the most to be depended upon for supplies. An unexpected demand, after years of prices low as those indicated in the table, called out quantities far beyond what the highest estimales supposed in existence, and nothing but the incompleteness of means of transportation prevented a more constant and overwhelming supply from reaching market. In July, 1846, when the harvest was nearly completed, flour in New-York was $3 90, and the receipts not large; as the demand sprang up, the produce came forward, and its effects on the tolls of the two great avenues to market, the Pennsylvania public works and New-York canals, were as follows : -1846.
-1847. N. Y. Canals. Penn. Can. Total. N. Y. Canals. Penn. Can. Total. To May 1...... $177,673......241,320....418,993... ...none....... 413,283.... 413,283 May...
421,087......158,563....579,650........709,697......215,079....924,796 Total....... .$598,760 399,883 998,643
709,697 628,362 1,338,059
Increase... .$110,937 228,478 339,416 This large increase the revenues of two states, has arisen almost altogether from the downward pressure of surplus produce to market, and at reduced tolls. Had the great works projected by the western states been in operation last fall, the prices of breadstuffs would not have been sustained, because the vast resources of Illinois, Indiana and Michigan would then have added greatly to the supplies ; measures are now on foot that will bring those resources speedily into play. The Illinois canal has been greatly delayed through the organization of the board of trustees. By law, the bondholders were to appoint two and the state one. Under this law David Leavitt, Esq., president of the American Exchange Bank in New York, and Captain Swift, of the army, were appointed by the bondholders, and General Fry by the state. The two first named gentlemen voted themselves salaries of $5,000 each, per annum. Mr. Leavitt received the money subscribed, and held at times $500,000, on which no interest was allowed. Under these circumstances the canal progressed very slowly, and not at all to the satisfaction of the citizens of Illinois ; recently Col. Charles Oakley has been appointed commissioner for the state, and the work will be more efficiently conducted, and probably opened in the spring of 1848. The utility of paying two trustees $5,000 per annum each, for not only doing nothing, but absolutely retarding the work by their continued absence and neglect, is much to be doubted. The foreign bondholders have trifled with their own interest in the matter. The abuses that have crept in will go far to prevent any new taxes being levied in Illinois for their benefit. The railroads of Michigan having passed into the hands of private companies, in exchange for state bonds, will be put in efficient running order.
The canal of Indiana, bisecting the state longitudinally, from the lakes to the Ohio river, has been put in a train of completion, through the exertion of Charles Butler, Esq. The terms of the law creating a trust were complied with, by the surrender of $6,500,000 state bonds to the agent of the state on June 1st, by Mr. Butler, and 5 per cent. instalment thereon was paid up to go on with the completion of the canal. The state agent issued new bonds for those surrendered. This work will add the supplies of the interior of Indiana to the rich freights on the lakes. The means of transportation, both on the lakes, the canals connecting tide water, and the new privileges to the northern line of railroads, must powerfully contribute to cheapen the outlet for western produce, and by so doing, enable the farmer to realize a larger proportion of the market value.
NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS.
Association Discussed.--A controversy between the New York Tribune and the
Courier and Enquirer. By H. GREELEY and H. J. RAYMOND. Harper Brothers.
This pamphlet contains the correspondence, which two leading papers administered to their readers ad nauseum. It refers to the peculiar doctrines of a certain sect, advocated in the peculiar style of the Tribune ; the leading feature of which is utter disingenuousness. The scheme of Social Reform,” which is the term given to the doctrines of Fourier, contains undoubtedly much that is good, and fairly considered in its practical points, deductions might be drawn from it, that might tend greatly to ameliorate the condition of mankind.
The followers of this faith, for such it may be termed, meditate nothing less than a total regeneration of society; and promise nothing less than the total abolition of all vice, and the establishment of perfect happiness in this world, by means of what they term association ; that is to say, unless we totally misapprehend their doctrines and their promises.
They assume, as a foundation for their arguments, that every passion which naturally exists in the human being, having been implanted by the Divine Creator, is in itself divine, and therefore good, and capable of being indulged to the utmost, not only innocently, but profitably, to the individual and to others.
They also assume that labor is capable of being rendered attractive and delightful to mankind, even labor of the most menial and degrading nature.
They further insist, that all that has been yet effected by civilization, by education, and by legislation, has only been the deterioration, degradation, and corruption of the human mind, to such a degree, that it is impossible now to discover what the natural bent and bias of humanity was in the beginning.
To remedy this, they propose that the whole world shall be divided into societies, which they term phalanxes ; and shall dwell in large common mansions, situated in the midst of common demesnes, which they denominate phalansteries.
At the termination of three generations, spent on their system in these phalansteries, they expect that the curvature and corrupt direction of the passions, produced by civilization and education, and uncorrected by Christianity, will be overcome, and that man will then be such, with such tastes, appetites, passions, and opinions, as God made him, and intended him to be.
In the indulgence of those passions, tastes, and appetites, as then existing, he will be doing no wrong; he will have to consult no law but his own pleasure ; and will incur neither dishonor, nor penalty for disregarding the will of the majority, which is, or is presumed to be, the origin of human law.
How far all this is in accordance with the letter, or the spirit of the Scriptures, and with the teachings of our Saviour, we leave it to our readers to decide.
How far it is compatible with common sense and reason, we submit to our readers likewise.
Studiously disconnecting themselves from any religious sect, the Fourierites profess to leave every man to his own religious creed, and in the United States at least-have fallen into paroxysms of wrath, if charged with hostility to the Christian religion.
The institution of marriage, the restraints of religion, the obligation of consanguinity, and even the rights of property, are matters that are special objects of reform to these parties ; and publicly putting furth and defending such views, it is evident that the conductor of the Tribune has a difficult task to perform. To shock the religious predilections of a people, and to hold up as an object of reform those institutions which they have been accustomed most to venerate, to which they have clung as the safeguards of the social system, is a hazardous undertaking. Neither do those who attempt it seem to have any idea of either, how it is to be brought about, or whether, if their " organization” is brought about, the results they predict will be arrived at. Hence the Tribune comes to the discussion,
as it were, 'in the dark, and with evident want of confidence in his cause, as well as of acquaintance with the ground to be gone over in the course of its debate, although abundantly well satisfied with his own skill in fence. A certain scheme is put forward, and then all the arguments of its projectors are directed to show that the leading features are not what they appear to the public, and the result is a continuous dodging, twisting, turning, denying, admitting, construing, perverting, until the reader is wearied with attempts to overtake an ignis fatuus, and turns from it with the impression that he has been listening to one, who, to use an every day phrase, “ talks only because charmed with his own voice."
The Life of Edmund Kean. Harper Brothers.
Theatrical amusements have of late years shown evidences of decay. This is perhaps a natural consequence of the increase of other amusements, the multiplicity of books, and the refinement of public “ taste.” It has been alleged that the public taste bas been vitiated by producing "stars ;" it may, however, be the case, that the histrionic art has not kept pace with improvements in other respects, and that while good actors enjoy a continuance of public favor, the general progress of the stage has not been such as its prosperity requires. There is no doubt but that Kean raised the standard of excellence in regard to the drama, and gave an impulse to the art, which has not been sustained by the profession generally ; hence but little interest is excited in regard to theatrical representations, except when called forth by particular excellence. To say that the “star" system is a vicious one, is merely to say, that the profession generally cannot sustain the interest excited by its best members. Unfortunately, the example of the best actors has not been such as to excite emulation, even in those who admire their great suc
The life of Kean, particularly, is not of a nature to induce others to attempt to follow in his footsteps, or to cultivate talents that are productive of such results, even though gilded by great success. He appears himself to have been completely intoxicated with his fame, and affords a melancholy picture of the dangers of prosperity. His life is, however, of great interest and instruction, showing the struggles of genius against every species of adversity, until it burst forth in the splendor of its maturity, to be ultimately choked by the overgrowth of the illregulated passions that expanded unchecked with its progress. A History of Rome : From the Earliest Times to the Death of Commodus, A. D.
192. By LEONHARD Schmitz, F. R. S. E., Rector of the High School of Edinburgh. Harper Brothers, New-York.
It is a singular fact that, in the system of modern education, although the pocket interest of teachers induces them to change books and editions as often as possible, to swell the expenditures of the pupils, yet schools are the very last places into which modern science and progress finds its way. Old notions and errors are perpetuated in school books, long after they are elsewhere forgotten; as, for instance, many school arithmetics, of recent dates, continue to teach the old absurd continental divisions of the currency, as 6s. to the dollar in NewEngland, and 8s. in New York, although such a currency never existed in fact; those various rates being the mere degree of depreciation of the old paper money when it ceased to circulate 60 years ago, since when there has been no national money but decimals, uniform throughout the Union. Many continue to teach that $4 44 is a £ sterling, although $4 80 is the actual equivalent. In histories and less practical matters the school books are still further behind the age ; and the present work of Dr. Schmitz is designed to infuse into school editions the great advance which history, particularly that of Rome, has undergone of late years, under the genius of Niebuhr in 1811, and subsequent writers. The work should be patronized. Homes and Haunts of the most Eminent British Poets. By William Howitt.
2 vols. Harper Brothers.
This volume does not embrace sketches of all the most eminent of the poets, but only of such in relation to whose social connections interesting facts are known. Mr. Howitt has been accused of inaccuracies, but the charges have not been fully sustained. The work is very interesting and amusing, as well as instructive.
Washington and his Generals. By J. T. HEADLEY, Author of Napoleon and bis Marshals. Baker & Scribner, 145 Nassau-street, New-York.
There is no denying that a strong military predilection runs through the American mind, and that the deeds of modern heroes elicit the liveliest admiration. The heartfelt enthusiasm with which the people rallied around “Old Hickory," showed, stronger than words can describe, that respect which an active and enterprising people pay to the vast energies of a mind like Jackson's. Heroic daring and bold deeds always awaken American sympathies, and the Rev. Mr. Headley struck this chord full and clearly, when apparently the enthusiasm of his own heart, albeit beating under clerical robes, caught fire at Allison's description of feudal glories. Following the impulse, Mr. Headley produced his book, sketching the military careers of Napoleon and his Marshals.” Surely, if anything could awaken the "fire" in American breasts, it is the contemplation of that oppressed and down-trodden mass of French people, surrounded by the combined armies of Europe, led on by the most renowned names of modern warfare, banded in the pay of an unprincipled and blood-thirsty British oligarchy, bursting forth en masse to the battle-field, undisciplined, unfurnished, and uninstructed, impelled only by the fierce love of country, and fired by a stern sense of their own rights, the terrible effects of which were fully described by Danton, when he exclaimed, “ A nation in revolution cannot be overcome.". We see that huge army gradually becoming organised ; talents rise paramount to the mass; hero after hero appears, each with a higher order of genius, until the transcendent intellect of Napoleon leads the whole in triumph to every capital of Europe. This stirring story, told in the animated style of Mr. Headley, took effect, and the work sold well. Under its inspiration he turned his attention homeward, and drew forward from the past the deeds of our own “ Washington and his Generals," imparting to their triumphs more of romance than they were supposed susceptible of. The latter struck down British military reputation, which again attained a meretricious vitality under the shadow of the French leaders. European bravery and British gold, taking advantage of French disunion and the effect of Russian snows, attained for the dogged stupidity of Wellington a temporary popularity, which cannot rise into reputation. His best troops, and ablest general, who had stormed Spanish cities, driving out the French, and murdering aud debauching their own allies, the Spaniards, perished before the vigor of Jackson, like "fern in the frost." Notes on the Early Settlement of the Northwestern Territory. By Jacob BURNET.
D. Appleton & Co., 200 Broadway.
These are the potes of one of the early settlers of the Miami country; and are valuable and interesting, as tracing the progress of events, and the vicissitudes to which the hardy pioneers were exposed in early times, the development of the resources of the country, and the gradual advance of general prosperity. The American Loyalist; or Biographical Sketches of adherents to the British
Crown in the War of the Revolution. Alphabetically arranged. By LORENZO SABINE. Little & Brown, Boston.
Now tbat time has smoothed the asperities that sprang up between parties, when events demanded the political separation of the colonies from the crown, and have carried up the once oppressed settlements to the most powerful pation of the world, and terribly shaken the power of the “mistress of the seas,” it becomes matter of interest and instruction to look back at the views and actions of those timid or mistaken class of men, whose loyalty outran their sagacity, and induced them to adhere to the imperial government. The knowledge of their views is also necessary to a correct understanding of the course of the revolution. Yet that essential feature of our history has hitherto been in a great measure wanting. The industry and research of Mr. Sabine, has rescued from oblivion matter of considerable interest in relation to that class of men, very many of whom emigrated. It was among the fortunate features of the revolution that they did so, because they represented, for the most part, the strongest traces of old British slavery, when English serfs groaned under Norman oppression, and they humbly submitted themselves to the iron rod. That " servility,” as civilization and human rights gradually advanced, took the form of " loyalty," and is now to some extent called "flunkeyism." The removal of that taint from the American people has gone
far to develope a manly energetic independence, which has been characteristic of the citizens of the United States. The parity between the old loyalists from principles, and the advocates for special privileges of the present day, may be clearly traced in the compilation of Mr. Sabine. Domestic Slavery, considered as a Scriptural institution ; in a correspondence be
tween the Rev. Richard Fuller of Beaufort, S. C., and the Rev. Francis Wayland of Providence, R. I. Lewis Colby & Co., 122 Nassau-street, N. Y.
This little volume is calculated to be of service to the public, in allaying those asperities which have been indulged in, on a subject of such vital importance as the peculiar institution of the south. The right thinking Christian and patriot, both north and south, will find the ground for the exercise of Christian charity harder and firmer than they had supposed, and that the means of harmony are more accessible than at first blush might be apprehended. That the brutal class of degraded men called abolitionists of the north, have made a trade of philanthropy, and indulged, in the words of Dr. Channing, in a tone " fierce, bitter and abusive," is to be lamented, but derives its importance mostly from the attention it has attracted at the north. It has been the sole instrument by which British aristocracy and expiring feudalism in the old world, could hope to disturb the march of the great republic, or check the approach of their own downfall. For this object the most disgusting and debauched negroes, black and white, have been petted, feasted and rewarded by the blazee aristocracy of England, whose libidinous desires have sought, like the men of ancient Sodom, in novel intercourse with an inferior race, to stimulate palled appetites, and by so doing at once to degrade their race to the level of one every way inferior, and seek through it by ruining Republican America, to perpetrate their own rule over the half emancipated slaves of the British Islands. The base tools of the British aristocracy will find their level, and the strong sense of the American people will trample over the disgusting cant of hypocritical debauchery. Allen Lucas, the Self-Made man. By Emily CHUBBUCK. Lewis Colby & Co.,
122 Nassau-street, New-York.
This is an agreeable little volume, by the Authoress of " Charles Lion” and other stories, that have attained a meritorious popularity. The Life of Punchinello. From the French of OCTAVE TEUILLET. Genius, Good Fellows, fc. By
CHARLES NODIER. Bean Flower and Pea Blossom. By
CHARLES NODIER. Good Lady Berthu Honey Broth. “
ALEXANDER DUMAS. These are the titles of four very entertaining and beautifully illustrated books of Fairy Stories. Published by the Messrs. Appleton, 200 Broadway. The Natural History of the “Gent." By ALBERT SMITH. D. Appleton & Co., 200 Broadway.
Mr. Smith is one of that class of Dickens' imitators, of which the number is great and the wit small, both bere and in London. In the present little volume he has attempted to satirize one "phase" of the follies that young men, in all times and countries, indulge in. High animal spirits and inexperience always produce youthful extravagances, particularly in England, where the intellectual by no means predominates over the animal. There is no doubt but that there is a class in London similar to those Mr. Smith attempts to delineate, that might form an admirable subject of satire ; but Mr. Smith miserably mistakes his yocation. A Summer in the Wilderness ; Embracing a Canoe Voyage up the Mississippi
and around Lake Superior. By Charles LANMAN. D. Appleton & Co., 200 Broadway.
All that appertains to the Great West always excites interest, more especially in the young and ardent minds of “Young America.” The fields of adventure there laid open, is highly attractive to the naturally enterprising spirit of the eastern youth ; and the works of Cooper have thrown an air of romance around western scenes, that has greatly added to the attraction. Mr. Lanman has furnished us with a very agreeable account of an adventurous trip through the great land of promise. The story is told in a clear, straight-forward mapper, beightened by amusing anecdote.