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formed ear, proving not only adaptation of soil, but climate—for the production of this staple in California. The latter case, the lands were 225 feet above the sea, and the field on every side except the south-east was covered with a thick growth of the salt grasses and other kindred plants (samphire) and when free from water the lands were covered with a saline incrustation.
Under a proper course of treatment these lands will be made available for the purposes of the agriculturist, and our already large domain of arable lands thus much increased. The situation of these lands in the interior is such, that they may be easily reclaimed should they ever fall within the jurisdiction of the State, which undoubtedly they will under the law regulating "saline lands." In the counties of San Francisco, Santa Clara and Alameda the wet land that may be made available by drainage is about seventy square miles, exclusive of the "saline lands" at the southern part of the County of Santa Clara.
Moft of the valley sections of this range of country is arable land, and that which is not can easily made so when required; the agents for bringing this about being found in the adjoining hills to the east. The character of the soil and climate adapts it to all the productions of temperate climates, and where local position modifies the climate of any section, it is found capable of producing plants of the tropical latitudes.
The extreme south-eastern part of this valley would be adapted to the growth of foreign fruits and other products, but it must be beyond the influence of the cold sea-wind that passes inland across the range of lower hills which divide the Salinas, Pajaro, and Santa Clara Valleys, the effect of which would be to blight the fruit, though the plant or tree might continue to thrive.
The low hills that flank the east side of the valley contain all lhe elements required for the culture of tropical plants and fruits ; the climate and soil will be found adapted, and the only agent that appears in the least to be wanting is water sufficient to supply the demands of those plants. From the appearance of small lagoons and rivulets at different elevations it is presumable that a sufficient quantity of this agent may be found a short distance below the surface.
Aa a general rule the mountains lying upon the east border of the valley Santa Clara are covered with a soil superior to that of the plains, and of much greater depth. I have measured the depths of these soils in many places, and where it is well developed have found it varying from four to eleven feet for miles continuous; its extreme fertility produces heavy crops of the native grains and grasses which annually contribute to its increase by their decomposition.
Although these lands are situated within the reach of the sea-breeze from the Bay of San Francisco, they are protected from its cold by the slope of the hills and the modifications of its temperature acquired in its passage down the bay before reaching the northern portion of the valley. So much is the temperature increased that an addition of ten degrees is often required in its transit from San Francisco to the head of the valley, a distanco little rising fifty miles. This increase of temperature in the air is accompanied with an increase in its capacity for moisture, hence it is usual to find a slight aqueous haze, which results from the condensation of its moisture, hanging about this en
tire range of hills during the summer months, and is usually seen early in the morning.
At this time and for a short time after sun-rise the leaves of plants in these hills are covered with moisture, when no trace of this deposit is observable on the plains. The foreign horticulturist seems to have seized upon the natural advantages which these mountains present for the culture of the vine and other fruits, prefering these elevated situations to the lower plain lands, the climate and soil being more congenial to their growth. The altitude at which the first qualities of the grape will flourish in these mountains (Monte Diablo Range) is seventeen hundred feet above the sea, the fruit produced equals tht grown in lower situations; the temperature at this elevation through the night is higher than on the plains at their base, and sufficiently comfortable to sleep without shelter.
But a very few years will elapse before these "barren" mountains will yield a handsome income to the planter, and a large revenue to the State, from the taxable property that will be found in these mountains, arising from the production of the vine alone; some idea of the extent to wnich it is now being propagated may be obtained when it is stated that nearly two hundred thousand sets have been put into the ground during the past year, and on one ranch alone over twelve thousand new sets were placed in the ground last season, in addition to those already in bearing condition on the same farm.
The absence of timber in these mountains is one of the most serious objections to the settler, if this objection can be removed there is no reason to doubt but that large tracts of this fertile district would command a population that would soon approximate that on the plains. It would not be difficult to produce a forest growth of trees upon these mountains, one that would prove useful as well as ornamental, conducing to health, comfort and luxury, as well as profit. The history of the Guava furnishes us with some facts on this point that are well worthy of notice; the tree is of rapid growth, spreading itself over large districts in a very few years. In Mexico it attains a height of forty feet, and grows at elevations of five thousand feet; its wood is used for fuel and many other purposes, and from its fruit the guava jelly is manufactured, and forms an extensive article of commerce.
Fifty years ago this tree was introduced at the Sandwich and Society Islands; it has in that short period of time formed one of the principal forest trees of those islands, and reaches the summit of their highest hills. A tree of this kind introduced into our timberless hills would in a short time render the barren aspect they now present, more pleasing and profitable as well as useful. There can be but little doubt that this tree will flourish in this country, as it is found so to do in a climate equally cool as that in which it would be required here. Other varieties of fruit bearing trees of foreign climates will flourish in these mountains; among them maybe mentioned the date, prune and fig, and in this country we possess an advantage in the preparation of the two latter fruits for the market, which is seldom found even in countries where they flourish best, viz: a clear, dry air, or containing but a small degree of moisture, a most essential requisite in forming a good commercial article. Often the entire fruit crop is ruined in the drying process in countries where these fruits abound, (andwhereall conditions for their propagation are not more fully developed than in this country,) from the presence of too great a quantity of moisture in the air, a circumstance that cannot exist in this country south of the county of San Francisco.
We have the most ample proofs of the capabilities of our soils in the interior, in the production of the foreign fruits. In addition to the above, the olive and the almond flourish and produce plentifully, and though the latter is not indigenous, the luxuriance with which it grows and its plentiful production of fruit, must be received only as another evidence of the fact above stated. The value of these fruits as regards their quality, suffers no deterioration from having been naturalized to our climate, but in the case of the latter named fruit, it is found to be materially benefitted by the change, for as it loses none of its flavor it becomes the more valuable from its increase of size, being nearly double that of the ordinary fruit of the market.
Respecting the main body of lands on the valley and shores of the bay, but very little of which is not adapted to agricultural purposes, it may be said to cover an area little short of six hundred square miles, nearly all of which is adapted to the cultivation of the cereals and root crops. The higher table of the valley produces excellent corn, and the season though dry permits this crop to mature well. I observed several corn fields on the high terrace of the valley last season, flourishing well at altitudes of three hundred and sixty to four hundred and ten feet, and in localities where it would hardly be supposed from its external appearance, that moisture sufficient to rear a blade of grass could be found. The cause of this productiveness in these localities, is in a great measure attributable to the existence of a small quantity of sulphate of lime in these apparently dry soils, derived from a limestone formation in these mountains, and which extends south beyond the Almaden district. The detritus of this rock is found mingled with fragments of other rocks containing ferruginous pyrites in a decomposing state, hence the key to its appearance in this locality, and in the case before it serves the purpose of an absorbent of moisture, thus materially facilitating the growth of crops in these sections.
We publish the following description of a new power at the request of the discoverer. We express no opinion respecting its merits, but are informed that scientific and practical individuals who have examined the model think favorably of the invention. It is obvious that if the views and calculations of the projector should be realized, he will occupy a place in the front rank of modern inventors.
We are informed that it will cost about five hundred dollars to make 8 working machine. Not possessing means to construct a complete model, Mr. Graham desires to find some enterprising individual who will advanoe the amount necessary and take an interest in tho discovery. Will not some of our intelligent and public spirited citizens call Od Mr. G. and examine into the merits of his discovery? This much at least, is due to one who has devoted his time and talents in search of a cheaper and more convenient motive power lhan any hitherto brought into use.
Merchants' Exchange, No. 78 Chesnut street,
Sir :—I hope you will give the following description of a machine which has been modelled in this city, a place in your Journal. I have called it "the Universal Prime Mover."
G, is a Piston Rod, having two heads A, A', moving air-tight in a Cylinder F, F'. In the centei D, is a conical aperture for admitting theexternal atmospheric pressure to the piston heads A, A'. There are holes at E, E' with nir-tight valves, through which any air that gets in, between the piston heads and these holes, is expelled by every stroke.
The action of the cylinder is produced by moving the pistons until the heads oome into the position of the dotted lines a, a'; and then lettirg them shoot backwards to the end marked F'.
The motion thus produced is continuous and accumulative.
In proof: Previous to motion the air is in equilibrium throughout the cylinder. On moving the pistons into the position a, a7, the air in the portion from A, to E, is expelled, the small quantity in F, is compressed, that in F' expands from F' to a', and becomes greatly rarified, while the valve E' is tightened down by the external atmospheric pressure.
On letting the pistons go, the piston a, propelled by the compressed air in F, and the piston a', by the atmospheric pressure through D, shoot into F', where the air is again compressed, and the action renewed.
The degree of compression in F, F', can be accurately regulated by the length of the crank of the Flywheel, to which it is attached; and the latter by its momentum aids the before mentioned causes in giving the pistons a re. verse motion at the end of each stroke.
We see, therefore, a continuous reaction. The power being constant, viz: the atmospheric pressure through D, and the vacuum being constant; as the pistons alternately expel any air, that may leak mto the cylinder, through the valves E, E'.
It is also accumulative; as the whole momentum of each stroke is added to the constant pressure through D, by the recoil of the compressed air in F, F'—and this addition far exceeds the friction of the pistons, which is not more than SO lbs.
The theoretical power of this cylinder is very great. Ex. gr.: Suppose the internal length to be 3' Q\", the diam. 3", and the distance between the center of the valve holes and the ends of the cylinder 2fwe have the following results.
The column of air in F\ is 2f" long. The distance between F, and a', into which it will expand, is 1' 4", allowing 1£" for the thickness of the piston heads, and supposing it to stop wilhin £ in. of the hole D. Hence ,1J=-16406, is the ratio of its expansion, and 14-7+16406 =2,4l lbs. per square inch is the reduced pressure of the rarified air in the portion a', F'; so 14-7-2-41=12-29 lbs. is the working pressure per square inch of the external atmosphere. Deducting the area of the l" rod, the area of each piston acted upon by the atmosphere is 6-46 square inches, and 12-29+6.46=79-39 lbs. is the total pressure.
From the model I have here, I estimate the friction of the pistons and rod at 30 lbs. This leaves 49.39 lbs. for the effective pressure.
The velocity of air rushing into a vacuum has been estimated at 1296 feet in a second. Hence, 1296-(1296+-16406)=lO83.38 feet per second, will be the velocity due to the vacuum above stated; and 49-39+1083.38=53,508-13 lbs. is the momentum of the first stroke, after deducting friction and allowing for the deficiency of the vacuum. If, however, the crank is of such a length as to compress the air in F, F', to a length of \ in., we have a force of 2.71 atmospheres added to the pressure, or 39.83 lbs. per square inch, on the ends of the pistons next F, F'. Hence, as the area of the head next F' is 7-06 inches, we have (12-29t6.46)+(39-88+7.06)=360-58 lbs. for the pressure of the second stroke, and (deducting friction) 330-58+1083 38=328,143-76 lbs. is the momentum of the second stroke.
It is evident, that this engine will accumulate momentum to any limit that iron can bear, unless the vacuum is cut off, before the pistons reach the holes E, E.'
The handles B, B' being raised stop the engine, by preventing the formation of the vacuum. There are various ways 01 working these valves, so as to procure any degree of vacuum lower than 12-29 lbs. per square inch, and consequently of varying the velocity and power at will.
This machine originates an idea never put forward before—that of a continuously increasing "Perpetual motion"—showing that there is no limit to velocity or power but the consistency of matter. It allows of the direct action of what philosophers have called Gravity—without any artificial medium.
"I made this machine for driving an Aeronout" (whioh I hope will be shortly taken up by those interested in the advancement of mankind) as it does not require coal, or water, and altogether weighs only about 120 lbs. It is applicable for any kind of locomotion; will drive buggies or omnibusses, ploughs or any other agricultural instruments, Any one willing to test the machine by steam, (as the present model is not sufficiently perfect to work air tight,) can do so at Mr. Gill