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MANUFACTURE OF STEEL.
As the manufacture of iron into the various forms of which it is capable, for commercial and immediate use, is attracting especial attention throughout the United States, as the demand for this metal is increasing more rapidly than the gold and silver of the country, and as tihe iron mines of Missouri are peculiarly distinguished for the superior quality of cast-steel into which the ores may be easily converted; we are pleased to note the items in the following editorial from the Cleveland (Ohio) Herald of March 3d, and trust that the claims presented in behalf of this new process for making cast-steel may be fully investigated—and if found good may be applied in Missouri, that the cost of transportation of ores from the Iron Mountain region to Pittsburgh, for the purpose of steel manufacture, may be saved, that the cost of the metal may be reduced in price at our own doors, that the money for it maybe paid into the hands of our own workmen, and that Missouri may derive both wealth and honor from the enterprise.
MANUFACTURE OF STEEL—IMPORTANT RESULTS.
Among the numerous advantages claimed for the new process of making wrought iron, one of prominent importance has lately been developed. The account of it is from undoubted authority, and is given as follows:
A manufacturer of steel lately purchased fifty tons of iron from the American Iron Company, Newark, N. J., made by the Renont process, to test its qualities as steel iron, which requires to be of the purest kind for that purpose.
The iron was taken from the bar, and by one simple process (only costing $% per ton,) the iron was found susceptible, on account of its carbonaceous quality, to be capable of rapidly passing into steel of very superior texture, in the short space of four hours, saving the costly and tedious process of previous cementation. Thus, the daily products of each of the new furnaces can be converted into steel at a comparatively small cost, yielding 100 per cent, more profit than in iron.
The steel thus made has been put to various severe tests, made into razors, edge tools, &c., and is pronounced by competent judges to be the best of cast steel.
If these things are so, it will wonderfully reduce the cost of steel manufacture, and hold out new advantages to Cleveland enterprise, and especially to those who have lately embarked to reap the earliest advantages of the new mode of making iron from the Lake Superior ores. These have no rival in purity, and therefore the best results mav be expected from them. What is to hinder Cleveland from beaming an Iron City?
JOURNAL OF INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT.
Pacific Railroad—Equity Shares.
• The people of Missouri are strongly attached to the PaciSc Railroad; and the fortunes of the one are united with those of the other.
Three points of opposition to the interests of Missouri, are now bearing upon this enterprise. First, the force that is applied to the Iowa route, and is already building a bridge across the Mississippi river at Rock Island. Second, the force that is applied to the Texas route, and that has already obtained a grant of land twenty miles in width from the Sabine to the Rio Grande. Third, the force of inertia — the indisposition of the people of Missouri to build the Pacific Railroad, through their own State, immediately, out of their own resources; which force of inertia maybe called the resistance of the people of Missouri, against the Missouri route. , . ,
The forces applied in favor of the Iowa and Texas routes, react upon the interests of the Missouri route indirectly. The resistance of the people of Missouri against the Missouri route, acts directly to the ruin of their interests; and this last, is the main point of opposition bearing upon the Missouri Pacific Railroad.
How can this resisting force be overcome? Only by a stronger impelling force. How can the impelling force be applied? By the affirmative vote of the tax-payers of St. Louis, to take pro rata shares in driving on the work. The tax-payers in St. Louis should set an example to the farmers in the counties along the route of the road through Missouri. If the Railroad bonds were high and the price of breadstuffs low, the force called for would not be needed.
But Railroad bonds have fallen, the farmers' products risen, and money is wanted to prosecute the work. Shall the Railroad now be crushed, and the fortunes of the farmer thus impaired;5 or shall the farmers maintain their fortunes, by raising those of the road? The crisis has come, and it most be met by the people, or else misfortune and dishonor will quickly stare them in the face. Lands have risen in value at rapid rates with the fortune of the road, and they will fall as quickly with its failure.
The North Missouri and Iron Mountain Railroads are linked in destiny by St. Louis bonds with the Pacific Railroad, and therefore the failure of one will bring discredit on the others. These three Railroads have raised the value of real estate in St. Louis county at least 100 per cent. The failuro of one of them would lower the value of the same real estate, far beyond the amount now necessary to be raised for its support.
A subscription of $1,200,000 is called for by the Pacific Railroad Company to be taken in pro rata stock by the property holders of St. Louis county. The plan on which it is to be raised is called "Taxation"—a term as unfortunate as untrue. The plan should be called by the popular and fair name it deserves— "equity Shares"—as, by the plan, certificates of stock are given for every payment made, and each property holder takes an equal amount of stock, with every other one in proportion to the value of his property.
In 1852, the population of St. Louis county, according to the census returns, was 121,853. The average amount therefore of the subscription of equity shares called for is less than ten dollars a piece for each inhabitant. And as only thirty per cent, of the same is to paid per year, the average amount of yearly payments on these equity shares, will therefore be only three dollars a year for each inhabitant.
On the hypothesis that the current value of the property in St. Louis city and county is $75,000,000, the man who owns $500 worth would have eight dollars of Railroad stocks as his share; and on the call of thirty per cent, per year, his yearly payment would be only two dollars and forty cents.
If the stock of the Company should be raised above par, these equity shares will be a profitable investment.
When, therefore, the proposition to raise $1,200,000 in St. Louis, on the plan of Equity Shares as above shown, is fairly examined, instead of being hard and repulsive, it is reasonable and easy; and the more thoroughly it is understood, the more popular it must necessarily become.
This system will also give an opportunity for each and every property holder in St. Louis to gratify an honorable pride, in thy eonsciousness that he has done his duty towards this great national enterprise. Further, the spirit displayed by St. Louis in boldly sustaining and promoting this measure, will be felt and appreciate ed, and will cause a kindred spirit to be manifested by the counties along the line of the road, between Jefferson City and the United States territory; and still further, this accumulated spirit will be felt in Congress and throughout-the Union; and, besides raising the character of Missouri in the eyes of the world, it will bring an irresistible moral force to bear upon the destinies of the Missouri Pacific Railroad, which will carry it through, in spite of contending and opposing factions, along the route indicated by the finger of Destiny — "the route which scientific explorations shall show combines, in the greatest degree, the advantages of genial and temperate climate, fertility of soil, cheapness of construction and accessibility at all seasons from all portions of the Union." This is the route for Missouri. This is the route for the Continental Railway; and this route may be secured by the bold spirit of ths people of St. Louis.
Railroads in Arkansas.
The State of Arkansas bids fair to distance the State of Missouri in the Railroad race, although the latter had fairly started before the former had entered on the course.
The Missouri Pacific R. R. was commenced at St. Louis on the 4th of July, 1851. On the 10th of June, 1852, the Government of the United States granted lands for two Railroads in Missouri, the sum of the length of which was about 500 miles. During the following winter, the Railroad system of Missouri was determined: being 5 roads and about 1,200 miles; and on the 9th of December, 1852, the first locomotive west of the Mississippi river, with its train of passenger cars, started from St. Louis and passed over the Pacific Railroad to near Cheltenham, about five miles.
Thus Missouri had fairly started on the Railroad course in 1852.
Then Arkansas was held bound by politicians on the dirt road track.
On the 9th of February, 1853, before the State of Arkansas had commenced any practical operations on anyroad, the Government of the United States granted lands for one Railroad and two branches in that State , the sum of the length of which was about 600 miles. During the past year, public Railroad meetings and Railroad conventions have been called throughout the State, at which speeches were made, information gained, enthusiasm aroused, and resolutions carried, by which the Railroad system of Arkansas was determined; being 7 roads, and about 1,200 miles; and though the State was overwhelmed by debt, the gallant spirit of her people is giving and gaining means to secure and speed the prosperity of their entire Railroad system. The longest main trunk road in the State is the Cairo and Fulton. The next in importance are its two branches—the eastern branch being known by different names, according to the terminus contended for on the Mississippi, opposite Memphis, and at Helena, but which for convenience we will call the Mississippi and Little Rock R. R.; the western branch being known as the Little Rock and Fort Smith R. R. ; which main trunk and branches extend about 600 miles, and are driven on by the planters and counties along their respective routes, aided by the grant of Congress above alluded to. The fourth road is called the Mississippi, Ouachita and Red River R. R., and sustains a similar relation to South Arkansas, that the Hannibal and St. Joseph R. R. does to North Missouri, running nearly due west. Camden and Fulton are main points on this road. The fifth and sixth roads are branches of the M., 0. & R. R. road — the one running south through Union county to the Louisiana line, the other north to Little Rock, forming the links of the South Arkansas portion of the Great Mississippi Valley R. R. from the Gulf of Mexico via the Iron Mountain of Missouri to the Falls of St. Anthony. The seventh road is called the Border Railroad, and is projected to connect with the Missouri Southwestern Railroad, near Springfield, and with the New Orleans, Opelousas & Great Western Railroad of Louisiana, near Shreveport. These four last mentioned roads are together about the same length as the first three, viz: 600 miles; the whole system of Railroads in Arkansas including as above stated about 1,200 miles. The first 600 miles are provided with grants of land by Congress. The last 600 miles is in a fair way of being provided for by similar grants; which, when done, and "'twere well it were done quickly," will furnish Arkansas with grants of land for 700 miles of Railroads more than Missouri has been, or, from present appearances, is likely to be furnished with, although Arkansas has already received erants of more land from Congress than Missouri has, and although the State of Missouri contains over 8,000,000 acres more