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withhold from Scindia as a punish- territory on that side, and of establish'ment for his duplicity*), with a small ing a confederation with several petty arrondissement; and from thence the states. The Nawab of Bhopal, in reconnexion with the eastern coast of turn for his faithful services in the thě peninsula, and with the previous Pindarry war, and certain good offices British possessions under the Bengal towards the British in a season of adPresidency, is formed by the Nagpore versity, received five districts situated cessions, commencing from Jilpy Au on the western frontier, which had meneir. This consists of an irregular been ceded by the Peishwa. The belt,varying in breadth from fifty to one Rajas of Dutteah, Jhansee, and Simphundred and fiftymiles; comprehending, thur, were confirmed in the territory in the first instance, both banks of the they held, under the condition of sup

Taptee, and subsequently both banks plying a quota of troops when re✓ of the Nerbudda to its source; from quired by the British Government.

whence the districts of Sergoojah and This species of alliance was not conJushpore connect with the British dis- fined to the eastern frontiers of Maltricts of Palamao and Chotah Nagpore. wa; it also extended along its northern To the northward, it joins Bundle- and western boundaries, in pursuance cund and the Bhopal territory; and of the policy kept in view during the to the southward, the reserved do- negociations with the Mahratta powers, minions of Nagpore, along the Man of making the relinquishment of claims hadeo range of hills, and the territory for tribute on the Rajpoot states, exruled by the Patan Nawab of Ellicha- cept through the medium of the Bripore, who has been rewarded, for his tish Government, an indispensible are attachment to the British, by some ticle of every treaty. The accomplishlands from the Nagpore and Poonah ment of this important object was territories. By the aforegoing acqui- accordingly followed by agreements sitions, with the exception of a tract, with the several states of Karaollee, thirty-five miles broad, on each side Jeypore, Boondee, Kishenghur, Joudof Asseer, there is an unbroken line pore, Kotah, Oudeypore, Dungurpore, of communication through British ter- Banswarrah, and Dhar. These petty ritory from Bombay to Calcutta, as princes separately entered into enthere is likewise from Madras to Bom- gagements of subordinate alliance with bay. The former Mahratta war hav- the British Government, for the guaing been attended with the similar rantee of their respective dominions result of establishing a continuity of against all enemies whatsoever. All, dominion between Madras and Cal. these alliances contain in substance cutta; the communication between the same stipulations: the acknowthe three Presidencies may now be ledgment of British supremacy, a reconsidered as complete.

nunciation of all communication with The acquisition of the Peishwa's foreign states, an acquiescence in Brirights in Malwa, by the Poonah tish arbitration on all the points of treaty, furnished the means of form. difference with their neighbours, and ing a compact boundary to the British

an engagement to supply, according to * Orders were pretended to be issued by this

their respective means, a certain conchief for the surrender of this strongly fortified tingent of troops.* hill; but the Killedar in command refused to admit the British. Upon its reduction, however,

Thus it will be seen that the several

Mahratta states and the Nizam's dofort, enjoining the Killedar to pay no attention

minions are, in a considerable meato counter orders, but to hold out as long as possible. These instructions were forwarded by suré, encompassed by British terriLord Hastings to Scindiah, conformably to his

tories, or by the petty states acknow practice of returning to the right owner whatever documents of hostile tendency to his Government fell into his possessjon.

* Blacker, 434-430.

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instructions from Scindiah were discovered in the

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ledging British supremacy. The Nag. ranny with which they had been so pore and Hydrabad territories, taken long vexed by the Mahrattas. At the collectively, are entirely surrounded same time, though their present inby the British possessions ; Scindiah clination and interest make them and Holkar, by the British and petty staunch allies of the British, yet -a states in about equal proportions; and future change of circumstances has Guzerat by the same and the sea, been provided for by raising the Bhowhich is no less a part of British do. pal Nawab, and the two Patan adminion. Since the year 1817, Scin- venturers, Ameer Khan and Ghufoor diah, without any fresh formal obliga- Khan, to consideration in this part of tions, has subsided into a sort of dem India, as a counterpoise to the prependence upon the British Govern- ponderating influence of the Hindoos, ment, whose interference he has so who would otherwise have been sole licited in the settlement of disputes masters of the country. with his Rajpoot and Grassiah depen Even the turbulent Patans were dents. As a further security, the mi- provided for in the British or subliltary establishment in Central India, sidiary service: for it was an imporincluding those of Scindiah and Hol- tant part of Lord Hastings' original kar, and comprehending Sebundies plan of final settlement and tranquiland garrisons, in the aggregate amount lity, not to drive to despair the whole to little more tnan 70,000 men.* swarm of military adventurers, by de

A portion of the advantages ob- priving them suddenly and entirely of tained in the Mahratta war was libe their habitual means of subsistence; rally relinquished in favour of the but to destroy those only whose halawful chief of the Mahrattas, who bits were at utter variance with our was reinstated on the throne of his system of rule; and so to balance the ancestors, the Rajas of Sattara, with hopes and fears of the rest, as to territory bounded to the west by the render them instrumental in the estaGhats, the Warna and the Krishna blishment of order. This difficult rivers to the south, the Neera and affair (the disposal of the Patans), as Bheema to the north, and the fron. well as the arrangements in Rajpootiers of the Nizam's dominions to the tana, was chiefly effected by the skill

The sovereignty of the Nag- and judgment of Sir D. Ochterlony, pore state was conferred on Bajee whose measures met with the Governor Row Bhoosla, grandson of a former General's uniform approbation. raja.t

The financial improvements in the The benefits which have sprung native states inay be briefly enumefrom the triumph of British power, rated thus : Scindiah's saving in rehave not been solely absorbed by us ;

ductions alone is not less than twenty the native princes participate in those lacs per annum. The rent in the city benefits, and none to a greater de- and districts of Oujeen rose from gree than the Rajpoots, who, besides 1,25,000 rupees in 1817 to nearly the recovery of old, and the acqui- three lacs. The revenue of Bhilsa sition of new, territories, as well as yielded, in 1817, 40,000 rupees; in the remission of tribute, enjoy an

1820, 2,50,000. The Holkar reveexemption from the oppressive ty- nues, from Malwa and Nemaur were,

in 1817, 4,41,679 rupees; in 1819-20, * In 1817, the regular troops of Holkar and Scindiah alone, exclusive of Pindarries, Sebun 16,96,183. The Puar states, in 1817,

afforded a revenue of no more than † Appa Saheb continues an expatriated fugitive. The Ex-Peishwa seems reconciled to his fate; 30,000 rupees; in the year 1820, they he bathes daily in the Ganges, indulges in the collected more than three lacs and highest style of living of a Brahmin, is surround three-quarters. The other states exed by low sycophants, and maintains three expensive sets of dancing girls.

hibit a large but not so striking in

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withhold from Scindia as a punish- territory on that side, and of establish'ment for his duplicity*), with a small ing a confederation with several petty arrondissement; and from thence the states. The Nawab of Bhopal, in re

connexion with the eastern coast of turn for his faithful services in the * thé peninsula, and with the previous Pindarry war, and certain good offices

British possessions under the Bengal towards the British in a season of adPresidency, is formed by the Nagpore versity, received five districts situated cessions, commencing from Jilpy Au on the western frontier, which had meneir. This consists of an irregular been ceded by the Peishwa. The belt,varying in breadth from fifty to one Rajas of Dutteah, Jhansee, and Simphundred and fiftymiles; comprehending, thur, were confirmed in the territory in the first instance, both banks of the they held, under the condition of supTaptee, and subsequently both banks plying a quota of troops when reof the Nerbudda to its source; from quired by the British Government. whence the districts of Sergoojah and This species of alliance was not conJushpore connect with the British dis- fined to the eastern frontiers of Maltricts of Palamao and Chotah Nagpore. wa; it also extended along its northern To the northward, it joins Bundle- and western boundaries, in pursuance cund and the Bhopal territory; and of the policy kept in view during the to the southward, the reserved do- negociations with the Mahratta powers, minions of Nagpore, along the Man of making the relinquishment of claims hadeo range of hills, and the territory for tribute on the Rajpoot states, exruled by the Patan Nawab of Ellicha- cept through the medium of the Bripore, who has been rewarded, for his tish Government, an indispensible arattachment to the British, by some ticle of every treaty. The accomplishlands from the Nagpore and Poonah ment of this important object was territories. By the aforegoing acquie accordingly followed by agreements sitions, with the exception of a tract, with the several states of Karaollee, thirty-five miles broad, on each side Jeypore, Boondee, Kishenghur, Joudof Asseer, there is an unbroken line pore, Kotah, Oudeypore, Dungurpore, of communication through British ter- Banswarrah, and Dhar. These petty ritory from Bombay to Calcutta, as princes separately entered into enthere is likewise from Madras to Bom- gagements of subordinate alliance with bay. The former Mahratta war have the British Government, for the guaing been attended with the similar rantee of their respective dominions result of establishing a continuity of against all enemies whatsoever. All dominion between Madras and Cal. these alliances contain in substance cuttă; the communication between the same stipulations: the acknowthe three Presidencies may now be ledgment of British supremacy, a reconsidered as complete,

nunciation of all communication with The acquisition of the Peishwa's foreign states, an acquiescence in Brirights in Malwa, by the Poonah tish arbitration on all the points of treaty, furnished the means of form. difference with their neighbours, and ing a compact boundary to the British

an engagement to supply, according to * Orders were pretended to be issued by this

their respective means, a certain conchief for the surrender of this strongly fortified tingent of troops.* hill; but the Killedar in command refused to admit the British. Upon its reduction, however,

Thus it will be seen that the several instructions from Scindiah were discovered in the Mahratta states and the Nizam's dofort, enjoining the Killedar to pay no attention

minions are, in a considerable meato counter orders, but to hold out as long as possible. These instructions were forwarded by suré, encompassed by British terriLord Hastings to Scindian, conformably to his

tories, or by the petty states acknow. practice of returning to the right owner whatever documents of hostile tendency to his Government fell into his possessjon.

* Blacker, 434-430,

ledging British supremacy. The Nag ranny with which they had been so pore and Hydrabad territories, taken long vexed by the Mahrattas. At the collectively, are entirely surrounded same time, though their present inby the British possessions ; Scindiah clination and interest make them and Holkar, by the British and petty

staunch allies of the British, yet a states in about equal proportions; and future change of circumstances has Guzerat by the same and the

sea,

been provided for by raising the Bhowhich is no less a part of British do pal Nawab, and the two Patan adminion. Since the year 1817, Scin venturers, Ameer Khan and Ghufoor diah, without any fresh formal obliga Khan, to consideration in this part of tions, has subsided into a sort of de India, as a counterpoise to the prependence upon the British Govern- ponderating influence of the Hindoos, ment, whose interference he has so who would otherwise have been sole licited in the settlement of disputes masters of the country. with his Rajpoot and Grassiah depen Even the turbulent Patans were dents. As a further security, the mi provided for in the British or subliltary establishment in Central India, sidiary service: for it was an imporincluding those of Scindiah and Hol tant part of Lord Hastings' original kar, and comprehending Sebundies plan of final settlement and tranquiland garrisons, in the aggregate amount lity, not to drive to despair the whole to little more tnan 70,000 men.* swarm of military adventurers, by de

A portion of the advantages ob- priving them suddenly and entirely of tained in the Mahratta war was libe their habitual means of subsistence; rally relinquished in favour of the but to destroy those only whose halawful chief of the Mahrattas, who bits were at utter variance with our was reinstated on the throne of his system of rule; and so to balance the ancestors, the Rajas of Sattara, with a hopes and fears of the rest, as to territory bounded to the west by the render them instrumental in the estaGhats, the Warna and the Krishna blishment of order. This difficult rivers to the south, the Neera and affair (the disposal of the Patans), as Bheema to the north, and the fron. well as the arrangements in Rajpootiers of the Nizam's dominions to the tana, was chiefly effected by the skill east. The sovereignty of the Nag- and judgment of Sir D. Ochterlony, , pore state was conferred on Bajee whose measures met with the Governor Row Bhoosla, grandson of a former General's uniform approbation. raja.t

The financial improvements in the The benefits which have sprung

native states may be briefly enumefrom the triumph of British power,

rated thus : Scindiah's saying in rehave not been solely absorbed by us; ductions alone is not less than twenty the native princes participate in those lacs per annum.

The rent in the city benefits, and none to a greater de and districts of Oujeen rose from gree than the Rajpoots, who, besides 1,25,000 rupees in 1817 to nearly the recovery of old, and the acqui- three lacs. The revenue of Bhilsa sition of new, territories, as well as yielded, in 1817, 40,000 rupees; in the remission of tribute, enjoy an 1820, 2,50,000. The Holkar reveexemption from the oppressive ty nues, from Malwa and Nemaur were,

in 1817, 4,41,679 rupees ; in 1819-20, * In 1817, the regular troops of Holkar and Scindiah alone, exclusive of Pindarries, Sebun

16,96,183. The Puar states, in 1817, dies, &c. were 64,000.

afforded a revenue of no more than + Appa Saheb continues an expatriated fugitive: 30,000 rupees; in the year 1820, they The Ex-Peishwa seems reconciled to his fale ; he bat hes daily in the Ganges, indulges in the collected more than three lacs and highest style of living of a Brahmin, is surround.

three-quarters. The other states exed by low sycophants, and maintains three expensire sets of dancing girls.

hibit a large but not so striking in

crease. The expenses of collection which the British Government alone in the Scindiah and Holkar states, could exercise, would be sufficient to which were as high as 40 per cent., do impose a due degree of restraint upon not exceed 15 in the latter and 25 in a host of greedy pretenders, aspiring, the former.

by right of birth or the sword, to the But the specific benefits, whether territorial sovereignties of this wide territorial or financial, reaped by any expanse.* native power, are insignificant in com These beneficent views have been parison with the advantages conferred carried in full effect, and “the conin the establishment of a system of trast presented by a review of the government in Central India ; a por- condition of Central India in 1821, to tion of the country from whence we what it was four years before, will had been entirely excluded, and which appear almost incredible to any perwas long the nest of disorder, and the son who has not contemplated upon arena of a general scramble for do the spot, the rapid progress of the minion. Marquess Hastings had al- change, and studied the causes by ways been of opinion that, without a which it has been produced." These complete reform of the condition of it would be tedious, and perhaps irreCentral India, without so changing levant to recite here, but they may be the mutual relations of the several found recorded in the work of that princes and associations as to remove officer (himself an efficient instrument all inducement to predatory and am of the change), from which the aforebitious adventure, on the extensive going passage is borrowed.t By inscale it was prosecuted upon, no par- stilling into all classes the advantages tial measures could prevent the speedy attending order and regularity ; by recurrence of the evil, probably in a encouraging agriculture and the buildmore formidable shape. His Lordship ing of towns and hamlets ; by inviting plainly saw that were temporary ex

the industrious to return to their pedients would be ineffectual; and that homes, and converting the robber into no plan would provide security for the cultivator ; by making good roads the future that did not determine the through every part of the country; respective pretensions to dominion, so and by reforming the wild tribes as to distinguish, by a strong line of through promoting among them a fadiscrimination, the chief of a regular miliar intercourse with other classes ; government from the leader of a law- the government of Lord Hastings un. less banditti. His inind was fully con ostentatiously wrought so surprizing an vinced, that without ascertaining who alteration in this extensive tract. The were the lawful possessors, and bind same author and actor to whom we ing them in such a league, as should have just referred asserts, that hison one hand check their disposition tory affords few examples where a to encroach on one another; and on change in the political condition of a the other hand, should unite them by country has been attended with such a sense of common interest against a an aggregate of increased happiness common enemy, little would be ac to its inhabitants, as that which was complished towards eradicating the effected within four years in Central prevailing system. He did not despair India; and it is pleasing to think that, of being able to form such a combi- with the exception of suppressing a nation, by offering the general gua- few Bheel robbers, peace was restorrantee and protection of the British

* Prinsep, 216, 217. Government : it was evident that

+ Sir Jobn Malcolm's Memoir, chap. xv. This nothing short of that inflexible rigour chapter deserves to be read by all who entertain of controul, and irresistible power

any scruples respecting the justice or policy of

these measures which have made the British power of enforcing obedience to its award,

paramount iu Malwa.

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