« 이전계속 »
fully, blaspheme, or speak loosely and which had been published under the profanely, of Almighty God, Christ sanction of the Legislature, and otherJesus, the Holy Spirit, or Scriptures of wise recognized, since the adoption Truth.” i Smith's State Laws, page 6.
of the constitution. That the law was Under this act, Robert C. Murray not inconsistent with the provisions in was indicted at the last Mayor's Court, that instrument, to which reference had for Blasphemy. His counsel entered been made. That a “wilful, premedithe plea of“ Not Guilty" on his behalf; tated, and despiteful blasphemy,” such and the case was, in the ordinary way, as was charged in the indictment and submitted to a Jury of his country. proved by the evidence, could not be
The evidence for the prosecution considered as " the worship of Alwas brief, distinct, and forcible. Two mighty God according to the dictates witnesses swore that they had heard of conscience,” nor could it be deemed the defendant, at various times and a right of conscience,”- '-nor such a places, utter the following language
“ free communication of thoughts and Is That Christ was a bastard; his mother opinions” as is justly termed one of a w-; and the Bible a pack of lies.” the invaluable rights of man.” Nei
In his defence, R.C. Murray adduced ther the language nor the spirit of the some evidence of the general goodness constitution could be construed to of his character; and his counsel urged sanction a licentious, unnecessary, upon the court and the jury, that the intrusive, and ob
course of prolaw, under which the indictment had fanity, shocking to every upright mind, been framed, was unconstitutional — and which, abstracted from all relithat it was inconsistent with, and of gious belief, could be uttered no where course, repealed by the constitution- without exciting sensations of pain, and cited the following sections to and of extreme repugnance. support their position.
The Court, in charging the Jury, 3d Section of Article 9. “ That all merely remarked, that as to the law, men have a natural and indefeasible no doubt could be entertained.
They right to worship Almighty God ac- were not going to declare any act of cording to the dictates of their own Assembly unconstitutional; and if the conscience : that no man can of right defendant thought he could satisfy a be compelled to attend, erect, or sup- higher tribunal, that the offence with port, any place of worship, or to which he is charged is not indictable maintain any ministry, against his in this State, a writ of error would consent; that no human authority doubtless be granted for the purpose. can, in any case whatever, control It was certainly the right of every or interfere with the rights of con- citizen to entertain what religious science; and that no preference shall opinions he preferred; and, if he felt ever be given, by law, to any re- inclined, to utter them in a proper ligious establishments or modes of manner, without restraint;—but while worship.”
one man exercises his rights, let him 7th Section, “ The free communica- not offend against the rights of others
tion of thoughts and opinions is one let him not intrude indecently and of the invaluable rights of man: and shockingly upon the sacred belief and every citizen may freely speak, scruples of those who think differently write, and print, on any subject, from him.
The expression of a mere being responsible for the abuse of speculative opinion, in argument or that liberty.”
in decent language, is no where cen1st paragraph of the Schedule.
“ That surable.- But, if the Jury think the all laws of this Commonwealth, in defendant uttered the expressions force at the time of making the said which have been given in evidence, alterations and amendments in the wantonly and maliciously, without said constitution, and not inconsistent cause, and without provocation, they herewith, &c. shall continue as if the ought to convict him. said alterations and amendments The Jury, without retiring from the had not been made.”
box, gave in a verdict of“ Guilty." On the part of the Commonwealth, Motions for a new trial, and in arit was observed, that the Mayor's rest of judgment, were then made by Court of the city of Philadelphia, the defendant's counsel, which, after would hardly venture to adjudge an argument, were severally dismissed act of Assembly unconstitutional
, / by the Court; and on the following
Monday, the Recorder pronounced lication of the acts of Assembly, under the following solemn and impressive the authority of the Legislature. In sentence :
cases like the present, therefore, it is the You have been convicted of the duty of the court to rely upon the posiodious crime of blasphemy, an offence tive provision of the law, and to leave which, to your shame, and the honour to the supreme tribunal of the State, of society, is as seldom heard of, as the resolation of those doubts which the depravity, which excites to it, is have been raised in this case. To hopeless and disgusting. Of the that tribunal let our decision be subvarious crimes which, as guardians of mitted. the public morals, it is our duty to To us, the terms of the constitution punish, there are few which circum- do not appear inconsistent with the stances will not in some degree exte- provisions of the act of Assembly. nuate. The illegal possession of an- Every man possesses an undoubted other's property, may be often traced right to entertain and express his peto the pressure of want, whether re- culiar opinion on the subject of relisulting from misfortune or from un-gion, so far as he exercises it without successful crime; and the catalogue of an interference with the religious prioffences from assault to murder, is vileges which the constitution equally generally supplied by the operation of secures to his neighbour. The liberty real or imaginary wrongs, which ani- of speech, in matters of this kind, mate the victim to hasty and criminal is analogous to the liberty of the press, revenge. But for the blasphemer which guaranties to every citizen“ the there is no apology. The nature of right to speak, write, and print, on any his transgression forbids the expecta- subject, being responsible for the abuse tion of a profitable fame, and of con- of that liberty.” temporary relief from penury or de- The application of the law, appears spair; and instead of being justified by to us to leave you without a single motives of retribution for injuries, he circumstance to excuse or extenuate lifts his feeble arm against the Author your indecency, insolence, and crime. of his being, who pities his infirmities, So far from having employed the imand extends to him the hand of recon- pious and obscene language, recited in ciliation. The blasphemer's aim is the indictment, in the heat of argumental desolation; he seeks no other ment, or when provoked by opposition, recompense than the infliction of de- you have obtruded on those to whom spair, and, to the honour of a chris- it was peculiarly offensive, and whose tian people, is rarely listened to but happy confidence in the Christian with horror and disgust.
faith it was your object to destroy. It were painful, even if it were de- Nor have you confined your malicisirable, to repeat the language in ous activity to the sphere of private which you have dared to blaspheme conversation. Citizens have been inthe SAVIOUR OF THE WORLD. It has sulted with your profanity and indebeen attempted to defend you by an cency, in the public streets; and, to appeal to those invaluable rights of complete your insolence, you have acfreedom of speech and universal tole-costed them with scoffings on their ration, which, in all matters of religion way to public worship. It is time you and conscience, are secured by the should know, that you cannot with imconstitution. It is said the constitu- punity sport with the feelings and haption of this commonwealth contains an piness of your fellow-citizens; comimplied repeal of the statute on which mon decorum and good manners, as this prosecution is founded. But ob- well as law and religion, forbid it. You vious indeed must be the course of must be taught, that respect even to implication, to determine the repeal or the prejudices of others, on so imporunconstitutionality of a statute so salu- tant a topic as that of religion, is due tary and necessary, before this court to the humblest individual in society. would think themselves justifiable to Can it be otherwise than criminal, abolish a restraint which is to be found maliciously to destroy the happiness in the code of every christian people. of another, by depriving him of his For ús it is sufficient, that the law in confidence in revealed religion, and question has not only never been re- rendering him a prey to doubt and pealed, but has actually been recog- despair? The least malicious injury nized as still in force, by a recent pub- to the person or property of another,
is an object of punishment; and it is good resolution to your old age; but to accuse our code of the grossest in- offer to God the flower of your youth. consistency, to suppose it regardless Uncertain is old age to the young; of mental rights, the most indispen- but certain destruction attends him sable to human happiness.
that dies young, without repentance. On a subject of so great importance, 3. While you live, die daily to yourand on which you appear hitherto to self and to your vices; so in death you have been so ignorant and thoughtless, may expect to live to God. You canwe advise you to seek information. not live to him, but according to the It cannot fail to impress on your mind measure as you are dead to the flesh. a conviction of your errors and your 4. Commit not any evil action, for danger, and induce you to abandon the sake of any man; for that man, those shocking sentiments, which, whom you so respect, will not be your whether seriously entertained, or judge. thoughtlessly sported with, will, with- 5. Examine yourself every day, out atoneinent, terminate in intermin- whether you increase or decrease in able ruin.
charity, humility, and purity: consider Your age and infirmities render you how, in the way of the Lord, you must an object of compassion. It is time either increase or decrease. To stand, you had reflected on the wickedness here, is to go back. Stand not, thereof the past, and contemplated the fore; but walk in the way of the Lord. awful certainty of the future; for the 6. Consider these three things past: day is not far distant, when, without the evil you have committed ; – the repentance, you will be compelled to good you have omitted;--and the time acknowledge, under the tortures of a you have mispent. guilty conscience, the truth and power
7. Consider these three things preof revealed religion.
sent: the shortness of this life ; – the The offence of which you have been difficulty of being born again by the convicted, is too disgusting to be a Spirit;-and the smallness of Christ's dangerous example. --The Court would flock. nevertheless be justified in imposing 8. Consider these three things to upon you the imprisonment at hard come: death, than which nothing is labour, authorized by the law; but more dreadful, unless you take out the that punishment, although it would sting ;-judgment, than which nothing afford you an opportunity for reflection, can be more terrible, unless you judge would deprive you of information, of yourself before; hell, -than which nowhich we sincerely and earnestly en- thing can be more intolerable, unless treat you to avail yourself.
you quench the fire of it kindled in The judgment of the Court is, that your own breast. you pay the sum of £10 for the use of 9. Three things there are which you the poor, being the full amount of the must not lose: When you see any penalty which the law authorizes, one do a virtuous deed, you must not with the cost of prosecution.
be careless in learning to practise it; -whenever an opportunity of doing a good action presents itself, catch it
fast, let it not slip for all the world ;-The truly pious and nervous senti- whenever an occasion of doing ill ments contained in the following rules, presents itself, guard yourself with the are copied from an ancient manuscript, fear of God. which, from the style of the writing, 10. Be vigilant and exact in all, the orthography, and contractions, is whatever you take in hand, as mindprobably not much less than 100 years ful of that perfection of life, to which old. The author is unknown.
you are called of God in Christ. Twenty-seven short Christian Rules, 11. Christ has set you free; never
of great consequence to those who henceforth be a bond-slave to any wish to do the will of God on earth, thing without you, let it appear never and go to heaven at last.-
so great and glorious, or be never so 1. Defer not conversion, or the per- promising or alluring to vulgar sense formance of any good action, till to- or reason: But, morrow; for the morrow is uncertain, 12. Pray to enter into that kingdom but death is ever certain.
which is within, whose glory is invisi2. Defer not the performance of any ble to mortal eyes: and let your heart,
RULES OF CHRISTIAN LIFE.
by constant resignation, be made the tian gravity, which is sullenness or throne of God, and of his Christ. pride; or that moderation, which is
13. God has communicated himself temporizing; or that humility, which wholly to you: do you communicate is cowardice; or that courage, which yourself wholly to your neighbour; and is an affront offered to superiors. when you do any thing for another, 22. Take care that you be not found do it with the same zeal as if you did in the root and principle of hell, if it for yourself.
you are afraid of its flames. Take care 14. That is the best life which is that you be found in the root and prinwholly employed to the benefits of ciple of heaven, if you expect to parothers: esteem not of life any further take of its joys. Be sure to try your than it is serviceable and useful to the root, and let not Lucifer in you transworld.
form himself into an angel of light. 15. Think not with yourself what 23. Trust not to your own heart, for you have, but rather what you want: that will deceive you; but trust God be not proud for what you have receiv- with your heart, who cannot deceive ed, but be humble for what you have you. abused.
24. Use yourself to think on God 16. Whatever you desire to have, as always present: thus thinking on ask it of God: whatever you have him, you will in some sort behold him; already, attribute it wholly to God: thus beholding him, you will become as soon as you begin to find nothing like him. in yourself, you shall begin to find all 25. Render yourself worthy of him, things in God.
who has vouchsafed to own you for his 17. Withdraw yourself while you child : and remember, in all your can, and as much as you can, from deeds, that you have God for your the world: as far as you withdraw father: never forget the high character yourself from it, so much nearer are you drawn to God.
26. Begin every thing you do with 18. You have the cross in your God, and end every thing with him; arms; be not so base as to flinch from and let the thoughts of him and his it, or to run from your colours : be not name be as familiar and natural as so silly as to be ashamed of that which your breathing. the very kings of the earth have now 27. Strive to be what you would be exalted on their crowns, and with thought to be: as you desire to appear which all the ensigns of royalty are
at the day of judgment, appear at the adorned.
present in the sight of God. Strive 19. Would you sacrifice to God, to be great in him, and great in yourenter then into the inmost closet of self. Strive to be greater than what your heart; and, shutting the door, you appear to others. Let the world give the key of it to Christ, beseech- be deceived in you no otherwise than ing him to keep out all things from they are in the stars of heaven. without, and to gather you in wholly into the unity of the blessed Spirit.
20. Look not on religion as a system COMPÅ RATIVE ESTIMATE OF TALENTS. of orthodox notions, or a rubric of FRANCIS STANCARUS, a native of Manforms, much less as a charm, laid to tua, who flourished in the 16th century, draw such and such sinners into hea- was a man of considerable learning ven; but as inward spirit and life, and talents, which he employed with which enlivens and governs the true unremitting assiduity in the cause of Christian, in the performance of all the Reformation in Poland, where his good works, suitable to his high birth labours were crowned with considerand condition.
able success. His attachment to the 21. Give not the least quarter to any celebrated Peter Lombard, however, corrupt affection, lest a spark break was such, that he used to make beout into a fire, and consume you before tween him and others the following you are aware. Above all things, take comparative estimate: “ Peter Lomheed not to consecrate your vices, or bard alone is worth more than one to hallow the corruptions of the satan- hundred Luthers, two hundred Meical life, taking them for Christian lancthons, three hundred Bullingers, graces. Christen not that holy zeal, four hundred Martyrs, and five hundred which is bitter wrath ; or that Chris- Calvins."
On this singular comparison, Mi- continues, in many places, to engross craelius, a Popish writer, has made the much attention. For such as take following sarcastic remark : “If all exercise in parks, or who have an opthese men were pounded together in a portunity of travelling on level roads, mortar, there could not be extracted these machines are said to be highly from them one ounce of true divinity.” beneficial. A person, who has made
The influence which prejudice exer- himself tolerably well acquainted with cises over judgment, even in men of the management of one, can, without enlarged minds, of extensive erudition, difficulty, urge himself forward at the and profound research, is so astonish- rate of eight, nine, or even ten miles ing, that it would even stagger credu- per hour. In one account we are inlity itself, if the fact had not been formed, that experiments have shewn confirmed by instances in every age. it to be easy to travel fifty miles per Hence,
day on these German hobbies. And “One thinks on Calvin heaven's own spirit fell, as schools are about to be opened to Another deems him instrument of hell." instruct young students in this country, But,
we may expect to see them, ere long,
brought into extensive use. The price, “ 'Tis with our judgments as our watches, none Gu just alike, yet each believes his own.”
we are informed, varies from eight to ten guineas; and their whole weight does not exceed fifty pounds.
As one successful effort of genius frequently leads to another, so this German invention has stimulated one of our own ingenious mechanics to attempt an improvement on the principle, the machinery, and the accommodation of the rider. In our next Number, we hope to present our readers with a view of his machine, accompanied with a short description of its management and use.
Since publishing the first Number of the Imperial Magazine, we have received the two following letters, in consequence of a note we had introduced in column 45, relative to the tendency of pawnbroking. It will be needless to say, that the writers view
this subject in very different lights. THE PEDESTRIAN'S ACCELERATOR. As one of these seems to express the The principle upon which this simple language of interest, and the other machine is constructed, seems to have that of impartiality, we shall insert been taken from the art of skaiting. them as they have been received, with
EDITOR. It will appear obvious, from inspecting out note or comment. the cut, that the whole apparatus consists only of a seat placed between
TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL two wheels, which are kept in motion by the feet acting on the ground, while a small guiding-pole, held in the hand,
Liverpool, April 7, 1819. regulates the movement and adjusts The remarks which you have made, the balance.
on the tendency of the business of a The inventor of this traveller's as- Pawnbroker, are all founded on error sistant is Baron Von Drais, a gentle- and misrepresentation.—(See the First man at the court of the Grand Duke of Report of the Committee of the House Baden. It was introduced into this of Commons, upon the Police of the country a few months since, by a Mr. Metropolis.) That you should, in Johnson, No. 75, Long Acre; and it your first Number, have thought proper