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or ten dollars; and there is but a small at Cairo, they are not always finally proportion of this class, because it is disposed of in the first instance. The thought, both in Egypt and Arabia, Khan of the slave traders, is crowded that no great dependance can be with pedlers and petty traders, who placed upon any slave, who has not often bargain with the merchants of been brought up in the owner's family Upper Egypt, for slaves immediately from an early age. Hence there is a after their arrival, and content themgreat reluctance to the purchasing of selves with a small profit for the regrown up slaves, for domestic purpo sale. Again, there are merchants ses, or even for labourers. The Ba

from Smyrna and Constantinople, releghs are chiefly bought by the Bedou siding constantly at Cairo, who deal ins, who employ them as shepherds. in nothing but slaves; these persons The Bisharein have many of them in export them from Alexandria, and it all their encampments. Grown up often happens, that they pass through female slaves, although past the age of three or four hands, between Alexan. beauty, sometimes sell for as much as dria and their final destination, in the thirty dollars, if they are known to be northern provinces of Turkey. Such skilful in working, sewing, cooking, is the common lot of the unfortunate &c. In Syria few slaves are kept ; slaves; but many instances happen of those which I have seen there are, for a still more rapid change of masters. the greater part, imported by the At Shendy and Esne, I have seen caravans from Bagdat, and come from slaves bought and sold two or three Souahel, on the Mozambik coast. times before they were finally re

Few slaves are imported into Egypt moved from the market; after which, without changing masters several perhaps, if the master, at the end of a times, before they are finally settled few days' trial, did not find them anin a family; for instance: those from swer his expectations, he would again Fertit, are first collected on the bor put them up for sale, or exchange ders of that country, by petty mer them for others. In fact, slaves are chants who deal in Dhourra. These considered on the same level with any sell them to the traders of Kobbe, who other kind of merchandize, and as repair to Fertit in small caravans for such are continually passing from one

At Kobbe they are merchant to another. The word ras, bought up by the Darfour or Kordo [head] is applied to them as to the fan traders, who transport them to brute species; and a man is said to Obeydh in Kordofan. Here they ge possess ten head of slaves, in the same nerally pass into the hands of other manner as he would be said to posKordofan dealers, who carry them to sess fifty head of sheep. When the Shendy, for the Kordofan merchants buyer is desired to take the slave commonly limit their speculations to away, it is usual to say, “Drive him a single market; thus the Kordofan out”-an expression which is applied people who trade to Darfour, are dif to cattle. ferent from those who visit Shendy; I have seen among the young slaves while, on the other hand, the Egyp for sale at Shendy, many children of tians who trade to Shendy only, are four or five years old without their different from those who proceed for parents; others of the same age are ward to Sennaar ; and in like manner, met with in the market, with their the Souakin traders are divided into mothers; and the traders so far show Shendy, and Sennaar merchants. At their humanity, that they seldom sell Shendy the slave is bought by some them separately; when such a thing Egyptian or Madbe. Upon his arri is done, the vender is generally reval in Upper Egypt he is disposed of || proached with being guilty of an act either at Esne, Siout, or Cairo. In of cruelty. the two first places, entire lots of In buying slaves, the traders are veslaves are taken off by merchants, ry attentive to their origin, because who sell them in retail at Cairo, or in long experience has proved to them the small towns of Upper Egypt, in that there is little variety of charactér each of which they stop a few days, amongst individuals of the same nain their passage down the river. Even tion. Thus the Noubas, who come

that purpose.

from Sennaar, are said to have the means of escaping, give a loose to best dispositions next to the Abyssini their savage temper. At Shendy, I ans and Gallas, and to be the most at often overheard my companions, who, tached to their masters. Of the Abys. || though savage enough, were certainsinians, those from the northern pro ly not of the worst class of slave mervinces, called Kostanis, are said to be chants, say, when a slave had behaved treacherous and malicious, while the ill, and they were afraid of punishing Amaaras are noted for their amiable him, “Let him only pass Berber and tempers. Of the western regions, the Korbadj, we'll soon teach him those from Benda are the most esteem obedience." The Souakin traders, ed, and next to them, those imported with whom I afterwards travelled, into Darfour from Bornou, a Mahom showed as little humanity, after we medan country, w hose inhabitants car had passed Taka. The health of the ry off their Pagan neighbours. The slave, however, is always attended to; slaves from Fertit are said to be furi he is regularly fed, and receives his ous and vindictive, and stand lowest share of water on the road at the same on the list.

time that his master drinks; and the Few slaves arrive at Shendy who youngest and most delicate females, have not already passed a considera are permitted to ride upon camels, ble time in a state of slavery. The while all the others perform the jourstrongest proof of this fact is, that I ney on foot, whether it be to Egypt never saw any who could not make or Souakin, as they had done from themselves understood in Arabic; and Darfour to Shendy. The hardiness the greater part of those imported of the young slaves is extraordinary; from Darfour and Kordofan, besides after several successive days' march, their own native tongue, and Arabic, at the rate of ten or twelve hours a have some acquaintance with the idi day, I have seen them in the evening. oms of those countries.*

after supper, playing together, as if The treatment which the slaves ex they had enjoyed a long rest. Feperience from the traders, is rather males, with children on their backs, kind than otherwise. The slaves are follow the caravan on foot; and if a generally taught to call their masters camel breaks down, the owner geneAbouy, (my father) and to consider rally loads his slaves with the packathemselves as their children. They ges. If a boy can only obtain in the are seldom flogged, are well fed, are evening a little butter with his Dhour. not over worked, and are spoken to ra bread, and some grease once in two in a kind manner. All this, however, or three days, to smear his body and results not from humanity in the trad hair, he is contented, and never comers, but from an apprehension that plains of fatigue. under different treatment the slave Another cause which induces the would abscond; and they are aware merchants to treat their slaves well, that any attempt to prevent his flight is their anxiety to dissipate that hor. by close confinement would injure his ror which the negroes all entertain of health; for the newly imported slaves | Egypt and the white people. It is a delight in the open air, and reluctant common opinion in the black slave ly enter houses, which they look up countries, that the Egyptians devour on as prisons. But when they are the slaves, who are transmitted thi. once in the desert, on the way to ther for that purpose. * Of course their final destination, this treatment is entirely changed; the traders know. ing that the slaves have no longer any * A curious proof of this occurred

while I was in Upper Egypt: a great

man who had bought two girls at Si. * Several pages are here omitted out from the Darfour caravan, soon affrom regard to the feelings of the read terwards made a party with some er. Those who wish to see one of the friends to spend an afternoon in the most horrid parts of the system of sla cool caves in the mountain behind Sivery, may consult our author, p. 328, out, and ordered the two girls to at&c.

tend him. When they entered the

the traders do every thing in their them; in such cases, the future child power to destroy this belief; but not of course becomes the property of the withstanding all their endeavours, it purchaser. Most of the traders have is never eradicated from the minds of old slaves who have been for many the slaves.

years in their service; these are placSlave boys are always allowed com ed over the young slaves bought in plete liberty within the yard of the trade, and become very useful in trahouse ; but the grown up males, || velling; but even these too I have whose characters cannot be depend seen their masters sell, after they had ed upon, or whose dispositions are become members, as it were, of the unknown, are kept in close confine family, merely because a high price ment, well watched, and often chain was offered for them. It is vain to exed. On the journey they are tied to pect, in a slave trader, any trace of a long pole, one end of which is fast friendship, gratitude, or compassion. ened to a camel's saddle, and the What I have seen and heard of the other, which is forked, on each side negroes has made me conceive a veof the slave's neck, and tied behind ry indifferent opinion of their general with a strong cord, to prevent him character; but I ought to add, that I from drawing out his head ; in addi have not yet seen them in their native tion to this, his right hand is also fast. countries, before they fell into the ened to the pole at a short distance hands of these vile traders, who would from his head, thus leaving only his spoil the mildest and most amiable dislegs and left hand at liberty. In this positions. I have found, however, vemanner, he marches the whole day ry few instances of slaves being sinbehind the camel; at night, he is ta cerely attached to their masters, even ken from the pole, and put in irons. when well treated by them. Their While on my route to Souakin, I saw general vice is an incorrigible stubseveral slaves carried along in this bornness and haughtiness of temper, way. Their owners were afraid of and many of them betray a deadly rantheir escaping, or of becoming them cour and spirit of revenge; but in geselves the objects of their vengeance;

neral the treacherous disposition disand in this manner they would con cernible in the children born of the tinue to be confined, until sold to a free Arabs of the Nile and of Nubia, is master, who, intending to keep them, || certainly not to be found among them. would endeavour to attach them to his They are lazy and slovenly, and will not person,. In general, the traders seem work but when forced to do so. They greatly to dread the effects of a sud seem to be almost entirely devoid of evden resentment in their slaves; and if ery feeling but that of gratifying their a grown up boy is only to be whip- || appetites; and provided the slave is ped, his master first puts him in well fed, and receives a regular allowirons.

ance of butter and meat, and of grease It is not uncommon to hear of a to besmear his body, he cares little for slave dealer selling his own children the stripes and curses he receives. The born of negro women, and instances merchants say, “Never trust a black occur daily of their disposing of fe slave; whip him well, and feed him male slaves who are pregnant by well, and the work will be done." I

know not whether the maxim is found

ed in truth or not, but it is certainly caves they immediately conceived it that by which the merchants are guidto be the place destined for their im ed, when they are no longer afraid of molation; and when the knives were their slaves escaping. The slaves, neproduced to cut the meat that had

vertheless, whether from strength of been brought for dinner, one of them mind, or from brutal apathy, manifest ran off, and endeavoured to escape, the same propensity to mirth and frolic. while the other threw herself on the In intellect, I think, they are much upground, imploring the company to on a level with the negro Arabs, and spare her. It required a considerable little lower than the inhabitants of time to convince them that their fears

Egypt and Syria; nor should I much were ill founded.

blame their obstinacy, if it were not

too often accompanied by malignity. mains in a respectable family for a se. I have already observed, that different ries of years, without being made characters are assigned to diffe free; and then he is either married to a rent countries, and all that I obsery. female slave of the family, or remains ed of them has not diminished my be voluntarily as a servant, and receives lief, that with proper education the wages. It is a general custom in black nations might be taught to ap

these latter countries, to emancipate proach, and perhaps to equal the white. every female slave who has borne a Though the slaves endure the great

child to her master. It is there conest fatigue, they are not of a hardier sidered discreditable, especially if constitution than Europeans; indeed, the child is a male, not to present the I have reason to believe, that, upon the mother with the marriage conthe whole, they are more frequently tract, signed by the Kadhé, which is attacked by diseases; when ill, they the only marriage ceremony used on certainly endure them much less pa. these occasions. If the child dies af. tiently. It is a saying among the trad ter this marriage, it is not considered ers, that a blow, e. illness, which improper to divorce such a wife, scarcely makes an

Arab stagger, but provision must, in that case, be knocks down a slave. I first saw made for her. here (at Shendy) the Fertit, or genu Slavery in the East, has little dreadine Guinea worm, although it is not ful but the name ; male slaves are unknown among the slaves and Sou every where treated much like the dan merchants who come to Upper children of the family, and always Egypt. It seems very common in better than the free servants. It is Soudan, and I also saw. it in Arabia. thought a mean action to sell a slave, The worm does not attach itself exclu after he has been long resident in a sively to the leg; I have seen it issu family. If a slave behaves ill, he is ing from the arm, the breast, and the generally sent into the country to knees, though its favourite place seems work as a labourer in the fields of his to be the calf of the leg. Persons are master. Female slaves, who are sermore rarely attacked with it in Shen vants in families, are not so well off as dy than in Kordofan and Darfour; and males, because they generally suffer great numbers of the slaves and trad much from the jealousy of their misers coming from the two latter places tresses. It is only by the Turkish sol. are affected by it. Though it occa diers that slaves are ill treated. They sions great pain, it does not prevent purchase in Upper Egypt, slave boys, the sufferer from walking until the ve whom they rear in their service, and ry approach of death. I have been who after they have come to a certain shown persons who have been repeat age, and learned the Turkish lanedly attacked by it, but who had al guage, are clothed and armed as solways had the good fortune to descry diers, and enlisted into the company the worm breaking through the skin, or corps of which their master is the when they were able, with patience, | chief. He then draws the monthly to draw it entirely out; for it proves pay of his slave from the governor, as mortal, only, when it does not issue he does that of every other soldier; through the skin, or when, having is- || for, according to the regulations of the sued, it is afterwards broken off in Turkish army, the captain receives the act of drawing out. Even in the the pay for the number of men whom latter case, many persons are cured. he has under his command, and distriIn Kordofan, and Darfour, the attack butes it among them. It thus becomes of the Fertit is universally ascribed to a source of emolument to him to enthe animal matter contained in the rol slaves, to whose services the go. water which is drank after the first vernment never objects, and whose rains.

pay goes into his own pocket, as he In Soudan it is rare that male slaves is subject only to the obligation of are emancipated, but we find many feeding and clothing them. Great females who have obtained their li numbers of black soldiers have, in berty. It is different in Arabia and this manner, been introduced into the Egypt, where a slave very seldom re Turkish army in Egypt. At present

to

from six to eight hundred slaves are small proportion to those kept by the bought up annually by the Turkish Mussulmans of the southern countries officers in Egypt.

themselves, or in other words, to the In the southern countries, a slave whole number yearly derived by purbrought up in the family (I do not chase or by force, from the nations in here speak of the traders) thinks him the interior of Africa. At Berber and self superior to every other person in Shendy, there is scarcely a house it, except the master; he is admitted which does not possess one or two to all the family councils, is allowed to slaves, and five or six are frequently trade, or engage in any other business seen in the same family, occupied in on his own account, and to do just as the labours of the field, tending cathe pleases, provided he proves a bold tle, &c.; the great people and chiefs fellow, and, in case of emergency, can keep them by dozens. As high up wield a sword in his master's defence; the Nile as Sennaar, the same system he may then misbehave at pleasure, prevails, as well as westwards to Kor. without fear of punishment. If a slave dofan, Darfour, and thence towards kills a free man, his master is obliged

Bornou. pay the price of blood, otherwise, All the Bedouin tribes also who his own family becomes exposed to surround these countries, are well the retaliation of the relations of the stocked with slaves. If we may judge slain; for the death of a slave who of their numbers by those kept on the commits murder, is not deemed a suf borders of the Nile, (and I was assur. ficient atonement for the death of a ed by the traders, that slaves were free man.

more numerous in those distant coun. In Egypt and Arabia the law gives tries than at Shendy,) it is evident to the slaves one great advantage; if that the number exported towards they are discontented with their mas Egypt, Arabia, and Barbary, is very ter, and decidedly determined not to greatly below what remains within remain with him, they have the right the limits of Soudan. From what fell of insisting upon being sent to the under my own observation at Berber public slave market to be resold. The and Shendy, I believe, that the slaves owner may at first refuse to part with of both sexes, on the borders of the his slave, but if, having overcome the Nile from Berber to Sennaar, amount fear of exposing himself to the effects to not less than twelve thousand. As of his master's rage, the slave finds an the population of Darfour, according opportunity of making his demand, in to Mr. Browne, is two hundred thou. presence of respectable witnesses, and sand, there are probably twenty thou. perseveres in this conduct, he must sand slaves in that kingdom ; and at last effect his purpose. Some slaves every account agrees in proving that are less able to take advantage of this as we proceed farther westward, into privilege, which the law grants to all, the populous countries of Dar Saley, from being shut up in the harem, Bornou, Bagermé, and the kingwhere no one hears their complaints, doms of Afnou and Haoussa, the except those who are the cause of proportion of the slave population them.

does not diminish. Burkhardt. According to the most moderate calculation, the number of slaves actually in Egypt is forty thousand, two.

AFRICAN INSTITUTION. thirds of which number are males. There is hardly a village in which se.

Twenty-First Report. veral of them are not to be found, and The Directors propose, as usual, to every person of property keeps at take a review of the events connected least one. During the plague in the with the slave trade which have ocspring of 1815, upwards of eight thou. curred during the past year. sand slaves were reported to the go 1. France. --France has at length vernment to have died in Cairo alone. improved her legislation for the reI have reason to believe, however, that pression of the slave trade; and althe numbers exported from Soudan though the measures she has adopted to Egypt' and Arabia, bears only a are far from being fully adequate to

VOL. I.--24

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