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Romans. Cato, the censor, saw no. example of the degradation and mithing more dangerous than intelligent sery to which the part of the nation slaves. He required his own to sleep who are not classed either among whenever they were not employed at masters or slaves, are reduced by the their labours; so fearful was he, that presence of slavery. they might learn to think.* The an Such are the effects of slavery on glo-Americans of the southern states, physical organization, on industry, though the most intelligent and hu and intelligence. Its effects on manmane slave-holders of the present ners are still much more degrading. day, still reject with dismay, the idea One of the first moral consequences of teaching their slaves to read. The which slavery produced among the colonists who are subject to the Bri. Romans, was a love of idleness, tish government, behold with no less From the absence of intellectual and alarm, the exertions which many in physical activity, and from the posthe mother country are making, to

session of wealth acquired by pilenlighten the minds of their slaves, lage, arose an immoderate passion and diffuse among them, a knowledge

for sensual enjoyments. The glutof the christian religion.t

tony and voracity of the great, were But if slavery causes the masters

carried to an extent, of which, at this to hold industry in contempt, and day, we can form no idea. The earth renders the slaves incapable of it, has was ravaged to support their extranot the nation a resource in the class vagance, and the riches of a province who are neither masters nor slaves? were swallowed at a meal. The No; for in a country where slavery is

house of a grandee, containing a predominant, a man who is neither | great number of slaves of both sexes, master nor slave, unless he chooses

the natural effects of this circumto 'carry his industry to some other stance, were soon manifested in the place, must remain idle or be despi. manners of the master. The Roman sed. If freemen sometimes consent history furnishes some signal examto labour, it is only so far as a supe

ples of the most scandalous depravirior salary compensates for the con ty. Two of them are noted by M. tempt attached to such occupations; || Compte, in the brilliant period of the and even then, a free labourer, who republic: the condemnation of an has accumulated a little property,

hundred and sixty wives of senators, either purchases slaves, or quickly

who were convicted of a plot to poidisappears. The state of the prole son their husbands, because they had tairs, in the Roman Republic, ex

neglected them for the society of cluded from every useful employ

their slaves; and a combination, too ment, either by contempt or by the

shameful for recital,* discovered in competition of the slaves of patri the year of Rome, 539. cians, is a remarkable and appalling

The criminals, of whom the great

Plutarch's Life of Cato. + See the debates in the English house of commons, June 23, 1825.

# Rochefoucauld's Travels in the United States.

* This is not a translation of Simondi's words, he has given us an image of depravity, which' my rea ders will probably excuse me from exhibiting in an English dress.


of port vere females, amonnted to inform us, that females, or even iomore than seven thousand; and rore fants of the most tender age, were than half of them were condemned exempted from its infiction. All ro death. We regret that we cannot were condemned to perish, when Follow the anthos, while he exhibits the master died by an unknown the Roman servitude progressively hand.* increasing in seventy as the wealth and baxury of the masters increased;

SCRIPTURAL RESEARCHES OS SLAVERI. the quantity of food allowed to the slaves diminishing, and their penish

Continued from page 209. ments becoming more atrocious, the We need but compare what is said revolts, servile wars, private revenge

(Deut. xxi. 15–17) respecting polyg.

amy, with Levit. xvii. 18, Malac. i. of the slaves thickening the dangers | 14–16, Matt. xix. 9, Rom. vii. 3; and both of the individual masters and what is said (Deut. xxi. 10–14) reof the state at large.

specting humbling a fair captive, with

EX. XX. 14, Deut. vi. 3, Matt. xix. 9, Whenever men are condemned to

and 1 Cor. vi. 9; to be satisfied that labour without relaxation and with. these cases are of the same kind-that out reward; when they are not mas. although not punishable by the judges, ters of their own actions; and are

yet they were violations of the moral

law, and sinful in the sight of Godcontinually exposed to contempt, to and like divorce, were thus left on acinsult, and to arbitrary punishments, count of the hardness of their hearts. death without torture, loses its ter

That the same was the case with

slavery, so far as at all tolerated, exTo render it terrible, it must

cept as a punishment for crime, is be accompanied by torments, which proved by the judgments on Egypt by, their intensity, overbalance the on account of it—the repeated charges protracted sufferings of life. Thus,

not to afflict and oppress others as the

Egyptians had oppressed them—the the Romans when they punished their various limitations and countervailing slaves with death, accompanied the statutes should they ever fall into the execution with inflictions calculated

practice, and the awful visitations of

wrath on that people in the time of to impress dismay on the minds of

Jeremiah (xxxiv.) for this very sin. men, who enjoyed but little that We need but look at the statutes by could render lifo desirable. These

which, in case they fell into the pracinflictions could be regulated only by

tice of slavery, the evil was limited if

not totally prevented, to be satisfied, the caprice of the masters; for, as appears to me, that if observed and slaves, in the eye of the law, were enforced by the judges, nothing that regarded merely as property. The punishment generally adopted, was

* This barbarous law was executed to lacerate them with rods, and after

in one instance, during the reign of

Nero. Pedanius Secundus, præfect of wards nail them to a cross. The tor

Rome, was murdered by one of his ments of an individual thus crucified, slaves. Four hundred slaves, besometimes continued many days, be

longing to the family, were condemn

ed to death; but the opposition of fore they were terminated by death,

the people was such, that the Emunless the executioner, moved by peror ordered the executon to be ef pity, accelerated its approach.

fected under a military force. Tacitus

An, Book 14, sec. 45. No other inThe writers who have given a de

stance in Roman history, is recol. seription of this punishment, do not lected.

deserves the name of slavery, could have been found among that people.

“ He that stealeth a man and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death.” Ex. xxi. 16. Stealing has ever been a common mode of bringing persons into slavery. A large part of the Africans brought to this country were stolen. It was made a capital offence even to hold one thus deprived of his liberty. "If he be found in his hand he shall surely be put to death.”

"If a man smite the eye of his servant, or the eye of his maid, that it perish, he shall let him go free for his eye's sake ; and if he smite out his man servant's tooth, or his maid servant's tooth, he shall let him go free for his tooth's sake.” Ex. xxii. 26-27. This law was designed to prevent severe treatment, by giving freedom where undue severity was used.

« Thou shalt not deliver unto his master the servant that is escaped from his master to thee: he shall dwell with thee, even among you in that place which he shall choose, where it liketh him best; thou shalt not oppress him.” Deut. xxiii. 15-16. That this included

itive slaves from the neighbouring nations, we readily admit; but we are not authorized to limit it to them. Israel were themselves fugitive slaves (Ex. xiv. 5.) This law spoke to their own case, and in its true spirit went to condemn the forcibly detaining any in slavery, as the Egyptians had detained them. We find David receiving fugitives (1 Sam. xxii. 2) whom Nabal calls runaway servants or slaves (1 Sam. xxv. 10.). Not only was David a prophet, but the prophet Gad was at that time with David, and spoke to David in the name of the Lord (1 Sam. xxii. 5.) Not one intimation is given that David did wrong.

“ Ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land to all the inhabitants thereof.” Levit. xxv. 10. This put a complete end to slavery every fifty years. God, by Isaiah, (lviii. 6) in telling Israel what kind of a fast pleased him, may refer to this—to undo the heavy burdens-to let the oppressed go free

to break every yoke. He does particularly in that beautiful prediction respecting the Messiah, (lxi, 1) who

Vol. 1.-30

was to “proclaim liberty to captives, and the opening of prisons to those that were bound, and to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord.”

There are however several statutes, not yet mentioned, which, taken together, appear to me most clearly to have prevented slavery, properly so called-prevented any from being held in servitude longer than six years, unless with their own consent,

1. It was clearly the intention of the law, and expressly provided by statute, that all bought servants, and those born of them while in servitude, should be circumcised and united to the visible people of God.

“ He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised, and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant; and the uncir. cumcised man child, whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people: he hath broken my covenant." Gen. xvii. 13-14. « This is the ordinance of the passover: There shall no uncircumcised person eat thereof : but every man servant that is bought with money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof. A foreigner or a hired servant shall not eat thereof." Ex. xii. 43, 44, 45, “ The man that is clean and is not in a journey, and forbeareth to keep the passover, even the same soul shall be cut off from his people.” Num. ix. 14. No one will doubt, we think, that the above statute included captives, who were held in servitude or slavery; as the Midianites, Num. xxxi. 18, and those referred to in the direction in Deut. xx. 14. On this statute I have but a remark or two to make.

1. None were considered as belonging to God's people, who were not circumcised, and kept not the passover. They were cut off, even if their parents were of God's visible people.

2. God's people might entertain an uncircumcised visiter, or they might employ him as a hireling ; but not as a bought servant or slave. In the case of these, they were to circu cise them -in other words, they were limited as respected slaves, to those who agreed to be circumcised, and make

unto you,

a profession of the true religion. The of the stranger that hath joined hinrepetition of this command respect self to the Lord speak, saying, the ing bought servants-the injunction, Lord hath utterly separated me from they must nurds be circumcised-the his people: neither let the eunuch distinction laid down between the say, behold, I am a dry tree. For foreigner or hired servant and the thus saith the Lord unto the eunuchs bright, all go to show that the law that keep my Sabbaths, and choose intended that they should not retain the things that please me, and take as members of their families, any who hold on my covenant, eren unto them did not belong to God's visible peo. will I give in mine house and within ple. It will not be supposed that they my walls, a place and a Ramc better were forcibly to circumcise adult ser. than of sons and of daughters: I will vants, and oblige them to profess the || give them an everlasting name that true religion; and some time no doubt shall not be cut off. Also to the sons would be allowed to instruct a bought of the strangers that join themselves servant in the true religion, and in to the Lord, to serve him, and to love duce him to embrace it; but it appears the name of the Lord, to be his serclearly the intention of the law, that vants, every one that keepeth the Sabthey were not to retain those who re bath from polluting it, and taketh bold fused to profess the true religion. of my covenant ; even them will I They were to be separated from that bring to my holy mountain, and make people, and not retained as members them joyful in my house of prayer: of their families.

their burnt offerings and their sacrifi3. The efiect of being circumcised ces shall be accepted upon mine al. and keeping the passover, was, that tar." Ezek, xlvii. 22: “ And it shall they were fully united to God's visible come to pass, that ye shall divide it people, belonged to the congregation (the land) by lot for an inheritance of the Lord, and were bound to per

and to the strangers that soform all the duties, and were entitled journ among you, which shall beget to all the privileges, of God's cove children among you, and they shall nant people. Circumcision was the be as born in the country among the token of the covenant, and made those children of Israel; they shall have inwho received it debtors to do the heritance with you among the tribes whole law (Gal. v. 3;) and was, at the of Israel. And it shall come to pass, same time, evidence of their being that in what tribe the stranger sojournthe children of the covenant, the seed eth, there shall ye give him his inheriof Abraham, and heirs according to tance, saith the Lord God." the promise. Gal. iii. 29.

The complete incorporation with The effect of circumcision in the Israel of the circumcised persons of case of the stranger, when the rule is other races, taught in these passages, laid down, is clearly and repeatedly is farther confirmed by many cases of stated.

“ He shall be as one born in families and individuals mentioned in the land. One law shall be to him the Scripture. Moses' father-in-law that is home born, and unto the stran was invited to join himself to Israel, ger that sojðurneth among you.” Ex. and assured that his family should xii. 48, 49. Num. ix. 14; xv. 15, 16. share equally with Israel in all the

In the sense of the law there was no good things God would give Israel. difference between the native Israelite Num. x. 29. And we find (Judges i. and those of other races who were cir 16) that he complied with the invitacumcised and joined to the Lord. tion, and was numbered in the geneThey became one people, and toge. alogies of Judah, to which tribe they ther formed the congregation of the joined themselves. 1 Chro. ï. 55. Lord, the holy people, the people of Caleb, one of the heads of Judah, the covenant.

(Num. xiii. 3—6) although placed in The prophets were no doubt the

genealogies of Judah, (i Chro. ï. 9) best expounders of the law. The fol. into which tribe he or his father had lowing are selected from a multitude probably married, was the son of a of passages that relate to this point. Kenezite (Joshua xiv. 6–14; comp. Isaiah, lvi. 3—7: “Neither let the son Gen, xy. 19.) He inherited. Rahab

the harlot, who married the prince of was agreed upon, calling the attenthe tribe of Judah, (Joshua vi. 25; tion of that body to the subject of Matt. i. 5) was, with her father's fa. mily, incorporated with Israel, and no

the African slave trade; expressing doubt inherited with them, Ruth, a fear that, peace being then restorthe Moabitess, on taking God for her ed, that iniquitous traffic might be reGod, (Ruth i. 16) held the property sumed; and earnestly soliciting the of her husband and husband's bro. ther, and was married as a sister by

interference of congress to discou. Boaz, according to the requirement rage and prevent so obvious an of the Levitical law (iv. 10–13.) evil. This address was signed by 535 Obed-edom, the Gittite, was united to the tribe of Levi, and with his sons

Friends. The memorial, when prewere porters, (1 Chro. xii. 13, 14; sented was treated with respect, but 1 Chro. xxvi. 4, 5, 15.) Jether, the

that congress, not being vested with Ishmaelite, married into the family of Jesse, and is called an Israelite, (1

the powers of legislation, declined Chro. ii. 17; 2 Sam. xvii. 25.) Jarha, the promotion of any public remedy the Egyptian, (1 Chro. ii.35); Ithmah, for this enormous violation of the the Moabite, (ì Chro. ii. 46): Zelek, rights of humanity. In the autumn the Ammonite, (2 Sam. xxiii. 37); Ittai, the Gittite, (2 Sam. xviii. 2);

of 1789, the same meeting prepared Uriah, the Hittite, (1 Chro. xi. 41); a petition to the newly organized goAhimelech, the Hittite, (1Sam. xxvi.

vernment of the United States, re6); with others that might be mentioned, held such offices in Israel, that viving the memorial of 1783, preswe must, as appears to me, admit that sing this subject upon their attention, they were circumcised and incorpo; and earnestly requestiug them to exrated with that people. The law did

ercise such power as they possessed, not allow a stranger, an uncircumcised, a heathen, to rule over them,

toward the abolition of this destrucor be a ruler among them. Deut. tive commerce. xvii. 15.

This memorial, and two others diNow it appears to me clear, that the statute (Ex. xxi. 12) not allowing

rected towards the same object, one a Hebrew to be held in bondage more

of which bore the signature of Benthan six years, was intended to em

jamin Franklin, as president of the brace all God's visible covenanted people. I see no reason why we

Pennsylvania society for the aboli. should make a distinction between tion of slavery, were presented to those descended from the patriarchs Congress, during the session of 1789 according to the flesh, and those of

-90, and referred to a committee of other races, who joined themselves to the Lord, and took hold of his cove seven members. That committee nant. It appears to me, that it was offered a report consisting of seven the design of the law that there should

resolutions chiefly expressive of the be no distinction. It says expressly, that they should be as those born in

powers, and the limitation of the the land Israelites and God by his powers of congress, in relation to prophet, (Isaiah lvi. 3—7) denies that

slavery and the slave trade--and dethey were separated from his people. (To be continued.)

claring, that in all cases to which the authority of congress extended, they would exercise it for the humane

purposes of the memorialists, so far In the yearly meeting of Friends, as they could be promoted on the held in Philadelphia in 1783, an ad. principles of justice, humanity and dress to the then existing congress good policy. This report being un


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