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der consideration in the committee of land dares not touch it. Shall we the whole house, a motion was made undertake it, to gratify a volunteerto amend the report, so as to express

ing society of Quakers ? for the gra

tification of a man, who, trembling an opinion “ that the several memori. under the lash of an evil conscience, als propose to this house, a subject,

to atone for his numerous board of on which its interference would be

former sins, emancipated his negroes?

I call it not an act of humanity. It unconstitutional, and even its delibe was a death-bed repentance; the rations highly injurious to some of fear of torments in another world, the states. In support of this mo

and the terrors of eternal damnation. tion, Jackson of Georgia, made

Christianity is not repugnant to sla

very. This may be seen by several a speech of which the following is a passages. The case of Onesimus is summary.

The apostle did not require

Philemon to set him free. Romans “ Slavery is an evil habit-but in

13, 1. Ephes. 6, 5. Colos. 4, 1. some situations, such as S. Carolina

1 Tim. 5-1, 2. Titus 2, 9-10. &c. and Georgia were in, it was a neces Neither was slavery prohibited by sary habit. Large tracts of fertile

Moses. Justice forbids interference. lands were uncultivated for want of

I hold one thousand acres of rice population. The climate was unfa.

land on the Altemaha. Importations vourable to northern constitutions.

being expected, this land is worth What is to be done with this land?

three guineas an acre; take away Is the rice trade to be banished from

this expectation and you destroy the our shores? Will congress give up value; restrict importations, and you the revenue arising from it? And diminish that value one half. Numfor what? To gratify the supposed bers in S. Carolina and Georgia, are feelings, the theoretical speculations in that predicament. How are they or humanity of the Quakers? The

to be compensated? Have the QuaAfricans were ruled by despots in

kers a purse sufficient and are they their own country. All the people || willing to carry justice and humanity are bound to appear in the field when so far as to give it? Have congress a required by their sovereigns. The

treasury sufficient for this purpose?” slaves there are not protected by law; but here, in addition to the ties A few days after the publication of of humanity, the law interposes in this speech, the following appeared favour of the aged and decrepid.

in the public prints. It is evidently With

respect to emancipation, What is to be done with the slaves when an ingenious parody; understood to freed? They must be incorporated be from the pen of Dr. Franklin, with the white citizens or colonized.”

and now printed with his essays. Here Jefferson's Notes are cited to show the difficulty and danger of in

"ON THE SLAVE TRADE. corporation. “ Though the Quakers

“ Reading in the newspapers the may choose to intermarry with them, there are others among us, who will

speech of Mr. Jackson in congress, choose to preserve their race unsul. against meddling with the affair of lied. Where will you colonize them?

slavery, or attempting to mend the To send them to their own country would be to exchange one slavery * Here the orator bad the politefor another. If we colonize them at ness to name, as the object of these home, will not the danger of their coarse invectives, a Friend then prenatural dispositions exist ? Would || sent, who early in life had emancithey be able to support a govern- || pated his slaves, and whose gene. ment to advantage? The Indians ral philanthropy had induced Briswould either destroy or enslave them. sott de Warville to bestow on its What people ever engaged in the possessor the appellation of an anslave trade, have abolished it ? Eng- || gel of peace,

em? Few

condition of slaves, it put me in mind slaves, do a greater injustice to their of a similar speech, made about an

owners? And if we set ur slaves free, hundred years since, by Sidi Mehe what is to be done with met Ibraham, a member of the Divan of them will return to thi,

native of Algiers, which may be seen in countries; they know too Martin's account of his consulship, greater hardships

they must till the 1687. It was against granting the subject to. They will not eml.be petition of the sect, called Erika or our holy religion--they will not ado Purists, who prayed for the abolition our manners: our people will not of piracy and slavery, as being un pollute themselves by intermarrying just. Mr. Jackson does not quote it; with them. Must we then maintain perhaps he has not seen it. If, there them as beggars in our streets? or fore, some of its reasonings are to be suffer our property to be the prey of found in his eloquent speech, it may their pillage? For men accustomed to only show that men's interests ope slavery, will not work for a livelihood rate and are operated on, with sur unless compelled. And what is there prising similarity, in all countries and so pitiable in their present condition? climates, whenever they are under Were they not slaves in their own similar circumstances. The African countries? Are not Spain, Portugal, speech as translated, is as follows: France, and the Italian states govern.

“ Allah Bismallah, &c. God is ed by despots, who hold all their great and Mahomet is his prophet. subjects in slavery without excepHave the Erika considered the con tion ? Even England treats her sailsequences of granting their petition? ors as slaves; for they are, whenever If we cease our cruises against the the government pleases, seized and Christians, how shall we be

furnished confined in ships of war, condemned with the commodities their countries not only to work, but to fight for produce, and which are so necessa small wages, or a mere subsistence, ry for us? If we forbear to make not better than our slaves are allow. slaves of their people, who, in this ed by us.

Is their condition then hot climate, are to cultivate our made worse by their falling into our lands? Who are to perform the com hands ? No; they have only exchanmon labours of our families? Must we ged one slavery for another; and I not then be our own slaves? And is may say a better: for they are brought there not more compassion and fa into a land where the sun of Islamism vour to be shown to us Musselmen, gives forth its light, and shines in full than to those Christian dogs? We splendour, and they have an opporhave now above fifty thousand slaves, tunity of making themselves acquainin and near Algiers. This number, ted with the true doctrine, and there. if not kept up by fresh supplies, will by saying their immortal souls.soon diminish, and be gradually anni Those who remain at home have not hilated. If, then, we cease taking that happiness. Sending the slaves and plundering the infidel ships, home, then, would be sending them and making slaves of the seamen and out of light into darkness. passengers, our lands will become of

I repeat the question, what is to no value, for want of cultivation; the be done with them? I have heard it rents of houses in the city will sink suggested, that they may be planted one half; and the revenues of govern. in the wilderness, where there is ment, arising from the share of pri- | plenty of land for them to subsist on, zes, must be totally destroyed. And and where they may flourish as a for what? to gratify the whim of a free state. But they are, I doubt, whimsical sect, who would have us not too little disposed to labour without only forbear making more slaves, but compulsion, as well as too ignorant even manumit those we have. But to establish a good government : and who is to indemnify their masters for the wild Arabs would soon molest the loss? will the state do it? is our and destroy, or again enslave them. treasury sufficient ? will the Erika While serving us, we take care to do it? can they do it? or would they, provide them with every thing; and to do what they think justice to the they are treated with humanity. The

labourers in their son countries, are,


AFRICA. as I am informish worse fed, lodged,

The condition of most Distribution of the African nations.and clothes of them i cherefore already mended,

The native races of Africa may be and rer res no farther improvement divided into three classes ; the first,

consisting of tribes, who, in their Herst liable to be impressed for physical characters, resemble the arfiers and forced to cut one ano people of southern Europe ; the seder's Christian throats, as in the cond, of red or copper coloured nawars of their own countries. If some tions; and the third, of woolly hair. of the religious mad bigots, who now ed races, generally black or tawny. teaze us with their silly petitions, In each of these departments, there have in a fit of blind zeal freed their are deviations from the general chaslaves, it was not generosity, it was racter. Some tribes, included in the not humanity, that moved them to first, have a dark complexion apthe action; it was from the conscious proaching to black; the red or copburthen of a load of sins, and hope, per hue of the second class, also pasfrom the supposed merits of so good ses into a very deep shade ; while a work, to be excused from damna. among the woolly haired races, there tion. How grossly are they mistaken are some whose colour is comparain imagining slavery to be disavowed tively light. The first of these deby the Alcoran! Are not the two partments consists chiefly of nations precepts, to quote no more, “ Mas. inhabiting, in scattered tribes, the ters treat your slaves with kindness," northern region of Africa, who ap. “Slaves, serve your masters with pear to be connected with each other cheerfulness and fidelity,” clear in descent, and to be the remains of proofs to the contrary? Nor can the the ancient Libyans. The second plundering of infidels be in that sa class includes a variety of red, or cred book forbidden; since it is well copper coloured tribes, in the easknown from it, that God has given tern parts, as the Nubæ or Berbethe world, and all that it contains, to rins, the Bejas and their descendhis faithful Musselmen, as fast as they ants the Ababdé and the Besharein, can conquer it. Let us then hear and some of the native tribes of Abys no more of this detestable proposi sinia ; also in the western regions of tion; the manumission of Christian Africa, the Foulahs or the Poules, in slaves, the adoption of which would the bigh tracts, where the rivers of be depreciating our lands and hou. Guinea take their rise, as well as the ses, and thereby depriving so many Felatahs, who, issuing from the same good citizens of their property, cre quarter, have overrun the central ate universal discontent, and pro countries of Soudan. The red navoke insurrections, to the endanger tions do not appear to constitute one ing of government, and producing particular race, but are unconnected general confusion. I have, there. with, and often situated at remote fore, no doubt, that this wise coun distance from each other. The third cil will prefer the comfort and hap division comprises all the woolly piness of a whole nation of true be. baired tribes; the negroes of Guilievers, to the whim of a few Erika nea, and of the interior, the Kaffers and dismiss this petition.”

and the Hottentots. “The result was, as Martin tells us,

Remains of the Libyan race.-The that the Divan came to this conclu. northern region of Africa in remote sion; “That the doctrine, that the

times, and before the arrival of Sidoni. plundering and enslaving the Chris an colonies, appears to have been in. tians is unjust, is at best problemati

habited by the various tribes of one cal; but that it is the interest of this

extended race, by the Roman's termstate to continue the practice clear;

ed Afri, and by the Greeks, Libyes. therefore, let the petition be reject.

To this stock belonged the Mauri, ed.” And it was rejected according

the Numidia, the Getuli, and other ly."

nations, who were partially subdued by the arms of Carthage, and after

wards of Rome. The Phænician Canary islands derived their inhabi. language seems never to have been tants, the celebrated Guanches, who adopted by the native Libyans; the now exist only in their curiously desic-, Roman, and in later times, Arabian cated mummies. But at present the conquerors spread their idioms and most numerous tribes, sprung from manners among the inhabitants of the Libyan race, are scattered through the towns and of the coast, but in the African desert. the interior and mountainous tracts, The inhabitants of Siwah and Angila there are still tribes, whose dialects, are found to speak a dialect which entirely distinct from the Punic, nearly resembles that of the Shilhas, the Latin, and the Arabic, and yet of Mount Atlas, and thus the extension remarkably similar to each other, af of one idiom is proved, through the ford reason for believing the ancient whole northern region of Africa, from speech, and the aboriginal race of the Western Ocean to the confines northern Africa, have survived all of Egypt. the revolutions which that country Two great nations of the desert has undergone.

were discovered by Hornemann, the In the northern parts of the chain Tuaric and the Tibboo. The idiom of Atlas are the abodes of the Bereb. of the Tuaric is the same as that of bers, or Berbers, tribes of hardy per Siwah. The Tibboo are a distinct sons, who live in huts, or in caverns, nation, always at enmity with the among the hills, and support them Tuaric. They speak a different lanselves chiefly by pasture and tillage. guage, which however has some co

The Shilhas inhabit the southern incidences, indicative perhaps of a branches of Atlas, living often in vil. remote affinity with that of the Tualages or towns. Their language, ric. which they term Amazigh differs from The whole of the Tuaric speak that of the Berbers, but appears to one language, though divided into a be a cognate dialect, and the people number of tribes, or nations. The are a branch of the same stock.

chief of these tribes are the KolluviThe Kabyles, who appear to be ans in the south, who conquered intimately connected with the Ber Agades; the Tagama, in the neighbers, inhabit the higher parts of the bourhood of Soudan and Tombuctoo, Algerine and Tunisian territories, liv who are Pagans; and the Hagara and ing in dashkras, or mountain villages, Matkara. There is also a tract of composed of huts which resemble country bordering on Soudan called, the magnalia of the old Numidians. Tuat, inhabited by the Tuaric. They They term their language Showiah, are a wandering people, and are The Kabyles, as we learn from Dr. every where engaged in committing Shaw, are in general of a swarthy depredations and carrying off slaves colour, with dark hair, but those who from the negro countries. inhabit the mountains of Auress, The Tibboo are divided into six though they speak the same idiom, tribes, who occupy the country east are of a fair and ruddy complexion, of Fezzan, and between Fezzan and and their hair of a deep yellow. Bornou. Their affinity to the Tuaric

The tribes above mentioned are is not altogether certain; but it apinhabitants of mountainous tracts, pears probable, from some coincidenwhere they have preserved their lan ces in their language, and from the guage from remote ages, perhaps | general similarity of their manners. even from that time when the chain Physical characters of these tribes.of Atlas, surrounded by waters which The various tribes of the Berbers and covered the Zahara, formed a lofty || Tuarics, though of one nation, disisland, and was fancied by early navi play great diversities in their comgators to contain the pillars of hea plexion. They are in general a fine ven, The Libyans were perhaps, handsome race of people, with straight in insular race ; by them several of hair, and European features. The the Mediterranean islands are said to Tuarics of the desert near Fezzan have been first peopled, and from are as white as Europeans, in those the same stock we know that the parts of their bodies which are cover

ed, but in the parts which are exposed, of a dark brown. The Kolluvians are of different colours; many of them are black, but their features are not like those of negroes. The Hagara and Matkara are yellowish like Arabs; near Soudan there are tribes entirely black. The Tagama, however, near Tombuctoo are white.* There is another tribe also near Bor. non, who are as white as the Moors on the northern coast.

The Tuaric tribes in the deserts between Tripoli and Fezzan are thus described by Captain Lyon. “They are the finest race of people I ever saw; tall, straight and handsome, with a certain air of independence and pride, which is very imposing. They are generally white, that is to say, comparatively so; the dark brown of their complexion only being occasioned by the heat of their climate. Their arms, or bodies, when constantly covered, are as white as those of many Europeans. Their costume is very remarkable, and they cover their faces as high as the eyes, in the manner of women on the sea coast.”+

The same intelligent author has given us the following account of the Tibboo : “ The Tibboo females are light and elegant in form; and their graceful costume, quite different from that of the Fezzaners, is well put on. They have aquiline noses, fine teeth, and lips formed like those of Europeans : their eyes are expressive, and their colour is of the brightest black; there is something in their walk and erect manner of carrying themselves, which is very striking. Their feet and ancles are delicately formed, and are not loaded with a mass of brass or iron, but have merely a light anklet of polished silver or copper, sufficient to show their jetty skin to more ad. vantage; they also wear red slip. pers.” “Their hair is plaited on each side in such a manner as to hang down on the cheeks like a fan, or rather in the form of a dog's ear.” The Tibboo women, do not, like the Arabs, cover their faces; they retain

their youthful appearance longer than the latter.

The Tibboo of Bergoo seem to approach the negroes in their physical characters. They conceal themselves from the Arab hunters by kneeling on the ground, which is of the same colour as their skins, being black basalt. “They are, however,” says Captain Lyon, “ of a lighter complexion than other negroes, and are handsome people. The females braid their hair, whic his not very woolly, in long plaits.” Hornemann described the Tibboo as “not quite black." He adds, that “their growth is slender; their limbs are well turned; their walk is light and swift; their eyes are quick; their lips thick; their nose is not turned up, and large; their hair is less curled than that of the negroes.” They are a shrewd and intelligent, but treacherous people. Nothing has been discovered which leads to any satisfactory information respecting the affinities and ancient history of the Berber race. They appear to be quite distinct from the Barabras or Berberins of the Upper Nile, with whom they were formerly confounded. Professor Vater has compared some vocabularies and the grammatical forms of the Berber language, with those belonging to other idioms in northern Africa, and in Asia. It appears that there are some marks of connexion between it and the Semetic dialects, which Vater is disposed to ascribe to the connexion of ancient Punic and other Phæni. cean colonists with the people of Mauritania; and partly to a later intercourse with the Moggrebyn Arabs. According to Vater, it has greater coincidences with the Amaaric, particularly in some forms of the verb substantive.-Prichard.


(Continued from page 218.) From the foregoing summary we perceive that the improvements, in the situation of the West Indian slaves, which have increased so

• Hornemann, page 109. + Captain Lyon's travels in Africa, p. 109.

Ibid, page 224, 227.

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