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these regulations turn out to be prin. cipally composed of limitations of the master's power to liberate his slaves. In some of the States slaves can be emancipated only by special act of the legislature. In others by the courts for meritorious services, and in one of them almost all the modes required in others must concur to render an emancipation complete.

DIED-Lately, at Mitford, (Eng.) aged 22 years, Mr. HENRY WALKER, a native of Jamaica. He has by his will, left 21. and freedom to every slave on his estate there.-English paper.

No slaughtered natives drenched the fair earned

soil, Thy followers only have effaced the sbame Inscribed by slavery on the christian namne. Shall Britain where the soul of freedom

reigns,
Forge chains for others she berself disdains:
Forbid it, Htaven! O let the nations know,
The liberty she loves she will bestow;
Not to herself the glorious gift confined
She sprrads the blessing wide as human kind;
And, seorning narrow views of time and place,
Bids all be tree in earth's extended space.

What page of human annals can record
A deed so bright as human rights restored?
O may that gulike derd, that shining page,
Redeem our fame, and consecrate our agel
And let this glory mark our favourd shore,
To curb false freedom and the true restore!

And see, the cherab Mercy from above,
Descending sofuy, quits the sphere of love!
On Britain's isle, she sheds her heavenly dew
And breathes her spirit o'er the enlightened

few, From soul to soul the spreading infidence steals, Till every breast the soft contagion fetis. She speeds, exulting, to the burning shore, With the best message Ange ever bure. Hark! 'tis the sole whịch spoke a Saviour's

birth! Glory to God on high, and peace on Earth! She vindicates the power in heaven adored; She stills the clank of chains, and sheathes the

sword; She cheers the mourner, and with soothing hands From bursting hearts unbinds the oppressors

bands; Restores the lustre of the christain name, And clears the foulest blot that dimnied its

fame. As the mild Spirit hovers o'er the coast, A fresher hue their withered landscapes boast; Her healing smiles the ruined scenes repair, And basted Nature wears a joyous air, While she proclaims through all their spiey

groves, “ Henceforth your fruits, your labours, and your

loves, “ All that your sires possessed, or you have sown, “ Sacred from plunder, all is now your own.”

And now, her high commission from above Stamped with the holy characters of love, The meek-eyed spirit waving in her hand, Breathes manumission on the rescued land; She tears the banner stained with blood and

SLAVE TRADE.- A POEM.

(Continued from page 224.) And thou, white savage, whether lust of gold Or last of conquest rule thee uncontrolled! Hero or Robber! by whatever name Thou plead thy impious claim to wealth or fame; Whethier inferior mischiefs be thy boast, A tyrant trader rifling Congo's coast; Or bolder carnage track thy crimson way, Kings dispossessed, and provinces thy prey; Whether thou pant to lame earth's distant

bound; All Cortez murdered, all Columbus found; On plundered realms to reign detested Lord Make millions wretched and thyself abhorred: Whether Cartouche in forests break the law, Or bolder Cæsar keep the world in awe; In Reason's eye in Wisdom's fair account, Your sum of glory boasts a like amount; The means may differ, but the end's the same; Conquest is pillage with a nobler name. Who makes the sum of human blessings less Or sinks the stock of general happiness; Tho' erring fame may grace, tho' false renown His name may blazon or his memory crown; Yet the last audit shall reverse the cause, And God shall vindicate his broken laws.

Had those advent'rous spirits who explore Through ocean's trackless wastes, the far sought

shore; Whether of wealth insatiate or of power, Conquerors who waste, or ruffians who devour: Had these possessed, o Cook, thy gentle mind, Thy love of arts, thy love of human kind; Had these pursued thy mild and liberal plan, Discoverers had not been a curse to man! Then, blest Philanthropy, thy social hands, Had linked dissevered worlds in brothers'

bands; Careless, if colour or if clime divide; Then loved, and loving man had lived, and died. Then with pernicious skill we had not known To bring their vices back, and leave our own.

The purest wreaths that hang on glory's shrine For empires founded, peaceful Penn! are

thine; No blood stained laurels crowned thy virtuous

toil,

tears

And, Liberty, thy shining standard rears!
As the bright ensigo's glory she displays.
See pale Oppression faints beneath the blaze!
The giant dies! no more his power appals,
The chain, untouched, drops off; the fetter

falls.
Astonished echo tells the vocal shore
Oppression's fallen and slavery is no more!
The dusky myriads crowd the sultry plain,
And hail that mercy long invoked in vain.
Victorious power! she bursts their twofold bands,
And faith and freedom spring from Britain's

hands. And thou great source of nature and of grace, Who of one blood did'st form the human race, Look down in mercy in thy chosen time With equal eye on Afric's suffering clime: Disperse her shades of intellectual night Repeat thy high behest, Let there be light! Bring each binighted, soul, great God, to thee, And with thy wide salvation inake them free!

HANNAH MORE.

THE

African Observer,

TWELFTH MONTII, 1827.

SISMONDI'S* REVIEW OF J. COMPTE'S TREATISE ON

LEGISLATION.

(Continued from page 232.) M. Compte afterwards passes in re at the multitude of slaves, whom we view the colonies of the moderns, to see there as white as the Europeans. show that slavery has produced, in all Yet the whites have never been re

duced to slavery in this country; the ance, lewdness and ferocity. We shall slaves there, on the contrary, have alnot recite in this place, the most offen ways been of Ethiopian origin. From sive parts of these descriptions. It the masters and the Ethiopian slaves, would be too painful an employment have sprung a race, which, whitening to review the afflictions of so many further and further in each generation, millions of human beings, who still have finally become exactly similar to groan under the galling yoke. We those who hold them in slavery. But shall confine ourselves to a few par in this change of the race, a phenometiculars, taken from divers chapters, non occurs, which it is important to which we shall continue to extract in observe, because it is common to nearly the words of the author.

all the colonies. The colonists do not When children are born of female enfranchise their own children born of slaves, we may ascertain by their co female slaves. They require of them lour the race of men to which the the same labours and submission as of fathers belong. As marriages seldom their other slaves; they sell, exchange, take place between the blacks and or transmit them to their heirs as they whites, the children of mixed blood are judge convenient. If they fall by inthe product of an immoral union, and heritance to a legitimate child, no difgenerally of violence on the part of the ference is known between them and master.

the other slaves—a brother becomes, Upon arriving at the Cape of Good in this way, the owner of his brothers Hope, says Vaillant, we are surprised and sisters; and he exercises over them

* In the former number, this name was erroneously printed, and the error strangely overlooked until the sheet was worked off. The name as given above, is the true one.

Vol. I.--33.

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the same authority, exacts from them the same labours, lacerates them with the same scourge, and compels them to minister to the same passions with his other slaves. This multitude of white slaves which astonish the European observer, are therefore almost all the fruit of adultery and incest, A traveller observes, that there exists so little affection between the relatives in this colony, that we rarely see two brothers conversing together. How can one brother possibly entertain any regard for another, when he has perhaps ten or twelve brothers and sisters, whom he considers as property of the lowest grade, and whom he employs for the meanest purpose ?

At the Cape of Good Hope, the soil is poor; it is occupied in raising flocks, and in the production of the same kinds of grain as those cultivated in Europe. None of these productions require painful or continual labour. The articles most essential to life, are obtained with the least labour, and are sold at the lowest price. Thus, in general, at the Cape, the labour of the slave is not excessive; and his supplies of food are abundant. In Dutch Guiana, on the contrary, the soil is exceedingly fertile; suited to the production of sugar, and the various fruits of the torrid zone these productions, obtained by long and painful labours, are generally designed for exportation. The sale being easy, the masters are interested in requiring of their slaves, the greatest and most continued exertion. On the other hand, the provisions required by the slaves being scarce and dear, the masters allow them no more than what is absolutely necessary for their support—this contrast is not peculiar to the Cape and Guiana. Slavery, every where degrading, is

notwithstanding softened in pastoral countries, by long intervals from labour, and by ample supplies of food; in those where grain is cultivated, the labour is harder and less intermitted ; it is not however sufficient to prevent the increase of numbers among the servile class. In countries where they cultivate coffee, cotton, tobacco, and above all sugar, the labour is excessive, the nourishment quite insufficient, and the deaths more numerous than the births.

The handsome female slaves have to encounter, not only the desires of their masters or overseers, upon whom they are dependent, but the severe chastisements by which they frequently endeavour to overcome or punish resistance, but likewise the jealousy of the whites of their own sex. A woman who caused one of her slaves to be punished, sought principally to disfigure and render her hideous. She caused her bosom to be lacerated by the scourge, and even by a poignard. Stedman relates, that a female creole, discovering on her plantation a handsome young slave, immediately caused a hot iron to be applied to her forehead and cheeks, and ordered that the tendon of Achilles (the sinew which supports the heel) should be cut. A fine person was thus suddenly transformed into a monster of deformity.*

After some observations, showing in what manner slavery corrupts the manners in the English colonies and in the United States, the author cites from the latter, a law which must appear extremely odious, when we reflect that in such acts, we see nothing but the explosion of the most shameful passions. Masters are expressly prohibited from cultivating the intellectual facul

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ties of their slaves. He who should be vigilance of the inquisition, and all the convicted of teaching one of them to efforts which are apparently used to arread, would be punished with a fine rest the progress of civilization. M. seven times as great, as if he had cut Compte has proved, by a series of facts, off the hands or the tongue. In the that in the Spanish American colonies, latter case, he would incur a fine of the progress of intelligence, industry, only fourteen pounds; in the former, of population and morality, has always one hundred. It is equally forbidden, to been, according to regulations in each permit slaves to trade on their own ac colony, in the inverse ratio of the numcount. All society is denied to the ber of slaves and the severity of their servile class; a white person, who shall treatment. find more than seven slaves together on Having shown that slavery vitiates the public road, is required to punish the physical constitution of slaves, that them, with not more than twenty lashes it renders the masters averse to labour, to each; and the slave, who should de and the slaves incapable of performing fend himself against a white person, the work of freemen; that it creates in would be punished as guilty of a hor the masters a distaste for intellectual rible crime. A negro, or person of | exertion, and denies that exertion to mixed blood, is not allowed to appear the slaves; that it prevents the formain the streets after night, without tion of a class, who are neither masters special permission. Offenders, whe nor slaves, or forces such a class to ther free or bond, are taken up by a emigrate if it already exists; that it military police, who constantly patrol produces among the masters a shamethe streets, and punish according to ful depravity of manners, and that by circumstances.*

interdicting to the slaves, the choice Slavery was legal in all the Spanish and the direction of their own actions, colonies, but in all those where their it has deprived them of even the preprogress has been rapid, the number of tence to moral motives; it seems to folnegroes was very small. The con low as a necessary conclusion, that a quered aborigines, though generally more fatal institution could not possubjected to a severe regimen, were not sibly have been introduced into society. reduced to slavery. Thus, with the But this is not all: M. Compte has exexception of Cuba, and a few other amined the influence which slavery has places where tropical productions were had on the security of the masters'freeraised, and where the plantation regi dom, on the increase of wealth and men was established, the labours, in population, on the political freedom Spanish America, were performed by and independence of nations; and in the hands of freemen. Labour has there each of these new relations he shows, been deemed honourable; and this sin by universalexperience, that this frightgle circumstance has promoted the ful institution, wherever it has been tocause of humanity, more than it could lerated, has been no less fatal to the be injured by the despotism of the go

masters than to the slaves. vernment, the fear of instruction, the In countries where slavery is admit.

ted, a dreadful calamity incessantly * Travels in Canada and the United

threatens those that are free, their States, by F. Hall.

freedom being always liable to be ques

tioned. If a person is presumed to be and danger which press upon the free, until the contrary is proved, how coloured race, in the European colowill the masters retain their slaves ? nies and the United States, by reason How shall they reclaim them in case of this principle of legislation; we canthey escape? How can they discover not paint the dreadful robberies by their places of concealment? If, on the which frec men or women are transother hand, every person is presumed ported from the states of the north, to be a slave, till his freedom is proved, where slavery is abolished, to be sold how can those who are free avoid the in those of the south; nor the shamedanger of being treated as slaves? ful abuses, even where slavery is abo

Among the ancients, nothing was lished, of pretended apprenticeships, in more frequent than the stealing of order to hold in real slavery persons children. Slaves frequently avenged who are legally free.* These evils, it themselves in this manner upon their is true, fall only on a race, for whom masters; they carried off, in their flight, the whites have shown neither pity nor the children who had been confided to sympathy; a race, towards whom they them, either from revenge, from ava are released from all those moral and rice, or even from affection. But when

religious duties, which bind us not to they afterwards fell into distress, these men only, but to every being that can children were commonly sold. The suffer and feel. But the vices of the comedies of the ancients are full of Europeans must' avenge, at last, the allusions to these thefts. The history negroes' wrongs: we have seen that the of Virginia, the destined victim of Ap children who have sprung from the two pius Claudius, teaches us, that adults, races, have approached so near to the and particularly females, were not se whites as to be no longer distinguished. cure against claims by which they The time has arrived, when children might be judicially robbed of their li completely white may be stolen from berty and honour. In the English colo their wealthy relations, and sold as the nies, every person of Ethiopian origin, || children or grand-children of mulator rather, every person tinged with the toes, beyond the power of recovery. colour of that race, is presumed to be Proceeding to consider the influence a slave, unless the contrary is proved. of slavery on the distribution of wealth, An individual of the grade of masters, M. Compte very justly protests against provided the race is pure, may there the morality of the question: “Is the fore seize upon any person of colour, labour of slaves more expensive than man, woman, or child, and retain pos the labour of freemen?” This is to ensession, till the freedom of the victim is proved, or another claimant appears. * These pretended apprenticeships, He, who, by fraud or violence, should as our author terms them, though forobtain possession of the documents,

merly in use in these middle states, are which prove that a coloured person is

probably now banished from among us.

Some rare instances are understood to free, may, by this act, convert him into have occurred, within a few years, of a slave, and to appropriate him to his indented minors being removed by the own use; it is sufficient that he should

masters to the southern states, and sold

as slaves; but this avenue of oppreshave him in possession.

sion is now strictly guarded by legislaIt is impossible to describe the misery tive enactments.

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