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these bear any evident relation to the the traces of fire, to the scantiness of gradations of temperature and lati. their nocturnal supply. tude.
He endeavoured to learn, from the traders themselves, in what manner
these children had been procured, and INTERTERRITORIAL
by what means they were intended to be introduced and sold in Kentucky.*
With respect to the former, it appearA gentleman, who lately visited this ed they were obtained exactly like city, informed the editor in the course any other article of trade ; one, two or of conversation, that on a journey from more in a place, without regard to faone of the western states to Virginia, mily connexion, or any other circumduring the coldest part of the winter stance, except the convenience or 1826-27, he followed the route on caprice of the parties to the contract; which the traders in swine return to and as to the latter, no important diffiKentucky from the southeastern parts culty was present by the prohibitory of Virginia, and the adjacent state. law; for the law itself had provided These traders, it appears, collect to the means of its own evasion. An oath ward the close of summer, from the only was required that the slaves were western parts of Kentucky, immense brought into the state for the proper droves of hogs, which they drive to use of those who brought them; and the southeast in search of a market. the sale was easily effected, by borrowAt the time in question, these travel- | ing money and giving the slaves in ling merchants were returning with pledge, with the condition annexed, the produce of their respective adven that in case the money was not repaid tures. Many of them had collected in within a limited time, the pledge exchange for their swine, great num should be forfeited. bers of negroes, mostly children and Where the nerves and the conyouths of both sexes, with a few wo
science have become inured to the purmen, whom they were conducting to chase and sale of human being as goods Kentucky. Sometimes he passed a and chattels, perhaps this traffic may dearborn loaded with its human mer. be readily reconciled. It may be said, chandise, huddled together in a parcel and perhaps with truth, that the re. of straw, like the quadrupeds with moval of these children, from the exwhich they had been purchased, and covered with a few dirty blankets. * In the states of Delaware, Maryland, North Sometimes his eyes were disgusted
and South Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Geor
gia, Alabama and Louisiana, the following, or a with the sight of a woman perched on similar law is in force. “ No slave or in lented a horse, with a child in her arms and servant of colour, shall be brought into this state another cowering at her back, all scan
by land or water, nor shall any slave or indented
servant of colour, who may be imported or brought tily clothed, and exposed to the rig contrary to the intent and meaning of this act, ours of the pitiless blast.
be bought, sold or hired, by any person whatso At the taverns where he lodged, he
* Any person importing or bringing slaves, or generally found a number of these suf indented servants of colour into the state contra. fering children of humanity, who sel
ry to the provisions of this act, shall forfeit and
pay one hundred pounds, for each slave so imdom failed to apply to their own ac ported or brought; and every person who shall commodation, during the night, the knowingly sell, buy or hire, such slave or inder blankets which the travellers carried
ted servant of colour, shall be subject to a like
forfeiture: Provided, That nothing in this act, under their saddles. These blankets, shall be construed to prevent any citizen of the when found, after necessary search, in
United States, or citizen or subject of any foreign the morning, were always more inju.
country, who intends to reside and sertle within
this state, from bringing with them such slaves red, both in texture and appearance, or persons of colour, as they may think pruper, by their application to human use du
or to probibit any citizen of this state, who may
obtain slaves, &c. by marriage, gift, legacy, dering the night, than by their station vise or descent, from bringing the slaves or ser. between the saddle and the horse du.
vants of colour so obtained, into this state by
land or water. And in order to prevent the ring the day. The dirt with which they
abuse of the privileges conferred by these ecer were copiously marked, bore ample tions, it is made the duty of the persons coming testimony to the situation in which
within them, to make oath that the slaves intru
duced are not intended for uaffic, noi in icla. their occupants had been lodged, and tion of the law.
LOVE OF COUNTRY EXEMPLIFIED.
hausted lands of Virginia to the more
drivers, the pathetic language of Cowment, rather than a deterioration, of Prove that you have human feelings, their condition. Still the traffic is
Ere ye proudly question ours. strongly repulsive, on more accounts than one.
These children, when fattened and matured for a few years in Kentucky, may very probably become the objects of a second transfer, to the
The following narrative is translagreat slave markets of Mississippi and
ted from the petition against the slave the Floridas, a destination which is con trade, presented to the French Chamtemplated, by its victims, with peculiar ber of Deputies, in March 1821, by J. horror. But exclusive of this consideration, grating as it must be to a feeling
Morenas, lately employed as Agriculmind, the separation of children from tural Botanist, at Senegal, and memparents, and the total dissolution of ber of the commission of exploration, family ties, in which this traffic is com
attached to that colony. menced, and the perjury by which it is consummated, a broad philosophic In the year 1807, the slave traders principle stands opposed to this pro (Nigriers,) of St. Louis, equipped an cedure. The human mind unavoida
armament, destined ostensibly for Gably forms an association between the lam, but which sailed to Alebia. The characters as well as the values of things unsuspecting natives received the which we are accustomed to exchange French without the smallest distrust, for each other. Hence among civili entered into trade, and supplied them zed nations, the almost universal love with such articles of food as they deof money. Our attachment to the ne sired. The day was passed in sportive cessaries and conveniences of life, is hilarity. This to the Europeans, was transferred by association to their re the roaring of a tiger in sight of his presentative, or in other words the mo
prey. The village was attacked at ney by which they may be purchased. dead of night, and the miserable inhabThe North American Indians, frequent itants either slaughtered, while defenly adopt a prisoner into their families, || ding their liberty, or carried into slave. in place of a relative whom they have ry. Many of them were transported lost ; and according to the estimation to America; those who had the misin which the prototype was held, is fortune to fall into the hands of the that of the substitute. No assiduity French colonists, either died or remaincan raise him above the character and
ed to languish in hopeless and perpetstanding of his original. When ne ual separation from their natal shore. gro children are habitually and famil Others were landed and sold in the isiarly exchanged for domestic animals, land of Cuba. It is well known that particularly those of the less amiable
slavery among the Spaniards, exists in kind, the comparison thus made of the a mitigated state, the slaves being alvalues of the objects of exchange, can lowed a part of the day to be employscarcely fail to equalize, or at least ed according to their own discretion ; closely approximate, in the eyes of the and to purchase one or more hours of traders, the associated races.
the day, until by successive redemppredominant idea involves them all, tions, they become completely free. they are viewed as property. Value is Thirty-two of these people, inclusupposed to be given for value.-The ding both sexes, who had been captuworth of the one species is estimated red in the attack upon Alebia, having, in terms of the other, and hence the by painful and persevering labour, purcharacters are unavoidably, in estima chased their freedom and chartered a tion if not in fact, closely assimilated. Spanish vessel for 1500 francs, (about Is not this to brutalize the human race, 280 dollars) each, arrived at St. Louis, and, as far as possible, to erase the in May 1818. This event, which ocCreator's image from the creatures he curred a short time previous to my arhas made? Well might these poor rival at Senegal, where it produced a degraded children address, to their great sensation, was related in the
Sierra Leone Gazette o 25th of July, monarchy which Spain once thought 1818. Quere-Could these African
her own. captives, have regained their liberty The object most frightful to Engin this manner, if they had been sold in land, for a century, was Popery ; jointhe United States ?
ed afterwards, for another century, with the dreaded name of the Preten. der. Giant Pope-to borrow the live
ly allegory of John Bunyan-had In giving place to the following es
grown crazed in his limbs, and could
do little more than sit in his cave, say, extracted from the Kentucky Re
grinning at pilgrims as they passed porter, the editor of this work, desires along, while the last of the unhappy it may be distinctly understood, that race of Stuarts was perishing by hard
drinking. Yet the fear of both was he is not pledged to the opinions of
hardly lulled, when Atheism grasped the writer. The essay is evidently the the power of France and almost realiproduction of no ordinary mind, and zed the worst apprehensions of her
ancient rivals. presents some strong and original
Among ourselves, the power of Briviews of the future prospects of these tain, the separation of the states, and United States. One topic at least has the all-pervading, influence of Conbeen adverted to, which the editor does
gress, form, each in turn, the political
bugbear of the day ; while, within our not wish to introduce into this journal;
very bosom, a tremendous power is and which he has consented to admit, rising, which outgrows our growth, merely from delicacy towards the wri and, by rapid advances, is increasing
beyond our strength. I hardly need ter, whose opinions, if given in a mu
add, that I allude to our black populatilated state, might be supposed unfair tion. ly stated. Emanating from the bosom In attempting to discuss the conseof a slave holding state, it is hoped the
quences inevitably arising from this
description of people, and the meastrictures will be considered as those
sures absolutely necessary to counterof a southern, rather than a northern act them, I shall not advert to toobserver. The editor has been infor
pics drawn from religion or morality.
These have been brought forward by med, upon authority which he consid
the divine and the philosopher, as yet, ers authentic, that the essayist, who is to little purpose. Indolence, Pride, far advanced in life, emigrated in his
Avarice and Fear, powerful agents in youth, from Great Britain, and fixed
the human system, have hitherto been
too hard for both. Let us then be his residence in Virginia, from whence
content to urge the motive of tempoa few years ago, he removed to Ken ral safety. Let us inquire whether tucky.
those who defy, or evade, the sanc
tions of religion and the persuasions of It has been repeatedly observed, | morality, may not be moved by the that nations have dreaded the objects consideration that in retaining these of their terror, long after all cause of people they are clinging to certain dedread had ceased; and that before their struction. apprehensions were appeased, some Some degree of attention has latepower till then unthought of, has ari ly been paid to this subject; and the sen and expelled former fear by pre colonizing project has been hailed as sent danger. It is needless to multi presenting a dawn of improvement to ply examples : two may suffice. Guinea, and of deliverance to Ameri
Spain, though but the shadow of Great benefits certainly will acher former self, was long the object of crue to Guinea, from colonizing the defensive confederacies among the coast; but the numbers, likely to be other European powers, till France sent from hence, will not afford much arose, and nearly seized that universal relief to those who are doomed to the
irksome task of guarding the remain this destructive property to themselves, der. Nor can the most lively imagina and forbear to drive the unwilling tion indulge a hope, that the tenth part wretches into the neighbouring states, of the offspring of our present stock there would yet remain a hope for us. may be disposed of in this way. The ut But this seems the farthest from their most we can expect is, that a good thoughts. The right of extending number of free negroes may leave the slavery appears dear to the owners as northern states. As for the slaves of that of retaining slaves. the south, they are property, and so Many well meaning and respectable highly valued, that it is to be feared men, recommend the dispersion of the no prospect of future danger will in slaves, from an idea that it may lessen duce their owners to part with them. their numbers in their native states. The sinking fund of England contras A little consideration may convince ted with the increase of the national such persons of the fallacy of their debt--the colonizing scheme of Ame views. The quantity of food produrica opposed to the increase of the ced in a country, determines the numnegroes are equally ineffectual for ber of its inhabitants. Take away onetheir respective ends. The situation half the people--the remaining half of England in her finances, has long will, in a single generation, breed up to been to us a subject of pity or derision. the amount maintainable by the proHad we not better look at home, and duce. War, pestilence; and famine, see whether there exists a possibility of are certain to be followed by an uncomfreeing ourselves from a burthen a thou mon number of marriages. Their rasand fold heavier than the debt of En vages have made space. Humiliating gland? The abolition of the debt would as it may appear, the human race exat the worst, only change the persons ists on precisely the same terms as the of a few public men, and the fortunes brute creation. If your plantation supof a few thousand individuals. The ports a certain number of animals, and increase of the black race in the Uni you sell one-half, you will, if your planted States must ultimately terminate | tation continues equally producti in the extirpation of their masters. soon make up your number, AndaNor let this be considered as remote lusia misses not the horses which she from us by so many generations that sent to America, although the latter we may safely leave it to after ages to country holds perhaps a hundred times provide against. The evil is almost at the number to be found in the Spanish our doors. Fifty years hence, our province. Nor will the British islands children will behold from six to eight miss their original emigrants, when millions of their mortal enemies in the America shows a hundred millions of southern and western states; and the their descendants. Indeed, the reverse close of the century may double that of this is more likely to take place. number. It is not likely that our Population increases in proportion to Guinea Colony will in fifty years show emigration. Those Spanish provinces a population of 200,000; but 'tis cer. which send the greater part of the tain that it will not exceed half a mil emigrants to America are the best peolion. What kind of relief, will this pled. Scotland and Ireland are full, afford us, with six or seven millions, to the extent of their means of subsison our hands? The passage to the tence, although they have been pourWest Indies is short, and the expen ing forth their swarms for centuries.ses, it is said, to be defrayed by the Emigration encourages marriage. He government of Hayti. Our whole who doubts his ability to support a stock of negroes, say 1,700,000, might || family, is encouraged to raise one by by a few years navigation of 100 ships, the consideration, that, at the worst, be carried over. But would the Hay
they can find a subsistence elsewhere. tiens accept so many as must become This reasoning occurs in Virginia, as their masters? And would the owners well as in Britain. Hence many, dechoose to part with them? Whatev terred from matrimony by a view of er becomes of the first question, the difficulties, find their scruples remolast must certainly be answered in the ved; and frequently the strong attachnegative. Yet, would the owners keep ment to their native country deter
mines them to remain there, even when Among the names hateful to republipressed by that poverty to which they cans, those of “patrician," and " nowould not have exposed themselves ble"-So well known, the first in the but for the hope of escaping it by emi- || early, and the last in the concluding gration.—And these remarks apply to period of the Roman republic, are per the Negroes. Remove them by thou- | haps the most conspicuous. I doubt sands, those left become more valuable, whether the hideous term,“ king,” is and the owner of the stock redoubles worse: nay, I am inclined to believe his attention to make up the deficiency. that many good men would rather be You may suppose that he will find a plagued with a single tyrant than with substitute in labouring white men. But a regular nobility. this neither suits his interests, nor their Yet let us inquire into the compoprejudices, so long as negroes remain sition of society in the southern states, in the country. The vacancy is soon and we shall find it to consist of nofilled up with slaves ; and you are bility and plebeians. Among these last, taught by experience, that you have the negroes are not to be mentioned ; burthened the new states without re. for whenever they are heard of they lieving the old. Converse on this sub are plebeians no longer. But the ple. ject with a southern slave owner: he beians in the southern states are the will acknowledge that appearances are poor whites; nor are these to be liawful—“but,” adds he, “ you will by mited to those who hold no land, and and bye be in the same situation." consequently possess no vote: the And this consideration he seems to petty free-holder holds the prominent view as some consolation in his own place among them. The striking difdesperate state.-Such is the judicial ference—the great cause of complaint, infatuation attending this kind of pro between the patrician and the plebeian, perty that its owners would rather see was the engrossing of land by the their neighbours involved in their guilt former, and the substitution of slaves and danger, than look to them as a in the place of the latter. What folprobable asylum in future distress. lowed hence, appears in Plutarch's
Happily, the line of demarcation has Life of Gracchus. been fixed; and the white race to the “As Tiberius passed through Tusnorth of 37° may count upon exist cany, he found the country almost de. tence. From thence the slave states populated—there being scarcely any may look for help at a future day, and husbandmen and shepherds, except they will then gratefully acknowledge slaves from foreign and barbarous nathe services of those who, by their ex tions." ertions in the legislature, prevented A sight like this was enough to the states from being overrun by ne rouse the feelings of a Roman; but groes. At present, they feel very dif those of Tiberius are best expressed ferent emotions; as blinded by habit in his own words: and temporary advantage, they are “ The wild beasts of Italy have their unable to discern the consequences of caves and dens to retire to for refuge; their conduct. It is my intention to but the brave men that spill their Jay open these consequences, and for blood in her cause, have nothing left that purpose, I shall, with frankness, except air and light. Without houses, present to my reader, the result of a without any settled habitations, they like state of things at a far distant pe wandered from place to place with riod.
their wives and children; and their Nothing is more common than to generals are but mocking, when on hear men express indignation at the the eve of battle, they exhort their conduct of their predecessors, while soldiers to fight for their sepulchres themselves, under a different appella- || and domestic gods. For out of such tion, are treading closely in their foot numbers, there is not perhaps a single steps. In France, the political fanatic Roman who has an altar that belonged of Louis the Sixteenth's day, abomi to his ancestors, or a sepulchre in nated the religious fanatic of Henry | which their ashes rest. They fight the Fourth's time; yet to an impartial and die in order to advance the wealth observer, they appear twin brothers. and luxury of the great; and they are