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called masters of the world, while bles; so in the slave states, the de they have not a foot of ground in their struction of the white race, and the possession,”
multiplication of the black, took place But that patriot failed in his attempt in equal ratio, by the same engrossing to restore freedom to Italy: the fury || spirit operating in the slave-holder. of the slave-holders destroyed him As in Italy, in the time of Gracchus, and, but that his brother imitated his so in Virginia in our day : the poor attempt, and shared his fate, he had freeholder is bought out; he quits the justly merited the title of “ Jast of the country; a gang of negroes replace Romans.” The consequences of the his family; the state has lost defend. practice reprobated by Gracchus, were ers, and acquired enemies; more land speedily felt in Italy. That country, is wanting for the increasing stock, which in former times had supplied and more is bought; colonies of ne. men in shocking profusion for the groes planted; and as the plantation sword, became almost desolate ; yet extends, it evinces in the names borne unable to produce food for itself, was by its different fields, that formerly, fed from Africa and Egypt. The le so many white families occupied the gions were raised in Gaul; and as the ground where now only one remains. influence of slavery spread most wide The former have gone to the west. ly, soldiers were sought upon the frontier, which alone could furnish
lo sinu ferens deus them, all the rest of the empire form
Et uxor et vir, surdidosque natos." ing a land of tyrants and a den of
HOR. slaves, who fell like grass before the mower's scythe, when assailed by the
6 Driven out by thee to new aboden,
They carry their paternal goods ; undisciplined valour of freemen.
The wife her husband's sorrows shares, Ancient authors are full of this sub And on her breast the squallid infant bears." ject. The decrease of the plebeians
FRANCIS. and the increase of the slaves, was a continued source of lamentation. The
If the white stays in his native state, Senate declined appointing a particu
his case is still more deplorable. Dislar habit for the latter. “ We were
heartened by the loss of his bit of land, afraid,” says Seneca, “lest they might
and forbidden by pride to labour as a begin to count us.” Progressively
hireling among negroes, he abandons with the increase of slaves, went the
himself to hard drinking, and perishes engrossing of land. “ Extensive es
an early victim, to the abominable intates," says the elder Pliny, “have
stitutions of his country. His children, been the ruin of Italy, and they have
too generally, follow his example. Inbeen equally destructive in the pro
quire for him, after a few years ; you vinces. That of Africa was held by
find that his place knows him no more,
unless he should be destined to a fate six persons.” It would be some satisfaction to learn, from the same au
yet more deplorable. If destitute of thor, that the reigning tyrant destroy- | feeling, he will gradually sink into the ed them, but that we find that the es
lowest grade, composed of those dregs tates and slaves only changed masters.
of existence called overseers* -the In vain did the law hold out encour
most abject, degraded, unprincipled agement to the free race ;-the wealth race; always cap in hand to those who of the slave-holder was irresistible. In
employ them, and furnishing materials deed what power could secure the
for the exercise of their pride, insopossession of the petty land holder lence, and spirit of domination. This from the grasp of a neighbour who
class is the intermediate, between the counted his slaves by thousands ? It independent landlord and the negro. was impossible ; and the system ceas.
Be it also remembered, that these de. ed not till foreign conquest levelled
graded mortals are sacred from labour; both slave and master under the more
as white men, they hold the rod. How humane villeinage of the Barbarians.
low, then, must be those beings sunk, As, in Italy, the increase of slaves
• This is a too cominon but not universal cbar. and decrease of freemen, took place by the all-grasping spirit of the no
neter of overteer..
STATIKTI ON SLATERI
vlx louk ere it sich anc hon ainus phuci te abandons Besides, the iniaturas mus labour appear na stave-bolde punues ni m te new COurm with suci consider r 25 å l petrex, anic wil il qut unit ror bun, upacator..
from the earth. To conduc: ultTin education anc iravite of tiit tarr, mai ensures his own destruction. save then froll muci, oi titt vict and The barons of the Souti mat, Bike misery emaici upot the poider sex those of former apes, exut in the 11 Ve is the situation of a puo? Vibor, crease then vassals, and the dewiti a famix ot cauriers, truk pria crease of poor freemen. ie them bie. She Dares no put then our lo remember that the commoners of Eng Serve in a w'lute famit : siit KNUWE.. land sprung fron the villeines, and that too well, what a pour orgradec tung tile barons tave long since disappearis a bounc giri ir a slat e state Sixt ec before then.. engtavours te bring us her chiuret
[ Ir tu continud by needit-work I sping, tht on labour compatibu ulu her colour. But where is the empirer T'11€ lady on the next parration presten : * let vnat can I do for them.
No. I shar, *I have more tazy megt neuerEs that I can find work for I pass Of al the circumstances, by which over the constquences: they are t30 the people of these United States are borridit to be ouers upur. Hac chest distinguished from the inhabitants of teipiess girls lived it. i fret sait, the eastern world, there is probably every cutiaşe wouid har e been oper none more remarkable and mteresting to them; tue witei au ipo would that the unparullied growth of our have furuusutd employmer: labour population. While the inhabitants of and its rewards would have te ducir Africa art.in al probability, less numerlut: they would have left a munerous ous now than in the day when Scipio progeny, and the solis nugirtuare Africanus planted his victorious eagles breo ewed among the seriours of on tbe wails of Carthage; while easttutir country and the benefactors of
eru Asia, with its last acre subjected Dankind. They are suppiarted by a to cultivation, is groaning under 2 rack of enemieshe natural, justry stationary population, and, even westthe natural enemies of their natire ern Europe, with all its arts and enGurry, and the upproprium of bu. terprise, requires nearly a century to Liety. But negrues are increased, efect a duplication of its inhabitants, and that ough to satisfy us.
the people of the United States douspeosed friend, many years ago, just ble their numbers in less than a reunited to Richmond in Enginia, fourth of that time.* frou. beyond the nige, informed me It is true the tide of emigration has will gta satisfaction of the improve always set across the Ajantic in a nunta in that part of the state, "Yos
11 western direction; still it is easily wo 16," said he," bedel gited to see UPLO Frederick county now recen
* The French Earyelopedists all us that se
Burligg to the work of the Abbx Expils, the bles use lower country. Healtby Duplicato in France in ffty years increased gerdienen, owners of large rangs of
about it twelfth Adam Smith supposed that
a depleation in Grai Britain and snost other nezrts, entertain you át as good a
countries word require at kast five hundred taule, and with as generis wine, 25
Trans Coleboun stinated the inhabitants of you can find at home. The poor peo
Gitat B: tine in 17%, at 522 200 socis, and in 1800
to 20.312,000, and ple and miell farmers are bougit out, therefore it would appear they had not dəsand have gone to new costries
Fra 2 suinisary of the buch was what my friend considered
population of Esszland, Wales and Sethod.
pe bistead by order of the House of Commons in as a subject of pleasing contemplation: 1612, it appts the population of those coun and many others, of the same opinion,
tries in 1652, armied to 10.542.540 persuas,
and in 1911 to 12.552,144; a ratio of increa* coolly observe that the removal of the
#which would double the population in a little poor planter is an improvement of his more than 50 years. Dr. Seibert allows eighis condition. It is so for the present :
years for the duplication of the inhabitants of
Great Britain, and 22.6: for ibuse of the United but what is to become of the country Stairs. Sit Staiistics, page 23.
shown, that the emigrants compose a comparatively unimportant part of our aggregate increase.*
To whatever cause this rapid augmentation is to be attributed, the fact is generally admitted as conclusive evidence of national prosperity. It is, however, of great importance, that our growth should be healthful as well as rapid, and our means of subsistence be commensurate with our augmentation of numbers. How far this is dependent upon the admission or exclusion of slavery, is a consideration worthy the attention of the politician no less than the philan. thropist.
Though the enumerations made by order of Congress for the years 1790, 1800, and 1810, are much less parti. cular with regard to the slaves in the United States, than would have been desirable, yet they furnish the data of numerous very important calculations. The census of 1820 having been made upon an improved plan, supplies a document of still greater interest.
The following table exhibits the number of slaves, and their ratio to the free white population, and to the free coloured 'race, in the several states at the four periods for which enumerations have been made.
It may be observed that in the enu. merations prior to 1820, the free coloured people are probably rendered a little too great, for want of the proper distinctions in the manner of making the returns; this, however, is remedied in the census of 1820. In all the enumerations except the last, the slaves are returned without distinction of age or sex.
In the census of 1820, the returns from New York exhibit an amount of 3405 slaves, under 14 years of age, and a further amount of 3203, under 26,
though, by the law of that state, passed in 1817, all children born of slaves in the state after the 4th of July, 1799, were to be free at the age of 28 or 25 years. And it is presumed few slaves are held there, except such as are born there of slaves. In Pennsylvania we also find in the same census, 7 slaves under 26, and 54 more under 45, though according to our laws, the youngest slave for life held in Pennsylvania, must bave been then upwards of 40 years of age. It therefore appears that we have enumerated as slaves, at least in New York and Pennsylvania, those coloured persons who are held to serve until 28.
It may be further remarked, that some confusion has been unavoidably introduced into the table by the numerous divisions of states or territories, which have been made during the intervals between the enumerations. Thus, the relative numbers in North Carolina for 1790 and 1800, are rendered imperfect by the formation of Tennessee. A similar inaccuracy is introduced into those of Georgia for 1810 and 1820, by the formation of Alabama. During the same interval, some important changes were made in the countries on the Mississippi, by the division of the territory of Louisiana into Missouri and Arkan
From this table we may observe, that in all the states north of Mason and Dixon's line, the slaves have been decreasing through all the pe-' riods, with the exception of New Jersey in the first, and Delaware in the last. And in most of them the change has been so rapid, that we naturally anticipate the addition of several states to the number in which slavery will be unknown at the tiine of the next enumeration. In New York, the decrease of the slave population appears much slower than in several of the sister republics, yet there, the year 1817 must stand as a conspicuous era in the history of slavery.
In all the southern states, we find the number of slaves continually increasing through every period in. cluded within the table, with the exception of Maryland during the last
* The emigrants from 1790 to 1810 were estimated at 120,000, to which number adding 60,000 for their native increase, we obtain an amount of 180,000 as our foreign supply during those twenty years. But the whole actual increase of our white population, during that time, was 2,821,910. The augmentation of this part of our population was, therefore, composed of indigenous and exotic growth in the ratio of about 15 to 1. It may be added that the influx of foreigners, by filling up the places of employ. ment and increasing the difficulty of support, rather retards the increase of the native inhabit ants.
interval; and the ratio of increase is generally augmented as we recede from the non-slave holding states. This ratio and the circumstances either of local situation, or species of cultivation, by which it is affected, furnish a subject which will be reserved for future examinations.
The fact may be here adverted to, one which an inspection of the second column, for each of the successive periods, will render obvious, that in the middle states, Maryland included, the ratio of the free white population to that of the slaves is continu. ally increasing, with one solitary exception; but we observe the appal. ling fact, that in those south of the Potomac, not only is the number of slaves increasing, but the ratio of their number to that of the free white inhabitants is generally augmenting. A few, and but a few exceptions appear. Thus in Virginia in 1810, there were 71.17 slaves, and in 1820, but 70.5 slaves for 100 white persons. Also in South Carolina, we find the balance, for slaves and free white population, changing, during the interval from 1790 to 1800, in favour of the whites; but for the two follow. ing periods, the opposite vibration has place, giving to the slaves in 1820, a numerical superiority.
The numbers in the third column prove, that in most districts of the United States, the ratio of the number of free persons of colour, to that of the slaves, is gradually changing in favour of the free. In Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas, we find the number of slaves for every 100 free persons of colour, continually decreasing through each of the periods. In Delaware, the numbers de. crease through two of the periods, and increase in the third. Thus it appears, that in that state there was, from 1810 to 1820, not only an aug. mentation in the absolute number of slaves, but an increase of their ratio, both to the white and to the free coloured population ;-a fact deserving the serious attention of the enlightened people of that republic.
travels of Lieut. F. Hall, a native of Great Britain, who visited the United States, in 1816 and 1817. The execution it appears took place at Charleston, S. C. during the visit of the narrator in the former part of 1817.
“A man died on board a merchant ship apparently in consequence of poison mixed with the dinner served up to the ship's company. The cabin. boy and cook were suspected, because they were, from their occupations, the only persons on board who did not partake of the mess, the effects of which began to appear as soon as it was tasted. As the offence was committed on the high seas, the cook, though a Negro, became entitled to the benefit of a jury, and, with the cabin boy, was put on his trial. The boy, a fine looking lad, and wholly unabashed by his situation, was readily acquitted. The Negro's turn was next. He was a man of low stature, ill-shapen, and with a countenance singularly disgusting. The proofs against him were, first, that, he was cook; so who else could have poisoned the mess ? It was indeed overlooked, that two of the crew had absconded since the ship came into port. Secondly, he had been heard to utter expressions of illhumour before he went on board : that part of the evidence was indeed supprest which went to explain these expressions. The real proof, however, was written in his skin, and in the uncouth lines of his countenance. He was found guilty.
“ Mr. Crafts, junior, a gentleman of the Charleston bar, who from motives of humanity, had undertaken his defence, did not think a man ought to die for his colour, albeit it was the custom of the country; and moved in consequence for a new trial, on the ground of partial and insufficient evidence ; but the judge, who had urged his condemnation with a vindictive earnest. ness, intrenched himself in forms, and found the law gave him no power in favour of mercy. He then forwarded a representation of the case to the President, through one of the senators of the state ; but the senator ridiculed the idea of interesting himself for the life of a negro, who was therefore left
The following pathetic narrative, is extracted without comment, from the