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to enacted, like most of the enactments rivers, forming between the Nile and directed to the same end, appear like

the Niger a communication resembling

that which was found by Humboldt, ly to present a feeble barrier against

between the Orinoco and the Amathe excesses of magisterial authority. zon. The latter hypothesis is the only I do not find that any law has been one which can reconcile the accounts passed, to authorize the release of

of persons who have travelled by the slaves from merciless owners, by a ju- testimony of Mr. Brown, according to

way of Tombuctoo, with the positive dicial sale.

which the Misselad and Bar Koolla run from south to north. This fact, which

is generally admitted, does not allow GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF AFRICA.

us to suppose any other communica(Continued from page 21.)

tion between the Nile and the Niger, than one which may be formed by ca

nals winding along the table land Egypt is the connecting link be. where the sources of the Misselad and tween Africa and the civilized world. Bar Koolla are at a short distauce from This country consists entirely of a vale, each other, and from those of the watered by the Nile, by which it is in Nile. Perhaps some of our readers part formed; and confined on the right will content themselves with supposand left by a barren expanse of deserts. ing that the sources of all these rivers, The physical picture of this country or some of their branches, are suffiwill, therefore, be introduced with an ciently near to communicate by means account of the Nile, whose bounties of temporary lakes during the rainy render Egypt independent of all for season. eign supplies and of the rains of heaven. The true Nile, whatever may be its

The Nile, the largest river of the origin, receives two large rivers from old world, still conceals its true source Abyssinia, and then forms an extenfrom the research of science. At least, sive circuit in the country of Dongola, scarcely any thing more of them is by turning to the southwest. At three known to us now, than was known in different places a barrier of mountains the time of Eratosthenes. That learned threatens to interrupt its course, and at librarian of Alexandria distinguished each place the barrier is surmounted. three principal branches of the Nile. The second cataract in Turkish Nubia The most easterly was the Tacazze of is the most violent, and most unnavithe moderns, which flowed down the gable. The third is at Syene or Asnorth side of the table lands of Abyssi sooan and introduces the Nile into Upnia. The second known branch, or the per Egypt. The height of this cata. Blue River, first makes a circuit on ract varies according to the season, the table land of Abyssinia, and then and is generally about four or five feet. flows down through the plains of Sen From Syene to Cairo the river flows naar, or the Fungi. The sources of the along a valley about eight miles broad, Blue River were found and described between two mountain ridges, one of by the Jesuits, Paez and Tellez, two which extends to the Red Sea ; and centures before the pretended disco the other terminates in the ancient veries of Bruce. These two rivers are Lybia. The mountains which limit the tributary to the White River, the basin of the Nile in Upper Egypt, are Bahr-el-Abiad, which is the true Nile, intersected by defiles which on one and the sources of which must lie in side lead to the Red Sea, and on the the countries to the south of Darfur, other to the Oases. These narrow The mountains from which it issues passes might be habitable, since the are called Dyre and Tegla, and proba- | winter rains maintain for a time a debly form part of the mountains of the gree of vegetation, and form springs moon. As it seems proved that travel which the Arabs use for themselves lers have passed by water from Tom and their flocks. The stripe of desert buctoo to Cairo, the Niger must fall land which generally extends along into the Nile, and be really the Nile each side of the valley, parallel to the itself; or there must be intermediate course of the Nile, (and which must

not be confounded with the barren ed in a singular degree during the ocean of sand which lies on each side floods; for while the stream carries of Egypt,) now contains two very dis the vessels from the cataracts to the tinct kinds of land. The one imme. bogaz with great rapidity, the strong diately at the bottom of the mountain northerly winds allow them to ascend consists of sand and round pebbles; the river, by means of set sails, with the other composed of light drifting equal rapidity. These winds are consands covers a space formerly arable. stant for nine months* in the year, and This space is gradually widening, by when the river is low, and the stream the encroachments of the moving less rapid, vessels cannot often make sands. If a section of the valley is their way downward, even with their made by a plane perpendicular to its sails furled, the wind upward being direction, the surface will be observed more powerful than the stream, even to decline from the margins of the under these circumstances. The reguriver to the bottom of the hills, a cir lar practice at such times is to row cumstance also remarked on the banks down with the stream during the of the Mississippi, the Po, part of the night, when the wind has subsided, Borysthenes, and some other rivers.

and to halt during the day: while the Near Cairo, the chains which limit vessels that are upward bound, sail by the valley of the Nile diverge on both day and halt by night. sides. The one runs northwest towards The celebrated plains of Egypt the Mediterranean, the other east to would not be the abode of perpetual Suez. In front of these chains a vast fertility, were it not for the swellings plain extends, composed of sands co of the river, which both impart to vered with the mud of the Nile. At the them the requisite moisture and cover place called Batu-el-Bahara, the river them with fertilizing mud. We now divides into two branches; one of certainly know, what the ancients obwhich flowing to Rosetta and the other scurely concluded, and what was asto Damietta, contain between them the serted by Agatharcides, Diodorus, and present Delta. This triangular piece | others, th the heavy annual rains beof insulated land was in former times, tween the tropics are the cause of larger than it is now, one, at least, of these floods, common to all the rivers the channels by which it was formerly of the torrid zone, and which, in low bounded being now choked up with situations, such as Egypt, occasion insand or converted into marshy pools. undations. But the correspondence of the level The rise of the Nile commences of the surface with that of the present with the summer solstice. The river Delta, and its depression as compared attains its greatest height at the auwith that of the adjoining desert, toge tumnal equinox, continues stationary ther with its greater verdure and fer for some days, then diminishesæt a less tility, still mark the limits of the an rapid rate than it rose. At the winter cient Delta, although irregular en solstice it is very low, but some water croachments are made by shifting still remains in the large canals. At banks of drifting sand, which are at this period the lands are put under present on the increase.

culture. The soil is covered with a The depth and rapidity of the fresh layer of slime, of greater or less Nile differ in different places, and thickness. The fertility and general at different seasons of the year. In || prosperity of Egypt depend much on a its ordinary state this river carries certain medium in the height to which no vessels exceeding sixty tons bur the Nile rises in its inundations; too litden, from its mouth to the cata tle rise or too much is almost equally racts. The bogaz,.or channel, of Da hurtful. In September, 1818, M. Bel. mietta is seven or eight feet deep, zoni witnessed a deplorable scene, when the waters are low. That of Ro

from the Nile having risen three feet setta does not exceed four or five. and a half above the highest mark left When the waters are high, each of them has forty-one feet more, and * Bruce, quoted page 24 of this caravels of twenty-four guns can sail journal, says the etesian wind blows up to Cairo. The navigation is facilitat. from the north from April to October.




by the former inundations. It was pro a mirror, the houses and other objects ductive of one of the greatest calami situated beyond it,* This phenometies that had occurred within the me non is the more striking, as water is mory of any one living. Rising with generally much in request with the uncommon rapidity, it carried off seve thirsty traveller, in a country where it ral villages and some hundreds of its is so scanty, and when the illusion vainhabitants. In Upper Egypt, the vil nishes, upon his arriving at the spot, lages are not raised above the level he feels a cruel disappointment, espeeven of the ordinary inundations, but cially if not much used to the phenodepend for their safety upon artificial fences. When a village is in danger, the boats are busily employed in removing the corn and the people, the former being first attended to, as most (Continued from page 60.) important to the Pasha; and if the water breaks in before the inhabitants In this, and in the new states in ge. have been placed in security, their neral, the decrease of the white race is only resource is to climb the palm

not so obvious as in the old. Nay, it trees and there wait till a boat comes may be conceded that the whites, at to their rescue. Those who have it in the first settling, multiply equally with their power repair with their property

the blacks; or (for I am willing to alto higher ground, others escape

low the most remote possibilities) that mounted on buffaloes or cows, or keep they increase faster by the assistance themselves afloat on logs of wood. of slaves, than they would without To an atmosphere singularly consti

them. But this their growth is tempotuted, and to the regular inundations rary, and declines as the country fills of the Nile, Egypt is indebted for the advantage which it enjoys of uniting * This curious phenomenon arises almost all the cultivated vegetable from the atmosphere, in the immediate species of the old continent. The cul. vicinity of the earth, becoming moture of Egypt may be divided into two mentarily more rarefied than that at a great classes. The one class belongs || greater elevation, by which means the to the lands watered by the natural rays of light which pass over the earth overflowings of the Nile, and the other in a direction nearly horizontal, are to those which the inundation does refracted into a curve convex to the not reach, and which are supplied by earth's surface, and falling upon the artificial irrigations. Excepting along || eye in an ascending direction, give to the sea shore, nothing is more rare in distant elevated objects an apparently Egypt than rains, and this scarcity is depressed situation. An inverted imthe mowe marked in proportion as we age is frequently thus formed, either go southward. At Cairo there are, at with or without the visible presence of an average, four or five showers in the the direct object. Humboldt observes, year; in Upper Egypt one or two at “ These phenomena are equally obmost.

servable in the barren steppes of CaFrom the nature of the surface and racas, and on the borders of the Orithe universal aridity of the surrounding noco, in those places where barren deserts, Egypt is much hotter than || plains surround the river.”_

" At the most other countries under the same Mesa de Pavones, in the middle of the parallel of latitude. The heated and steppe of Caracas, M. Bonpland and I rarefied state of that portion of air saw cows" (apparently) “suspended which is in immediate contact with in the air. Distance one thousand the sand during the day, is productive | toises. Simple suspension, no double of a refraction of the rays of light, image. I have been assured, that giving origin to the surprising appear horses had been seen, near Calabozo, ance called the mirage, presenting on suspended and inverted, without any the dry surface an exact representation direct image.” The theory has heen of a lake of water, sometimes ruffled given by Monge and Biot. Recher. into waves, at other times still and sur Ref. extr. Humboldt's Narrative, smooth, and appearing to reflect, like Vol. 3.

up. In this state marriages are less to the sect that eats the fine flour, frequent than formerly. In Virginia, and leaves the bran to others: hé the numerous instances of celibacy must have comforts, and he does not strike the most cursory observer. On marry till he gets them. He would the plantation next to mine, lived four || be ashamed if he was seen living as a sons and two daughters. The young Catholic lives. This is a principal men died by the bottle: ten years ago, reason why the Protestants who reone sickly child, probably since dead, main attached to their church, do not continued the name. One daughter increase as fast as the Catholics." had two children: the other is past ma Hume (essay 11th) observes :trimony.- Another instance presents “Where the property of servants is itself:--Three sons, two daughters; on lodged in the master, their marriage ly one of the latter married, late in life. forms his riches, and brings a succesA third instance:-Two sons, five sion that supplies the place of those daughters; two of the latter married disabled by age and infirmity. He enthe rest dead, or advanced in years. courages, therefore, their propagation, A fourth: Six sons and daughters; all as that of his cattle ; rears the young unmarried; the youngest over forty with the same care; and educates years old.--The reader who has resid them to some art or calling which ed long in an old slave state, is desired may render them useful or valuable to to task his memory on this subject; him. The opulent are, by this policy, nor will I fear to appeal to his recol interested in the being, at least, though lections for the confirmation of my not in the well being of the poor; and theory. Indeed, in every country the enrich themselves by increasing the poor must increase, and fill up the number and industry of those who are places of the declining rich. The subjected to them." peers in England are continually re The essayist afterwards notices the ceiving recruits from the commons; exception to this rule; i. e. when otherwise their remains would be too slaves can be bought cheaper than contemptible for notice.

reared—a contingency, which, happily these remains are assisted by adoption. for the negroes, though unhappily for The Percies still boast their descent al their masters, exists not among us. though the male line has been long See on this subject the Dictionaire since extinct, and those now called af des Sciences Medicales:-“But a small ter the family are beholden to act of number of marriages take place among parliment for their name. Every year || proprietors, and those persons whose witnesses in the upper house the ac employment or profession is equal to cession of new families, and the ex a property ; while the same number tinction of the ancient. The labour of constantly follow among the working keeping up the nobility, is incessant as classes, and among those who possess fruitless. The House of Lords has nothing. I believe that hardly one been called an hospital of incurables ; marriage in twenty at the utmost, the metaphor holds good in more than happens in the class that possesses one sense. The human race, when something in France. But why do I pampered, declines; but, like some say{France? 'Tis so in the rest of Euplants, the more trampled, the more rope. The upper class dread the luxvigourous its growth. “One reason," ury of a wife, and the expense of chilsays the Edinburg Review, of August dren; while the inferior class, who 1820, “ for the disproportionate in live but from one day to another, are crease of Catholics, compared to that always assured of bequeathing, at the of Protestants, in Ireland, is that the worst, to their posterity, the resources Catholic is ready to marry upon means of public charity, which they consider which the Protestant considers insuffi. as inexhaustible."--Article Mendicite,' cient for marriage. A few potatoes, and a shed of turf, are all that Luther Shall I add to these, a quotation has left to the Romanist; and when from an old fashioned author, pointing the latter gets them, he begins instant out the probable consequences of raisly upon the great Irish manufacture of || ing such a population?" The proprichildren. But the Protestant belongs etors and their children become fee

And yet

page 346.

ble both in body and mind, slothful, proportionally to the number of neand unable to resist either pain or groes, is the weakness of a country. pleasure. Thus degraded, these go Hence, the West Indian trembles vernors view their subjects with dread; at the approach of every hostile fleet. while those subjects—sturdy, active, Let us not estimate the proportion of sunburnt, and poor-view with con negroes to whites, by counting the intempt their superiors nourished in the habitants of the free, along with the shade, unwieldly, shortbreathed, and white residents of the slave states. helpless; and, naturally inferring that The true mode of judging, is by comtheir own cowardice alone is the safe. paring the number of slaves, with those ty of the rich, encourage each other in whites immediately among them.private with the consideration, that So long as these last are strong enough Their masters are, compared with them. to prevent a general massacre, they selves, as nothing.”Plato de Repub. are safe, and no longer. When that tib. 8.

takes place, 'twill be too late to offer The foregoing extracts may serve assistance. Estimate then your dan. for a reply to the theory of an ingeni- || ger by the number of slaves opposed ous and highly respected friend; who to their masters. Hitherto, calculation is of opinion, that, when the country has not demonstrated the power of this becomes fully peopled, the weakest growing evil; because the new countries race must give way to the more pow. have afforded ample means of subsisterful, and in due time be rooted out. ence and increase to the whites and The ground not producing enough for along with them, or by purchase, a vast those who are multiplying upon it, the number of slaves have been removed. whites will appropriate to themselves -But the new lands, however extentheir full share; and the negroes ob sive, have their bound; and when that taining less, must decrease.-Nothing is reached, statistical tables may aflike this, however, has taken place in ford information on the subject;Ireland. The Protestant, defended not before. But that information will by arms, by arts, and by the laws, is come too late. The mischief, if not daily diminishing before his helpless prevented immediately, will be irreopponent. The white, like the Pro mediable. As yet, we can only have testant, will obtain his share of food; partial observation to trust to; and that but, like the Protestant, he will not is completely in my favour. (See Apbe satisfied with food alone: he must pendix.) have superfluities; and when he can Even in our state, the engrossing of not obtain these, he will refuse to land and the replacing the white freemarry; and the race will perish, not holder by negroes, has begun. Nor because he lacks the means of tearing can it be otherwise. The man who substance from the slave, but because owns negroes, sees them increase; he disdains to re-produce his kind in a and he must find them land to cultisituation where they may expect to

vate. His neighbours are straitened by find food, and food alone.

enclosures; they cannot live on their The same causes existing in these little farms; they offer them for sale ; states, must produce the same effects and he is obliged to buy them out, as elsewhere: and these new countries that he may furnish employment to now settled by whites, must replace his growing stock of negroes. To culthem by negroes. Then the same as tivate by hiring freemen, in a slave sistance once afforded, must not be state, is out of the question. Let me again looked for, by Lower Virginia not then be considered as blaming the from Albemarle and Augusta, nor by slayeholder for his conduct: it is forcNew Orleans from Tennessee and Ken ed upon him by the wretched system tucky. Thirty or forty years, and under which it is his misfortune to live. not more, may be required to produce Even supposing the poor white retains ocular demonstration of my assertion. his little property during life; yet at By that time, these countries will be his decease it must go ; it is too small as deeply blackened, as those which to support all his children; 'tis sold, formerly invoked their aid; and con and the proceeds divided amongst sequently will be as helpless. For them; and, as their class entitles them

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