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to associate with gentlemen, they must decrepid old age: and this seems to be not labour, except upon their own the highest hope of the master; the ground, under penalty of degrading increase of this unhappy race, being themselves to a level with the negro. his favourite object, and which, from The consequences I have already the nature of things, must and will pointed out. Still, with the growth of be encouraged.--They are property: negroes, the difficulties of marriage || Why, said a friend, when he heard among the whites increase ; the great I was removing to Kentucky, do you er number of slaves being required as not take out some breeding wenches? decent attendance upon the family. Their expenses in a new country The checks to matrimony augment would be nothing, and a few years precisely in proportion as the greater would give you a large stock of nenumber of negroes annexes greater va groes. Can we, after this, be surprislue to the remaining whites. Thus ed if the negroes increase faster than these checks exist in their worst state the whites? in the West Indies.—There a poor Could we become acquainted with a white is the object of contempt to the man who had laid down a plan for negro, who speaks with a sneer when rooting out the white race, I am at a he mentions a walk about Bukra; i. e. loss what punishment we should deem a white man on foot. Hence in that adequate to his villany. Could we concountry the offspring of the poor, ge sult the bitterest enemy of America nerally, are sunk into mulattoes.

(suppose an English or French prime We are approaching but too rapid minister to be such) on this topic, he ly to this situation. Young as is this would declare warmly for the right of state, the checks of matrimony are felt, slaveholding. This extensive country, as the numerous instances of celibacy would he say, settled by white men, may attest. It is by no means uncom may one day prove our scourge, permon to hear a girl, destitute of a single || haps by arms, certainly by example. negro, express her sentiments as to But intermixed with a proportion of the number of servants a husband blacks, they will have enough to do at ought to support for his wife.-Can home, without troubling their neighwe then wonder at our young men bours: Nay, in process of time, the holding back? They have a grade to disproportionate increase of the nekeep up to, their sinking from which groes may enable the latter to dispute would debase them. Contrast with the soil with their masters; and we their's the situation of the negro. Re may behold black envoys from Ameduced to that of a brute, is it any won rica, sent to invoke our assistance der if he propagates as fearlessly? | against the tyranny of our sometime He knows well that his abstinence

colony. A precedent exists in St. Dofrom matrimony would not better his mingo; and the Americans must not condition, and that his master must be surprised if European policy avails support all the increase. Contrast the itself of every opportunity that occurs situation of the poor white in time of for dividing their tremendous power. sickness, with that of the black. The And bitterly would the wily politician former, after exhausting his little regret that the line of demarcation had means, becomes indebted to the chari secured to America a body of men ty of his neighbours, which grows cold fearless of negro insurrections, disenafter expending a bottle of wine and a gaged from the drudgery of patroles, few ounces of bark. Not so the ne and perfectly ready to oppose their gro: there is five hundred dollars vest whole united force to the movements ed in him; and the master will rather of Russia from the northwest. Perhaps spend three hundred than lose the the minister might plead his excuse as whole. The diseases of the negro are a politician. But what excuse can be fewer, poverty precluding intemper made for the slaveholder? And in what ance; and

gh, in consequence of differs he from the first mentioned hard labour, his evening of life sinks atrocious character? Merely in this, earlier than that of the white, yet he that he is only intent on gain, and is has, long before, produced as nume not generally aware of the conserous a progeny as if he had reached a quences of his conduct, I say, gene

rally for I have sometimes met with own. On this the Sheikh immediately men, if such deserved the time, who sent for him, had lum stripped in his frankly declared tirat they cared not presence, and the leather girdle put what became of posterity; it was the round his loins; and after reproaching business of posterity to take care of him for his ingratitude, ordered him to itself; and tuat they regarded not what be sold forth with to the Sibboo merwas to happen in the next generation chants, he being still a slave. The fa. Cpop such, my arguments have no ef. rourite, tbus bumbled and disgraced, fect, and ougit uot to bare any. If it fell on his knees and acknowledged the is suficient to enjoy the present no justness of his punishment. He begged mem the slavehvider is in the right for Do forgiveness for himself, but enLet huis scilisiness repose in quiet treated that his wives and children upon the mind, where the charge is might be provided for out of the riches daily wcumulating, which must one of this master's bounty. But on the folday' blow his posterity to atoms-per lowing day, when preparations were fectly trappy in the reflection that the made for carrying this sentence into explosion cannot take place in his effect, the karanawha (black mame. time. But the man who nourishes in lukes) and Shonaa chiefs about the his bosom the noble sentiment ad. Sheikh's person, fell at his feet, and dressed by the dying patriot to his notwithstanding Barca Gana's haughty country, ESTO PERPÉTUA, thinks

carriage toward them since his ad. ditieremiy. He fondly wishes to trans vancement, entreated, to a man, parmit his enjoyments to his children, in don for his offences, and that he might the hope that they are not only to pre be restored to favour. The culprit apserve, but to augment his bequest. pearing at this moment to take leare, But these hopes are crushed wherever the Sheikh threw himself back of his skaves are found: for there they must carpet, wept like a child, and suffered increase.

Barca Gana, who had kept close to him, (To be continued.)

to embrace his knees, and calling them all his sons, pardoned his repentant slave. No prince of the most civilized nation can be better loved by his sub

jects than this chief; and he is a most A circumstance happened, during extraordinary instance, in the eastern the last two days, which created a world, of fearless bravery, virtue and great sensation among the chiefs, and simplicity. In the evening, there was while it proved that absolute power a great and general rejoicing; and in the person of the Sheikh was not Barca Gana, in new robes and a rich usccompanied by a heart overflowing bornouse, rode round the camp, folwith feelings of mercy and modera lowed by all the chiefs of the army.tion, it also displayed many amiable Travels of Denham and Clapperton. qualities in his untutored and unenTightened subjects.

Barca Gana, his general and his favourite, a governor of six large districts, the man whom he delighted to As maxims which have received the honour, who had more than fifty fe.

sanction of several successive generamale slaves, and twice the number of male, was taught a lesson of humility,

tions, are frequently admitted with that made me feel exceedingly for little examination; so practices which him. In giving presents to the chiefs, can be traced through every period of the Sheikh had inadvertently sent him a horse, which he had previously pro

history, are sometimes considered as mised to another; and on Barca Gana the necessary result of our physical being requested to give it up, he took

or moral organization. It is probable such great offence, that he sent back

that few opinions are long admitted, all the horses which the Sheikh had previously given him, saying that he or extensively diffused, which have no would in future walk, or ride on his analogy to truth; and that few practi



ces become woven into the texture of and practice of our own age and counsociety, unless closely allied with the try, would seldom be correct if appli. wants or propensities of man. It is ed to the ages and nations under recertain, however, that the institutions view. of society, and the maxims of govern In what period of the existence of ment, are more dependent upon the our race, man first instituted a claim characters of the people, than upon to the unrequited services of his fel. their intrinsic conformity to justice or low man, is not easily determined ;to truth.

or whether personal slavery constitutIf the existence of an institution, ed a part of the violence with which through a long succession of ages, the antediluvian world was fin. could be admitted as evidence of its ed.* Probably, personal servitude justice or expediency, perhaps the followed close in the steps of those slavery of the present day might find, mighty hunters, who in the primitive in the conduct of those who lived be. ages, deluged the earth with blood. fore us, some kind of justification. The earliest trace of its existence, is This, like every other institution of hu associated with the first military enman society, must vary its shades, terprise which history has recorded. with the changing condition and cha Gen. xiv. This, however, was evi racter of the people ; yet in this, as in dently a national, rather than a persomany other cases, causes and effects nal bondage. are reciprocal. The characters of the That a species of slavery existed people are, in great measure, mould- during the patriarchal ages, is obvied by the maxims and institutions of ous from the history of Abraham, society. Among a barbarous people, though unquestionably mollified by practices spring up which could ne the simplicity of the times. If we ver originate in the midst of improv- || suppose the men servants and maid ed and enligntened communities, but servants whom Abraham possessed, to which, when once established, are have been slaves, bought from his hard to eradicate, and often continue, neighbours, or the descendants of the tares and brambles, of highly civi slaves, born in his own house, and lized society. To this cause may be

held in servitude from hereditary right, traced the irreconcilable anomalies,

we must admit that they were subject with which the laws and usages of the to a patriarchal, rather than a magiste. most polished communities are so rial authority. Of these, the first that frequently marked; and which not attracts our notice was Eleazar of Daonly bear in their features the linea mascus, whom Abraham considered ments of their birth, but tend to per

for a time as his heir, Gen. xv. 2, 3. petuate the barbarism in which they

If this Eleazar was, as generally suporiginated.

posed, the servant whom Abraham emIn studying the history of slavery, as ployed to procure a wife for his son, he it existed among the nations of anti

Slavery, says the learned Horne, quity, we must reflect that conditions vol. III, pa. 419, 'is of very remote anessentially different, are often express

tiquity. It existed before the flood.

Gen. ix, 25. The passage, however, ed by a common appellation and that

does not appear to me to sustain the a definition drawn from the principles conclusion,

Vol. I.--11

must, in station and authority, have Reuben, to make the lives of his sons been subordinate to none but the mas. the forfeiture, in case he should fail ter of the family.--Even Isaac himself, to fulfil his engagement. (xlii. 37.) at the age of forty must have been The facility with which the sale of subject to his direction. Gen. xxiv. Joseph was effected, seems to author5, 6, 8. That not only the eldest ser ize the conclusion that a traffic in the vant that ruled over all that he had, persons of men was not then new, and but his servants generally, were treat that little inquiry was made with reed with a degree of confidence, to gard to the authority of the sellers. which the slavery of our day affords The subsequent part of his history but few parallels, may be inferred likewise demonstrates that the slavery from the alacrity with which they of that day opposed no insuperable pursued and defeated the plunderers barriers to the attainment of eminence of Sodom. That they were parties to and power. Even in the family of the the same covenant, and votaries to master who bought him, he occupied, the same religion with their master, is not a servile but a highly confidential also abundantly manifest. Gen xvii. station. Anterior to the time of Moses, 26, 27.

when the institution of slavery was We are expressly informed that brought under specific regulations, Abraham's servants were born in his the servant, whether purchased or dohouse or bought with money of the || mestic, appears as a part of the patristranger, but by what means, or under archal household, equally with the what circumstances, they were ren sons an object of religious care. (Gen. dered objects of sale, is left unexplain- || xviii. 19; xxxv. 2, 3.) ed. That captivity in war was, in sub The servitude to which the descen. sequent ages, the most prolific source dants of Jacob were subjected during of slavery, appears probable from the their residence in Egypt, however senature of the case, and this opinion is vere and degrading, must have been confirmed by the direct testimony of of a national, rather than a personal, Herodotus and others. In the patriar- || character. The right of private prochal times, when detached families perty and the maintenance of their migrated from place to place, as con religion and laws, do not appear to venience or fancy might suggest, sub have been further invaded by their ject to no municipal regulations, and Egyptian lords, than by the rigorous bound by no political ties, the autho exactment of their unrequited labour. rity of fathers and masters could not In what manner these burdens were be strictly defined. In both it was imposed upon the Israelites is not probably the result of general consent, || clearly explained, though from their rather than specific regulation. - That undisturbed possession of the most the parental authority was understood fruitful part of the land, and the nuto extend to the life of the child, either merous flocks and herds which they in the punishment of crimes, or the held, we may safely conclude that a exercise of arbitrary power, appears | large part of their labour must have obvious, from the sentence passed been of the agricultural and pastoral upon Tamar by her father-in-law, || kind, and probably applied to their (Gen, xxxviii. 24,) and the proposal of own exclusive benefit. The servile

labours were, expressly, those which The Mosaic institutions in relation required the persons engaged in them to servants, though formed and proto be separated from their families mulgated during their journeyings and farms; and hence we may con through the Arabian deserts, were clude that a levy was made from obviously designed to apply to the among the Hebrew men, who were Israelites when settled in the promisemployed in the manufacture of bricks ed land; and therefore to that period and the erection of the cities which of their history, and not to the time Pharaoh required them to build. A when the laws were promulgated, are levy or tribute of men, though proba we to look for their illustration. bly much less severe, was afterwards

From the general character of the made in the time of Solomon, when law of Moses, and the terms in which engaged in the magnificent structures

they are expressed, it is obvious that which distinguished his reign. (1 his object was not the establishKing's, v. 13, 14.) Here we may ob

ment of a system of servitude, but the serve that these drafts of men from regulation and mitigation of a previthe Hebrew families, would naturally | ously existing institution.

And we subject the women to a larger portion must not forget that his regulations, on of the labour usually performed by the this subject, were to be observed in other sex, than would otherwise have fallen to their share, and hence their the time of their egress from their superior hardihood, and the conse Egyptian bondage, are conclusive tes

timonies that the order was of tranquent rapidity of national increase,

sient continuance or but very partially may be naturally and satisfactorily ex

executed. Admitting the usual chroplained in strict accordance with the nology, which is confirmed by Josetext, the more they afflicted them,

phus, two hundred and fifteen years the more they multiplied and grew.

elapsed between the immigration of

Jacob and the departure of his descenFrom this view of the subject, we dants. A duplication in fourteen years should naturally conclude that the

would in that time raise his progeny Egyptian bondage, though severely

to about 2,294,000 persons. The num

ber of men able to bear arms whom and justly reprobated by the sacred

Moses led out of Egypt, exclusive of historian, was clear of most of those the tribe of Levi, was 603,550. Now accompaniments which give to the

in the state of Pennsylvania, in 1820,

out of a population of 1,037,860, only personal slavery of subsequent ages

199,694 were males between 16 and its most repulsive character. The bar 45, or not quite one in five. Allowing barous order for the destructiсn of the

one in five to be included in the Israemale children was not the exercise of

litish enumeration, we shall have the

whole population 3,017,750 individua master's authority, but a political als. This number is probably too low; expedient adopted by an unprincipled for we may reflect that in a commutyrant, to keep down a population, nity where the increase was so rapid,

there must have been an unusual prowhich he considered as dangerous to

portion of children. It therefore apthe state. *

pears that the duplication was effected

in a time still less than fourteen years. * How long this was attempted is This falls sensibly below the time left unnoticed, but the unparalleled in. which some political economists have crease of the people, and the great admitted as the shortest possible penumber of men able to bear arms, at riod of duplication.

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