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daughters and other heirs except sons The state of servitude was terminat. from any claim to the services of those ed by abuse on the part of the master. Hebrew servants whom their fathers Mutilation, though hasty and unpre. had purchased. Hence upon the death meditated, gave a title to freedom. If of a master, without surviving sons, a man smite the eye of his servant or his Hebrew servants were immediate. the eye of his maid, that it perish, he ly free.

shall let him go free for his eye's sake. The general tendency as well as And if a man smite out his man serparticular provisions of the Mosaic in vant's tooth, or his maid servant's stitutions, was in favour of personal tooth, he shall let him go free for his freedom. The servants purchased tooth's sake. (Exod. xxi. 26, 27.) from the heathen were to be instruct. This precept is construed by the Mished in the religion and made partakers nic doctors to include not only all cases of the covenants of their Israelitish of actual mutilation, but those minor masters. Those who embraced this injuries by which the use or beauty of religion became Hebrews by adoption, any of the members is permanently and entitled to the privileges of ser. impaired. vants of the native class. The Jewish A very important consequence of commentators say that if they were the temporary duration of servitude not converted within a year, they was, that the laws intended for the were to be dismissed, aud returned to protection of servants were likely to the strangers from whence they came. be observed. The servant, if abused, This may probably have been only might when free demand and enforce upon condition that their purchase restitution. The odious and degrading money was repaid, and that if this was distance between masters and slaves, not done, they were bound to fulfil which perpetual and hereditary slave. their term of service; that is, to serve ry seldom fails to produce, could then till the year of jubilee. If that was have no existence. Freedom and ser. the construction admitted, the uncon vitude might pass among families and verted heathen and the native Hebrew individuals, like the vibrations of servant were placed in the same situa wealth and poverty, without production in regard to the power of redemp- || ing any degrading or permanent distion, each being redeemable by their tinctions. own people.*

The operation of these causes may

be traced in several parts of the Jew* The humanity to servants inculcated

ish history. Thus we find (1 Chron. by the precepts of Moses, does not appear to be totally lost, even at the

ï. 34, 35,) Sheshan giving his daugh. present time, among the depressed ter to on Egyptian servant; and the and injured remains of that once cele- prophet Samuel assigning to Saul and brated race. In 1786, a subscription was set on foot, in the island of Barba one tenth was contributed, collectivedoes, to establish a general dispensary ly and individually by the Hebrew nafor the use of the sick poor; a large tion; though their numbers probably part of whom were well known to be fall short of one twentieth of the white superannuated or worn out slaves-- | inhabitants of Barbadoes, and not one abandoned by their owners to perish hundredth of the property of the in the streets. Of the sum subscribed island is in their hands.--Dickson's to this charitable purpose, upwards of Letters on Slavery, p. 138.

Vol. 1.-12

OBSERVATIONS ON THE CAUSES WHICH

HAVE PRODUCED THE DIVERSITIES
OF THE HUMAN SPECIES

his servant, the chief place among gate the system of slavery as far as it them that were bidden to the feast. was admitted at all, and to give to the (1 Sam. ix. 22.)

current of legal administration a direcThe law respecting female servants tion towards its total extinction. That as explained by the Jewish doctors, personal bondage was, as far as the will be briefly noticed.

manners of the times would admit, diFemales became servants by being vested of every degrading appendage. sold by their fathers; or by the servi That servants were uniformly regardtude of their mothers, or by captivity ed as objects of special attention. And in war, when as already observed, || that the slavery extensively prevalent they were deprived of their natural in subsequent ages, may read, in that protectors, and thrown upon the cle venerable code, its own severe and mency of the victors.

unqualified reprobation. A Hebrew bondmaid, was not allowed to be sold by any but her father, nor even by him, unless she was under twelve years of age ; nor

-From to any but a Hebrew; and even in this Prichard's Physical History of Man. case the master was to bind himself

(Continued from page 54. to betroth her either to himself or his

It appears that the principle in the son whenever she completed her animal economy on which the productwelfth year, “for," says Jarchi, “the

tion of varieties in the race depends, is money of her purchase is that of her

entirely distinct from that which re

gards the changes produced by exteresponsals.” If at that time the master

nal causes on the individual. does choose to betroth her to himself These two classes of phenomena or his son, she must neither be sold are governed by very different laws.

In the former instance certain externor retained but become immediately

nal powers acting on the parents, infree.*

fuence them to produce an offIf a man espoused a captive taken spring possessing some peculiarities of in war, she was entitled to all the pri

form, colour, or organization; and it

seems to be the law of nature that vileges of a wife, and her children whatever characters thus originate were to be treated in all respects as become hereditary, and are transmitthough she had been originally free.

ted to the race perhaps in perpetuity.

On the contrary, the changes producIn case she became disagreeable she ed by external causes in the appear. might be divorced as other wives were ance or constitution of the individual, liable to be, but not sold or otherwise are temporary, and in general, acquir

ed characters are transient, and have deprived of her liberty. (Deut. xxi. no influence on the progeny. 14.)

It is a well known fact, that the From this review of the most an

form of features which constitutes what cient code of laws which history has

is called a family likeness, and other

similar varieties have been transmitted delivered to us, it is obvious that the

for many generations. The most midesign of the legislator was to miti nute peculiarities have been traced

through repeated successions. There According to some writers a re is not a family of men nor a stock of demption fee was payable according animals, which cannot produce someto the time unexpired till the sabbati thing in confirmation. A spot on a

quadruped of variegated colour often

cal year.

becomes almost perpetual. The gene

ter should have been found to have ral rule equally applies to those more been thus mutilated, the coincidence obvious instances, which can be dis would be justly attributed to accident, covered by our senses, and to the mi and no connection would be imagined nute varieties of organization, which between the two facts. give rise to peculiar constitutions and The opinion we are opposing has to every different morbid affection. taken its rise rather from some absurd Thus defects in the organs of sense, theory, than from any facts that have and imperfections in all the bodily appeared well established. But our functions, as deafness, insanity, asthma, knowledge of the processes of nature palsies, are hereditary, or at least the is so slender that we are not authorizpredispositions which lead to these ed to reason from any hypothesis on distempers when the exciting causes the subject. We know not by what are applied.

means any of the facts we remark are The truth of the other proposition effected. Our object should be simadvanced, that no acquired characters ply to observe and generalize them, are ever transmitted, is not so immedi and to deduce thence analogical rules ately evident; although it appears to be to guide us in our future researches. universally confirmed by experience. In the present instance we form our It may be stated as a general fact, that observations with such an abundant the organization of the offspring, al range of experiment before us, that lowing still for the springing up of we are entitled to a considerable denew varieties, is always formed on gree of confidence in the general the model of the natural and original results. All nations are subject to constitution of the parent, and is not accidental injuries, and amputations affected by any change the latter may and other operations of surgery have have undergone, or influenced by any been practised in every country from new state it may have acquired. A immemorial time. Yet who ever heard contrary opinion has indeed been of any effect produced on the race? Our maintained by some physiologists, and horses and other domestic animals are divers facts have been related in testi continually mutilated in their ears and mony. We are told for example, that tails from our caprice. An infinite numdogs and cats are sometimes produc ber of decisive experiments are pered without tails; the defect arising formed every day with the same results. from the circumstance that the pa The utility of this law of nature is rents of the animals so marked had very evident. If it were not for it, the suffered amputation of the same mem evils of all past ages would be perpetber. The authors who have brought uated ; and the human race would, in such examples as these in defence of each succeeding generation, exhibit their opinions, would not probably more abundant examples of accumuhave thought them worth record. lated misery. Every species would ing if they had not happened to become at this day mutilated and decoincide with the systems they were fective, and we should see nothing advocating. It is surely much more but men and animals destitute of eyes, reasonable to attribute defects of this arms, legs, &c. The whole creation nature to accidental occurrence, than which now displays à spectacle of thus to account for them. Individuals beauty and happiness, would present are occasionally produced in every to our view a picture of universal despecies sometimes with a natural muti crepitude and hideous deformity. lation or defect of some member, and We cannot discern any essential cirothers with an excessive growth. We cumstance in which changes producsee such examples almost daily in the ed by art or by casual injury, differ human kind, and similar instances oc from those which are effected by other cur in the lower tribes. Yet if a child external causes. Neither do the latbe born without a foot or hand or arm, ter appear to be communicated to it would not occur to any person to im the offspring, which is always formpute the want of the limb to any am ed according to the natural constituputation which either of the parents tion of the parent. Thus we know might have undergone, and if the lat that the change whatever it may be,

which is produced in the constitution It is well known that in the vegetaby the application of certain conta ble kingdom the seeds of plants in vagions, as the smallpox, cowpox, and rious circumstances produce new vaothers, is a permanent state, and ren. rieties of form, colour, and quality. ders the persons who have undergone || Seedling plants continually exhibit a these diseases, incapable of being af disposition to almost infinite variations. fected by the same maladies during - In some vegetable races, as in the vatheir lives, yet this acquired condition rieties of the pea, the characters thus is not communicated to their children, constituted are very uniformly herediwho are born on the contrary with the tary; in others they are very caprioriginal constitutions and predisposi cious, and in not a few examples, as tions of their parents. These are prob. in the apple and pear, the offspring ably analogous cases to those of the scarcely receives any determination changes produced by external injuries. from the peculiar character of the The secret modifications of bodily

parent stock. structure, which defend the constitu The circumstances which produce tion against the attacks of any distem the evolutions of varieties, and espeper are governed by the same laws, | cially of the finer and more luxuriant as far as regards hereditary descent, forms, and of the more beautiful tints, as the sensible changes of form, or in the vegetable kingdom, are culture, even the want of parts, which is the richness and frequent change of soil, consequence of mutilation.

an abundant supply of all the wants of The uniform preservation of the na the individual, and a cautious guardtural complexion of white races of ing against all causes which have a men, who reside in hot climates, and tendency to weaken the vigour of its are continually acquiring a darker hue, growth and lessen the energies of its is a fact analgous to those which we peculiar life. The principle of cultihave lately mentioned and conformable vation, or rather of this part of it, for a to the general law. The adventitious great portion of the art consists in the colour has no influence on the off judicious mixture of varieties, seems to spring

the supplying to every plant in If there be any truth in the above abundance the stimuli adapted by nareasoning we must not in inquiring in ture to its particular species. to the nature of the varieties in the hu In the animal kingdom it is probable man complexion and figure, direct our that a greater number of causes would attention to the class of external

pow

be found to contribute to the evolvers, which produce changes on indi ing of varieties, if sufficient observaviduals in their own persons, but to tions were made of all the antecedent those more important causes, which circumstances, which are connected acting on the parents influence them with these appearances. If a pair of to produce an offspring endowed with brown mice are kept constantly in a certain peculiar characters, which cha dark cellar or any where excluded from racters, according to the law of nature, light, their offspring will be produced become hereditary, and thus modify with white hair and red eyes. It is not an the race.

uncommon thing to find this variety in It will be useful in this place to ex the foundations of old cathedrals and tend our views again to the other de in other places, which abound in dark partments of nature, and endeavour to subterranean recesses. The white vaacquire an idea of the causes in gene riety of the field mouse is found in ral, which chiefly predispose to the woody plains. These characters are production of varieties. It is to be re hereditary and the animals possessing gretted, that physiologists have not them frequently form races. directed their attention to this view of The appearance of the white varithe subject. If they had pursued this ety is very common in several species path, we should probably, at the pre of animals which inhabit the artic sent time, have been possessed of an countries. I do not speak of the races instructive accumulation of facts, in the which are originally white, as the arplace of abundance of vague reason tic bear and fox, nor of the varying

tribes, which acquire a white hue in

ing.

or

the winter, for these are distinct spe. apparent of these is the abundant supcies. But the common species of ply of the peculiar stimuli of the bears, foxes, and other animals in kind. Animals in a wild state procure those countries frequently, produce a simple and unvaried food in precaoffspring of the description above men rious quantities, and are exposed to tioned. This phenomenon and that the inclemencies of the seasons. of the variety of mice in our own coun Their young are produced in similar try may be considered as analogous. circumstances to the state of seedlings There is no reason to doubt that se which spring uncultivated in a poor veral of the species of wild beasts, soil. But in the improved state, all which are generally of dark colours in the stimuli of various food, of warmth, the south of Europe, would, if they &c. are afforded in abundance, and were transported within the artic cir. the consequence is a luxuriant growth, cle, soon exhibit the same deviations the evolution of varieties, and the exin their progeny. We have here an hibition of all the perfections of which example of the antecedent circum each species is capable. stances connected with the origin of

Civilized life holds the same relavariety tolerably well defined.

tion to the condition of savages in the It is scarcely to be imagined that human race, which the domesticated climates have no effect in exciting state holds to the natural or wild conthese variations, for whatever are the dition among the inferior animals. circumstances combinations of Man is defended by so many arts them, which conduce to the appear against the influence of the elements, ance of such phenomena, these must he appears when we compare him be supposed more likely to occur in with the greater part of the brute creone climate than another.

ation, to be so secure against the effiThe breeds of goats, rabbits, and

cacy of natural causes, and this not cats of Anatolia are remarkable for only in countries where the improved soft, long, white hair. The concur

condition of life has been carried to rence of this character in different the greatest advancement, but with a species found in the same local situa great majority of the species, that the tion, leads to the inference that the

effects of climates must be expected variety must arise from a local cause.

to be less on the human than on the Yet this variety is permanent, when

inferior kinds. the animal is carried into other coun On the other hand, the difference tries.

between the artificial state of mankind But by far the most powerful cause

and their natural or savage condition, of the evolution of varieties in the ani is so much more important and extenmal kingdom is domestication, or the sive than any which intervenes beartificial and unnatural condition into tween the domesticated and wild races which those tribes are brought, which

of animals, that we must, reasoning are subservient to the uses of man. To from probability expect the effect of be convinced of the truth of this fact, this change on the human species to we need only look on the phenomena

be more strongly marked than on the which surround us on every side. In

inferior kinds. all our stocks of domesticated animals, We shall now proceed to consider we see profuse and infinite variety, what effect climates have in predisand in the races of wild animals from posing to varieties in the human spewhich they originally descended, we cies, by comparing the native people find an uniform colour and figure for of distant regions of the earth. We the most part to prevail.

shall pursue this inquiry in a method Domestication is to wild animals somewhat different from that heretowhat cultivation is to vegetables, and fore followed. The influence of moral the former probably differs from the causes in modifying the efficacy of natural state of the one class of beings natural causes, is allowed on all hands in the same circumstances which dis to be very considerable. Moreover, tinguish the latter from the natural we have seen reason to impute, a condition of the other class. The most priori, to civilization, at least as grcat

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