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power in the production of varieties, cooler climate than the more northern as climates can be supposed to exert, regions. In the forests of Guiana, esand we shall afterwards produce ex pecially near the sources of the amples of its effects, which will show Orinoco, are several tribes of a whitish that they have not in this view been complexion, the Guaicas, Guajaribs overrated. With these preliminaries it and Arigues, of whom several robust appears necessary that we should in individuals, exhibiting no symptom of proceeding to compare the inhabitants the asthenic malady which characterof different climates, consider those ises Albinos, have the appearance of nations only as the proper subjects of true Mestizos. Yet these tribes have this comparison, which are in a similar never mingled with Europeans, and state with respect to barbarism and are surrounded with other tribes of a civilization. We shall compare sa

dark brown hue. The Indians in the vages with other barbarous tribes, and torrid zone, who inhabit the most elecivilized races with people in a similar vated plains of the Cordilleras, of the state, and shall endeavour in general Andes, and those who under the 45th to include in the same comparison na degree of south latitude, live by fish tions as nearly as possible on a level ing among the islands of tne Archipewith each other in a moral point of || lago of Chonos, have as coppery a view.

complexion as those who under a

burning climate cultivate bananas in The indigenous nations of America

the narrowest and deepest valleys of afford us one very ample field for this

the Equinoctial region. We must add sort of comparison. Though divided

that the Indians of the mountains are into a great number of tribes which

clothed, and were so long before the are completely independent of each

conquest, while the Aborigines who other, and have no mutual intercourse,

wander over the plains, go quite and which have been thus discriminat

naked and are consequently always ed from the earliest period of our ac

exposed to the perpendicular rays of quaintance with them; and though

the sun. I could never observe that, in scattered at immense distances over a

the same individual, those parts of the vast continent of a most diversified

body which were covered were less surface, which extends itself through

dark than those in contact with a every habitable climate, these people

warm and humid air. We every preserve every where a strong resem

where perceive that the colour of the blance in all the leading points of their

American depends very little on the manners and habits. Since the researches of Humboldt in the new

local position in which we see him.

The Mexicans are more swarthy than World, we have become better in

the Indians of Quito and New Granada, formed concerning various particulars who inhabit a climate completely anof its natural and political state. His

alogous, and we even see that the observations lead to some conclusions

tribes dispersed to the north of the concerning the physical history of the

Rio Gila are less brown than those in aboriginal people, which are very

the neighbourhood of the kingdom of much to our present purpose.

Gautimala. This deep colour conti“ The Indians of New Spain have a nues to the coast nearest Asia, but unmore swarthy complexion than the in der 54° 10' of north latitude, at Cloak habitants of the warmest climates of Bay in the midst of copper coloured South America. The influence of cli Indians, with small long eyes, there is mate appears to have almost no effect a tribe with large eyes, European fea. on the Americans and negroes. There tures, and a skin less dark than that of are no doubt tribes of a colour by no our peasantry.” All the other travelmeans deep, among the Indians of the lers of credit coincide in a similar tesnew continent, whose complexion ap timony with that of Humboldt, conproaches to that of the Arabs or cerning the complexion of the native Noors. We found the people of the Americans. Herrera, Ulloa and other Rio Negro swarthier than those of the Spanish writers give the same account. lower Orinoco, and yet the banks of Ulloa's authority is of weight, because the first of these rivers enjoy a much he had personal opportunities of mak

ing observations on the Indians in under any title, in the king's navy or North America as well as South. He the French merchant service. reported that there was no discovera Other individuals belonging to ble difference of complexion which the crew shall be punished with imhad any relation to climate. Herriot prisonment from two months to five makes a similar remark. Stedman re years. From these are excepted, such lates that the Indians near Surinam, of the above mentioned individuals as are of a copper colour, M‘Kenzie and shall, within fifteen days after the Hearne give the same account of the vessel's arrival, declare to the commisKnistineaux, and other tribes who in sary of marine, or the magistrates of habit the region contiguous to the Ar the French consuls in foreign ports, tic Circle. I have received a similar re the facts which they shall know. lation from several persons of credit, The vesse shall be seized and conwho have seen the natives of Canada fiscated. and of South America. The general The penalties under the present statement is, that the people of the law are independent of those which tropics are fairer than those of the shall be pronounced, in conformity north. Wallis reports that the people with the penal code, for other crimes of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego are or offences which may have been comof the same colour with the Indians of mitted on board the ship. North America. Cook describes the The law of April 15, 1818, is abronatives of Tierra del Fuego as having || gated. the colour of rust of iron mixed with Given in our palace of the Tuilleries, oil.

December 27th, 1825; and, of our (To be continued.)

reign, the third.

CHARLES.

SLAVE TRADE.

BRAZILIAN SLAVE TRADE.

The following is a late decree of

Freetown, Feb. 21. 1827. the King of France against the Slave Trade.

We have occasion to notice in this

week's paper, the arrival on Monday Charles, by the grace of God

last of the Brazilian slaver Invincible, King of France and Navarre, to all mentioned in our No. 447, as having who shall see these presents, greet been captured in the Cameroons by ing.

two boats of his Majesty's ship Esk, We have ordained, and do ordain, under the command of Lieuts. Kellett that the project of a law of the follow and Tolleway. The dentention was ing tenor shall be presented by our between eight and nine in the evening Minister Secretary of State to the De of the 21st Dec., at which time the partment of Marine and the Colonies, vessel had on board 440, human beings, whom we charge to explain its object || just shipped, the captain and part of and to support it in discussion.

the crew being sick. Five days were Only Article.- In case of a co-opera- | occupied in working to the mouth of tion or participation, by any means the river, which is in latitude 3° 54' whatever, in the traffic known under north, and fourteen days more in atthe name of the negro slave trade, the || tempting to get to the southward, duproprietors, and supercargoes; the ring which the vessel only made one insurers who insure it knowingly; the hundred and twenty miles. Lieutencaptain or commander and other offi. ant Tolleway, the officer in charge, cers of the vessel; shall be punished then determined on running away to with banishment, and a fine equal to the westward, seeing no probability of the value of the ship and cargo. succeeding in making southing, and

The fine shall be pronounced con after a wretched passage of fifty-six jointly against the individuals desig- || days, reached this port, having, during nated in the preceding paragraph. the period, been twice struck by light

The captain and officers shall be ning-on the 1st of January, at four further declared incapable of serving, in the morning, which shivered to

a

Then to his conqueror he spake

“ My brother is a king ; Undo this necklace from my neck,

And take this bracelet ring. And send me where my brother

reigns, And I will fill thy hands With store of ivory from the plains,

And gold dust from the sands."

* Not for thy ivory nor thy gold

Will I unbind thy chain;
That bloody hand shall never hold

The battle spear again.
A price thy nation never gave

Shall yet be paid for thee ;
For thou shall be the Christian's slave,

In lands beyond the sea."

pieces the mizzen top-mast, and did other damages, killing one marine on deck, and two slaves (women) below; and secondly at noon, in heavy squall on the deck, and killed two slaves in the hold-a man and a boy. The damages sustained in the first instance, were repaired by Lieutenant Tollèway, being fortunate enough to fall in with the Esk, eight days after taking his departure from the mouth of the river.

The mortality on board this vessel on the way up, we believe has never been exceeded. Out of the 440 unfortunate Africans on board at the time of capture, 178 died in addition to the four killed and four missing (suppos. ed to have jumped overboard in one of the storms of thunder and lightning) before her arrival here, and eight in the harbour prior to their being landed on the twenty-first inst. (two days after anchoring ;) making a total of 186 natural deaths—if persons dying under the circumstances these poor creatures did can be so termed --out of 440 individuals in less than sixty days! The cause of this. immense loss, we understand, is mainly attributable to the filthy state of the vessel when they were received on board, and the numbers that were thrust into her.

The master of this slaver, is an old offender, having carried off the coast, in the same vessel, last voyage, 600 slaves.

Then wept the warrior chief, and bade

To sherd his locks away, And, one by one, each heavy braid

Before the victor lay. Thick were the plaited locks, and

long, And deftly hidden there Shone many a wedge of gold among

The dark and crisped hair.

“ Look, feast thy greedy eye with

gold Long kept for sorest need Take it-thou askest sums untold

And say that I am freed. Take it-my wife, the long, long day

Weeps by the cocoa tree,
And my young children leave their

play,
And ask in vain for me."

THE AFRICAN CHIEF

Chained in the market place he stood,

A man of giant frame,
Amid the gathering multitude

That shrunk to hear his name,-
All stern of look and strong of limb,

His dark eye on the ground, And silently they gazed on him,

As on a lion bound.

“I take thy gold—but I have made

Thy fetters fast and strong, And mean that by the cocoa shade

Thy wife will wait thee long." Strong was the agony that shook

The captive's frame to hear, And the proud meaning of his look

Was changed to mortal fear.

Vainly, but well, that'chief had fought,

He was a captive now, Yet pride, that fortune humbles not,

Was written on his brow. The scars his dark broad bosom wore

Shewed warrior true and brave: A prince among his tribe before,

He could not be a slave.

His heart was broken-crazed his

brain,At once his eye grew wild, He struggled fiercely with his chain,

Whispered, and wept, and smiled; Yet wore not long those fatal bands,

And once, at shut of day, They crew him forth upon the sands,

The foul liyena's prey.

THE

African observer.

SEVENTH MONTH, 1887.

NEGRO SLAVERY.

(Continued from page 74.)

The slave, in the British colonies, || sonal observation. To such persons, is, at all times, liable to be sold, or a simple exile from their natal soil, otherwise aliened, at the will of the without any concomitant evils, is viewmaster, as absolutely in all respects, led with extreme dismay. as cattle, or any other personal effects. But even the West Indian slave has He is also, at all times, liable to be his comforts, arising from family consold by process of law, for satisfaction nexions and the ties of friendship; of the debts of a living, or the debts and probably few friendships are more or bequests of a deceased master, at tender and sincere than those which the suit of creditors, or legatees. In are cemented by community of sufferconsequence of a transfer in either of ing. these ways, or by authority of his im On the liability of the negro slaves mediate owner, he may be exiled in a to be sold for the debts of their mas. moment and for ever, from his home, | ters, the eminent historian so frehis family, and the colony in which he quently noticed in the preceding es. was born, or in which he has long says, has furnished some pathetic rebeen settled.

marks.—After proposing several im. There are few situations in life, so provements in the existing system of completely wretched as to destroy the West Indian slavery, which he repre. attachment to the land of our birth sents as likely to be conducive to the and the scenes of our childhood, so comfort of the negroes, he adds, interwoven with the tenderest feel. “But these, and all other regulations ings of the human heart; and this at which can be devised for the protachment generally exerts the greatest tection and improvement of this uninfluence over those who have always fort nate class of people, will be of vegetated on a single spot, and whose little avail, unless as a preliminary knowledge of the world is bounded measure, they shall be exempted by the narrow circle of their own per from the cruel hardship, to which they

Vol. IIS

are now frequently liable, of being Neither can it be urged, that, like sold by creditors, and made subject, some unauthorized cases of cruelty in in a course of administration by execu the West Indies, it occurs but seldom: tors, to the payment of all debts, both unhappily it occurs every day, and, of simple contract and specialty. under the present system will conti

“This grievance, so remorseless and nue to occur, so long as man shall tyrannical in its principle, and so continue to be unfortunate. dreadful in its effects, though not ori “Let this statute then be totally re. ginally created, is now upheld and pealed. It is injurious to the national confirmed, by British act of parlia- | character; it is disgraceful to humanity. ment; and no less authority is compe. Let the Negroes be attached to the land, tent to redress it. It was an act pro and sold with it. The good effect of a cured by, and passed for the benefit similar regulation in the system of an. of, British creditors; and I blush to cient villanage has been illustrated by add, that its motives and origin have a great many writers; and those persanctified the measure, even in the sons who now oppose an extension of opinion of men who are among the the same benefit to the Negroes in loudest of the declaimers against sla the West Indies, would do well to very and the slave trade. This odious reflect, that while they arraign the severity of the Roman law, which conduct of the resident planters todeclared sentient beings to be inter wards their slaves, they are them. res, is revived and perpetuated in a

selves the abettors and supporters of country that pretends to Christianity! the greatest of all the grievances un. In a few years a good negro gets com der which these unfortunate people fortably established, has built himself continue to suffer."* a house, obtained a wife, and begins Such is the portrait of this branch to see a young family rising about of West Indian slavery, drawn by one him. His provision ground, the cre of its ablest advocates, when the ation of his own industry, and the cause of humanity furnished a plea staff of his existence, affords him for casting a dart at their opponents.t not only support, but the means also of adding something to the mere ne * Ed. Hist. W. Ind. vol. 2, Book iv. cessaries of life. In this situation, he chap. 5. is seized on by the sheriff's officer,

t Justice to the friends of abolition, forcibly separated from his wife and

who are here obliquely charged with

supporting the most cruel part of the children, dragged to public auction, slave-holding system, requires a brief purchased by a stranger, and perhaps

explanation of the law in question.sent to terminate his miserable exist.

It was an act of 5 Geo. Il., containing

a declaration that negroes and land in ence in the mines of Mexico, excluded the colonies should be assets for the forever from the light of heaven; and satisfaction of simple contract debts, all this without any crime or demerit

and liable to be sold under executions.

By the insular laws, slaves were re. on his part, real or pretended. He is

quired to be sold for debts before a punished because his master is unfor. resort could be had to the real estate ; tunate. I do not believe any case of

and the latter could be sold only in

case the former were insufficient. -As force or fraud in Africa, can be pro

far therefore, as the parliamentary act ductive of greater misery than this. had any bearing upon the question, it

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